Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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Class 10 : Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev

The document Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 10 Course Science Class 10.
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What are Metals?

Metals are the electropositive element where they tend to donate electrons and form positive ions and become stable. 

For example: Na → Na+ + e


Some properties of famous metals: 

  • Alkali metals (Li, Na, K, etc) react vigorously with water and oxygen or air.
  • Mg reacts with hot water.
  • Al, Fe and Zn react with steam.
  • Cu, Ag, Pt, Au do not react with water or dilute acids.

Chemical Properties of Metals

  • The density of metals is usually high.
  • Metals are malleable and ductile.
  • Metals form an alloy with other metals or non – metals.
  • Some metals react with air and corrode. For e.g. Iron.
  • Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. Lead is an exception.
  • Generally, metals are in a solid-state at room temperature. Except for Mercury. Mercury is in a liquid state.
  • Many metals produce metal oxide by burning in the oxygen of the air. Highly reactive metals react violently when they’re burnt in oxygen.
  • Metals like sodium and potassium are stored in oil as they react with air in seconds. They’re highly reactive metals.
  • Less reactive metals like gold, silver, platinum, etc do not tarnish easily. They stay shiny and lustrous.
  • Metals produce metal oxide and hydrogen gas while reacting with water.
  • Soluble metal oxides dissolve in water and create metal hydroxide.
  • Not all metals react with water. However, highly reactive metals like sodium and potassium react with water violently and an exothermic reaction takes places where the hydrogen immediately catches fire.
  • Salt and hydrogen are produced when a metal reacts with an acid.
  • Generally, a metal displaces a less reactive metal in a metal salt solution.

Did you know? 🤔

Sodium is the most reactive metal.


Reaction of Metals with Oxygen (Burnt in Air)

  • Almost all metals combine with oxygen to form metal oxides.
                                               Metal + Oxygen → Metal oxide
  • As the metal burns, a bright flame is produced, the colour of which can be used to identify the metal compound. Fireworks contain small metal filings to produce the bright range of colours you see at displays.
    Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev
  • But all metals do not react with oxygen at the same rate. They show different reactivity towards oxygen. Such as sodium and potassium react so vigorously that they catch fire if kept in the open. 
  • Hence, they are kept in kerosene for protection.
    4Na(s) + O2(g) → 2Na2O
    4K(s) + O2(g) →  2K2O
     
  • Mg, Al, Zn, Pb react slowly with air and form a protective layer that prevents corrosion.
    2Mg(s)+O2(g)→2MgO(s) (Mg burns with white dazzling light)
    4Al(s)+3O2(g)→2Al2O3(s) 
  • Silver, platinum and gold don’t burn or react with air. 
  • Sodium and potassium react with oxygen of air, burns with a golden yellow colour and form sodium and potassium oxides, which dissolve with water to form alkali called sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. These turn red litmus blue.
    Na2O(s) + H2O (ℓ)  → 2NaOH(aq)
    K2O(s) + H2O(ℓ) → 2KOH(aq)

    Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev
    Sodium burns with a Yellow Flame.
  • Zinc reacts with oxygen only when strongly heated to form zinc oxide,
    2Zn(s) + O2(g) → 2ZnO
    Since it is less reactive than sodium and potassium.
  • Copper does not react with oxygen even on strong heating. It reacts very slowly on prolonged heating to form cupric oxide (black oxide). 
    The reaction is given as:
    2Cu(s) + O2(g) → 2CuO(s)
  • Similarly, Aluminium forms aluminium oxide.
    4Al(s) + 3O2(g) → 2Al2O3.
  • The order of reactivity of these metals towards oxygen is as follows:
     Na > K > Mg > Zn > Fe > Cu

    Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev
    Reactivity of Metals towards Oxygen
  • At ordinary temperature, the surface of metals like magnesium (Mg), Aluminium (Al), Copper(Cu), Zinc(Zn), lead (Pb) etc. are covered with a thin layer of oxide. 
  • The protective oxide layer prevents the metals from further oxidation. Silver and gold do not react with oxygen due to this silver and gold are called noble metals.

