Causes Of The Failure Of The Rebellion
Causes of the Failure of the Rebellion
- The revolt was localised and not countrywide.
- The revolt began prematurely.
- Superiority of the English was in weapons, post and telegraph systems and in Navy.
- Support of the native rulers to the English and lack of it to Indian mutineers.
- Lack of unity of purpose and organisation.
- Lack of leadership.
- Personal jealousies amongst the mutineers.
- Bahadur Shah, a broken reed.
- Noble efforts of Lord Canning for the pacification of the Mutiny.
Queen Victoria’s Proclamation of November
|Major Tribal Movements In India|
AreaYear Main Events
(A) Ranchi 1789, 1794-95 Revolts in Taman District (Chhotanagpur)
1807-1808 Chhotanagpur Tribal Revolt
1820, 1832 Munda Revolts
1858-59 Land seizers
1869-80 Sardars movements encouraged Tribals to make claims to Government land survey.
District- wise survey of Tribal lands, arrival of Catholic and Lutheran Mission
1889 Sardars (Munda) leaders agitations against the British
1890-91 Birsa Munda Movements in Ranchi
1920-21 Tana Bhagat Movement in Chhotanagpur
(B.) Santhal 1855 The Revolts of the Santhals Paragnas Districts
1871-72 Agrarian Protests, survey of lands and settlement
1874-75 Famine religious-political movement led by Bhagirath
1880-81 Religious movement inspired by Dubia Gosain
1884-86 Review of Policy towards moneylenders by the Govt.
(C) Andhra 1862, 1879 Andhra Agency Koya
Pradesh Tribal Revolts against Muttdars (Petty Tribal Landlords) and their Supporters (British)
1922 Rampa rebellion of Koyas under Allurli Sreerama Raju against British)
1941 The Gond and Kilam agitations against the British Government in Adabad district of
Andhr Pradesh led by Bhimu
(D) North East 1824-26 First Burmese War against the Burmese occupation of Assam in which
the British first espoused Assam’s case and after defeating Burmese usurped Assam
1835 Raja of the Jaintia Hills was deposed by the British owing to his anti-British activities.
1, 1858 which contained the following clauses:
- The Company’s rule ceased in India and henceforward India was to be governed by the British Crown and the British Parliament.
- In relation to the Indian states and the rest of India, the GovernorGeneral was to be called the Viceroy in future.
- All the treaties and agreements which the East India Company had hitherto entered with the Indian states were to be completely accepted by the Crown.
- The territories of the Indian Princes were not to be annexed by the hated ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ which was not to be applied henceforward. The Indian Princes were allowed to adopt sons in future.
- Another very im-portant constitutional effect of the Revolt of 1857 was the passing of the Indian Councils Act of the year 1861.
- Accordinto this Act, a system of admini-stration called decentral-ization was adopted and the Indians were now associated with the administration of India in the matter of legislation as well as administration
Changes in the Army
- The European element in the army was strengthened and the European officers became the permanent features to the Indian Army.
- The artillery was taken entirely from the Indians.
- This was done according to the recom-mendations of the Army Commission which was appointed in 1859.
- The Company’s regiments were disbanded and now all the army men became directly the servants of the Crown of England.
- Policy of territorial expansion was slackened and the states guaranteed integrity of their territories.
- The Mughal Imperial dynasty came to an end and the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, was sent as a State prisoner to Burma.
- Freedom of religion and equal treatment was guaranteed.
- More associatioon of Indians in the administration of the country.
Introduction of Other Reforms
- In 1857, Universities were established at Calcutta and Madras.
- The Bengal Rent Act of 1859 gave rights of occupancy to all cultivators who possessed certain fields for more than 12 years and forbade the rents being raised except on definite grounds specified in the Act itself.
- The Penal Code on which Macaulay’s Commission had begun to work so many years before, became the law of the land.
- The Company’s Sadar Courts and the Crown’s Supreme Court were amalgamated in the High Courts which were now established at each Presidency headquarters.
Other Popular Movements in the 19th Century
- The Khasis, a primitive tribe residing in the hilly region between Jaintia and Garo hills in Assam, revolted against the authority of the British. The first contact between the British and the Khasis was established in 1765 when the British were granted Diwani and acquired control over Sylhet.
- After the Burmese War the British, under Scott, conceived the idea of linking this territory with Sylhet by road with a view to cut short the military route. The idea of construction of road did not find favour with the Khasis chiefs. The chiefs of various Khasi hills states united under the leadership of Tirhut Singh. On 5th May 1892 a party of Khasis raided Nunklow and massacred the Europeans. The British tried to crush the revolt through use of force and repression. After four years Tirhut Singh surrendered. Similarly revolts were organised by the chiefs of Kapaschor Alps in 1835, the Nagar in 1849 and Kukis between 1826-1849.
- The Kolarian tribes were ruled by petty chieftains. They strongly resented occupation of Singhbhum by the British. Raja of Porhat reached an agreement with the British and agreed to pay an annual tribute to them, the Hos (his subject) could not reconcile with this and continued to harass the English. The Hos submitted to the English authority in 1827. But they again joined in the Munda revolution.
- The Mundas revolted against the British in 1831. This revolt was a protest against the new policy of farming revenue to outsiders and the introduction of judicial and revenue regulations of the Bengal Government into the country. The Munda Revolt was so strong that even the military forces found it difficult to keep it under control. It was only after the British restored to massive military operations that the revolt was suppressed in March 1832.
- In the second half to the nineteenth century the Mundas under the leadership of Birsa revolted against the British. They wanted to replace the British government by Munda self-government. The British succeeded in arresting Birsa in February 1900 and put him in prison where he died of cholera. Another Munda leader Gaya Mund was shot dead. Thus the English suppressed the Munda revolt with firmness .
- The Santhals organised a revolt in 1855-56. This revolt was organised against the oppressions of the mahajans and traders from Bengal and Upper India who lent money to the Santhals and charged them excessive rate of interest. At the initial stages revolt was primarily economic in nature and there was no anti-British feeling. They turned against the government when they found that it was trying to side with the oppressors without bothering to remedy their grievances. In June 1855 about ten thousand Santhals under the leadership of Sidhu and Kanhu, two brothers, revolted. They destroyed the postal and railway communication between Bhagalpur and Rajmahal. The Santhals also proclaimed the end of the Company’s rule and set up their own regime. It was only in 1856 the British succeeded in capturing the leaders of the Santhals. The British committed inhuman barbarities against the Santhals, and completely crushed them.
- Realising that they could not achieve their objective against the English through violent methods the Santhals launched another social movement known as Karwar Movement. This movement aimed at reviving the golden age of the Santhals. In the closing years of the nineteenth century the Karwar Movement got split into three parts viz. sapha Hor, Samra and Babajiu. The mernberrs of Sapha Hor sect played a prominent role in the Indian freedom movement in 1930’s.
- In 1879-80 the Rampas, a forest tribe, rose in revolt against the oppressive and injudicious action of the Tahsildar of Bhadrachalam. The British sent force from Madras which suppressed the insurr-ection.