Try yourself:Which of the following represent the correct order of decreasing reactivity?
View Solution


Do You Know? 🤔

  • Anodising is a process of forming a thick oxide layer of aluminium. Aluminium develops a thin oxide layer when it is exposed to air. 
  • This oxide coat of aluminium (Al) makes it resistant to further corrosion. During anodising, the resistance can be improved further by making the oxide layer thicker. In this process, a clean Al article is made the anode and dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is used for electrolyte. 
  • The oxygen gas evolved at the anode react with Al to make a thicker protective oxide layer. This oxide layer can be dyed easily to give Al articles an attractive finishing.

Nature of Metallic OxideChemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev
Basic Oxides of Metals

Some metallic oxides get dissolved in water and form alkalis. Their aqueous solution turns red litmus blue.

Na2O(s) + H2O(l) → 2NaOH(aq)

K2O(s) + H2O(l) → 2KOH(aq)


Amphoteric Oxides of Metals

Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev

  • Generally, metallic oxides are basic in nature except for aluminium and zinc oxides which are amphoteric in nature. 
  • That means these oxides react with the base as well as acid to form salt and water.

Example:

  • Al2O3(s) + 6HCl(aq) → 2AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
  • Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq)→ 2NaAlO2(aq) + H2O(l)
  • ZnO(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2O(l)
  • ZnO(s) + 2NaOH(aq)→ Na2ZnO2(aq) + H2O(l) 


Reaction of Metals with Water
  • Metal react with water and produce metal oxide and hydrogen gas
  • Metal oxides that are soluble in water dissolve in them to form metal hydroxide. But all metals do not react with water. 
    Metal + Water  → Metal oxide + Hydrogen gas
    Metal + Water  → Metal Hydroxide
    Metal oxide + Water → Metal hydroxide

Some oxide of metals dissolves in water and form alkalis.

Examples:

  • 2Na + 2H2O(cold) → 2NaOH + H+ heat
  • Ca + 2H2O(cold) → Ca(OH)+ H2
  • Mg + 2H2O(hot) → Mg(OH)+ H2
  • 2Al + 3H2O(steam) → Al2O+ 3H2
  • Zn + H2O(steam) → ZnO + H2
  • 3Fe + 4H2O(steam) → Fe3O+ 4H2

Try yourself:Al2O3 + 2NaOH → …… + H2O
View Solution


The following activity clears this reaction properly:

Activity 
Aim

To study the reactivity of metals with water & zinc

Procedure

  • Take the samples of common metals such as copper, iron, calcium, aluminium, sodium and potassium. 
  • Put a small amount of the samples separately in beakers that are half-filled with water.

Observation

  • Sodium and Potassium calcium react with cold water. Sodium and Potassium react violently with cold water, making a hissing sound. 
  • These reactions are exothermic and evolved hydrogen gas which catches fire and leads to a little explosion.
  • Calcium reacts less violently and the piece of calcium starts floating in water because the bubbles of hydrogen gas formed stick to the surface of the metal. Now put the metals which do not react with cold water in a beaker that is half-filled with hot water. Magnesium reacts rapidly with hot water. It also starts floating due to the bubbles of hydrogen sticking to its surface. [The rest samples of metals that do not react with cold and hot water, are made to react with steam].
  • To study its reactivity with steam, to set up an experiment as shown in the figure below:Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev
  • A lump of wet glass wool is placed at the bottom of a boiling tube. 
  • Then place the metals samples in the middle of the horizontally kept boiling tube one by one. 
  • Now start at the bottom of a boiling tube with a help of a burner. 
  • The water present in glass wool forms steam on heating. This steam then passes over the metal. 
  • Observe that aluminium reacts with steam and iron does not react under ordinary conditions but it reacts only when steam is passed over a hot iron. 
  • Copper does not react with water either at ordinary temperature or at a higher temperature. 

The following reaction occur in the above activity:

(i) Na and K metals react vigorously with cold water to form NaOH and H2 gas is liberated.
Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev

(ii) 
Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev   

This reaction is so violent and exothermic that the H2 gas evolved catches fire.

(iii) Calcium reacts with cold water to form Ca(OH)2 and H2 gas. It is less violent.

Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev 
(iv) Aluminium does not react either with cold or hot water. But it reacts only with steam to form aluminium oxide and hydrogen gas.

Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev 

(v) Similarly, Zinc reacts with steam to form zinc oxide and H2 gas.

Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev

(vi) Magnesium react with hot boiling water to form MgO and H2 gas.

Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev 
(vii) Iron metal react when steam is passed over a red hot iron and form iron oxide and H2 gas.

Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev
(viii) Copper do not react even under strong conditions. Similarly, g
old and silver also do not react with water. The above reactions indicate that sodium and potassium are the most reactive metals while copper is the least reactive. 
Result: The reactivity order of these metals with water are
 K > Na > Ca > Mg > Al > Zn >Fe > Cu
 Reactivity with water decreases.


Try yourself:What happens when calcium is treated with water?
(i) It does not react with water.
(ii) It reacts violently with water.
(iii) It reacts less violently with water.
(iv) Bubbles of hydrogen gas formed stick to the surface of calcium.
View Solution


Reaction of Metals with Acids

The highly reactive metals react with dilute acid to displace hydrogen from acid. The reactivity of different metals is different with the same acid.
Metal + Dilute acid → Salt + Hydrogen


Aqua Regia (Royal Water)
 Aqua regia is a Latin word it means " royal water". It is a freshly prepared mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and concentrated nitric acid in the ratio of 3 : 1. It is a highly corrosive, fuming liquid and it used for dissolving gold and platinium.

Examples:

Metal+ diluteacid→ Salt + Hydrogengas

  • 2Na(s) + 2HCl(dilute)→ 2NaCl(aq) + H2(g)
  • 2K(s)+ H2SO4(dilute)→ K2SO4(aq)+ H2(g)Only Mg and Mn, react with very dilute nitric acid to liberate hydrogen gas.
  • Mg(s) + 2HNO3(dilute)→ Mg(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)
  • Mn(s) + 2HNO3(dilute)→ Mn(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)


How do Metals react with Solutions of other Metal Salts

  • When a more reactive metal is placed in a salt solution of less reactive metal, then the more reactive metal displaces the less reactive metal from its salt solution. 
  • This reaction is also known as displacement reaction.
  • Metal A+Salt of metal B → Salt of metal A + Metal B

    Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq)→FeSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
    Cu(s) + 2AgNO3(aq)→Cu(NO3)(aq) + 2Ag(s)

Activity
Aim
To compare the reactivity of the metals.
Procedure

  • Take a clean wire of copper and an iron nail, two test tube. 
  • Now dissolve copper sulphate in water in one test tube and ferrous sulphate in another test tube. 
  • Place an iron nail in the blue coloured copper sulphate solution with the help of a thread and copper wire in the greenish colour ferrous sulphate solution as shown in the figure as below.

  

Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Observation

  • The blue colour of copper sulphate has faded and becomes greenish. The green colour of the solution is due to the formation of iron (II) sulphate and copper is displaced. 
  • A reddish-brown coating is formed on the surface of iron nail. The reaction is represented by the chemical equation.
    Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev
    But the greenish colour of FeSO4 does not change. That means no reaction take place.

Conclusion

  • These activities show that iron metal is more reactive than copper.
  • Similarly, Reaction of copper with silver nitrate solution :
  • When a strip of copper metal is placed in a solution of AgNO3. The solution becomes gradually blue and a shiny coating of silver metal gets deposited on the copper strip. 
  • The reaction may be written as: Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev 
  • However, if we place the silver wire in a copper sulphate solution no reaction occurs. This means copper can displace silver from its salt solution but silver cannot displace copper from its solution. i.e. copper is a more reactive metal than silver.

Try yourself:Which one of the following four metals would be displaced from the solution of its salts by other three metals?
View Solution


Reaction of Metals with Bases

The base has a bitter taste and a slippery texture. A base dissolved in water is called an alkali. When chemically reacting with acids, such compounds produce salts. Bases are known to turn blue on red litmus paper.

When a base reacts with a metal, hydrogen gas is produced. It burns with a pop sound when a burning candle is brought near the test tube’s mouth.

Base + metal → salt + hydrogen

Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-Metals Class 10 Notes | EduRev

1. 2NaOH(aq) + Zn(s) → Na2ZnO2(aq) + H2(g)

Sodium hydroxide, as it reacts with zinc metal, gives hydrogen gas & sodium zincate.

2. 2NaOH(aq) + 2Al(s) + 2H2O(l) → 2NaAlO2(aq) + 2H2(g) 

Sodium aluminate and hydrogen gas are formed when sodium hydroxide reacts with aluminium metal.

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