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Chemical bonding PPT Chemistry Class 11

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Chemical Bond
The force that holds different atoms in a molecule is called chemical 
bond.
• Octet Rule
Atoms of different elements take part in chemical combination in 
order to complete their octet or to attain the noble gas configuration.
• Valence Electrons
It is the outermost shell electron which takes part in chemical 
combination.
• Facts Stated by Kossel in Relation to Chemical Bonding
— In the periodic table, the highly electronegative halogens and the 
highly electro-positive alkali metals are separated by noble gases.
— Formation of an anion and cation by the halogens and alkali metals 
are formed by gain of electron and loss of electron respectively.
— Both the negative and positive ions acquire the noble gas 
configuration.
— The negative and positive ions are stabilized by electrostatic 
attraction 
Page 2


Chemical Bond
The force that holds different atoms in a molecule is called chemical 
bond.
• Octet Rule
Atoms of different elements take part in chemical combination in 
order to complete their octet or to attain the noble gas configuration.
• Valence Electrons
It is the outermost shell electron which takes part in chemical 
combination.
• Facts Stated by Kossel in Relation to Chemical Bonding
— In the periodic table, the highly electronegative halogens and the 
highly electro-positive alkali metals are separated by noble gases.
— Formation of an anion and cation by the halogens and alkali metals 
are formed by gain of electron and loss of electron respectively.
— Both the negative and positive ions acquire the noble gas 
configuration.
— The negative and positive ions are stabilized by electrostatic 
attraction 
Example
Page 3


Chemical Bond
The force that holds different atoms in a molecule is called chemical 
bond.
• Octet Rule
Atoms of different elements take part in chemical combination in 
order to complete their octet or to attain the noble gas configuration.
• Valence Electrons
It is the outermost shell electron which takes part in chemical 
combination.
• Facts Stated by Kossel in Relation to Chemical Bonding
— In the periodic table, the highly electronegative halogens and the 
highly electro-positive alkali metals are separated by noble gases.
— Formation of an anion and cation by the halogens and alkali metals 
are formed by gain of electron and loss of electron respectively.
— Both the negative and positive ions acquire the noble gas 
configuration.
— The negative and positive ions are stabilized by electrostatic 
attraction 
Example Modes of Chemical Combination
— By the transfer of electrons:
The chemical bond which formed by the complete transfer 
of one or more electrons from one atom to another is 
termed as electrovalent bond or ionic bond.
— By sharing of electrons: 
The bond which is formed by the equal sharing of electrons 
between one or two atoms is called covalent bond. In these 
bonds electrons are contributed by both.
— Co-ordinate bond:
When the electrons are contributed by one atom and 
shared by both, the bond is formed and it is known as 
dative bond or co-ordinate bond
Page 4


Chemical Bond
The force that holds different atoms in a molecule is called chemical 
bond.
• Octet Rule
Atoms of different elements take part in chemical combination in 
order to complete their octet or to attain the noble gas configuration.
• Valence Electrons
It is the outermost shell electron which takes part in chemical 
combination.
• Facts Stated by Kossel in Relation to Chemical Bonding
— In the periodic table, the highly electronegative halogens and the 
highly electro-positive alkali metals are separated by noble gases.
— Formation of an anion and cation by the halogens and alkali metals 
are formed by gain of electron and loss of electron respectively.
— Both the negative and positive ions acquire the noble gas 
configuration.
— The negative and positive ions are stabilized by electrostatic 
attraction 
Example Modes of Chemical Combination
— By the transfer of electrons:
The chemical bond which formed by the complete transfer 
of one or more electrons from one atom to another is 
termed as electrovalent bond or ionic bond.
— By sharing of electrons: 
The bond which is formed by the equal sharing of electrons 
between one or two atoms is called covalent bond. In these 
bonds electrons are contributed by both.
— Co-ordinate bond:
When the electrons are contributed by one atom and 
shared by both, the bond is formed and it is known as 
dative bond or co-ordinate bond
Ionic or Electrovalent Bond
Ionic or Electrovalent bond is formed by the complete transfer of 
electrons from one atom to another. Generally, it is formed 
between metals and non-metals. We can say that it is the 
electrostatic force of attraction which holds the oppositely charged 
ions together.
The compounds which is formed by ionic or electrovalent bond is 
known as electrovalent compounds. 
Page 5


Chemical Bond
The force that holds different atoms in a molecule is called chemical 
bond.
• Octet Rule
Atoms of different elements take part in chemical combination in 
order to complete their octet or to attain the noble gas configuration.
• Valence Electrons
It is the outermost shell electron which takes part in chemical 
combination.
• Facts Stated by Kossel in Relation to Chemical Bonding
— In the periodic table, the highly electronegative halogens and the 
highly electro-positive alkali metals are separated by noble gases.
— Formation of an anion and cation by the halogens and alkali metals 
are formed by gain of electron and loss of electron respectively.
— Both the negative and positive ions acquire the noble gas 
configuration.
— The negative and positive ions are stabilized by electrostatic 
attraction 
Example Modes of Chemical Combination
— By the transfer of electrons:
The chemical bond which formed by the complete transfer 
of one or more electrons from one atom to another is 
termed as electrovalent bond or ionic bond.
— By sharing of electrons: 
The bond which is formed by the equal sharing of electrons 
between one or two atoms is called covalent bond. In these 
bonds electrons are contributed by both.
— Co-ordinate bond:
When the electrons are contributed by one atom and 
shared by both, the bond is formed and it is known as 
dative bond or co-ordinate bond
Ionic or Electrovalent Bond
Ionic or Electrovalent bond is formed by the complete transfer of 
electrons from one atom to another. Generally, it is formed 
between metals and non-metals. We can say that it is the 
electrostatic force of attraction which holds the oppositely charged 
ions together.
The compounds which is formed by ionic or electrovalent bond is 
known as electrovalent compounds. 
• For Example, ,
(i) NaCl is an electrovalent compound. 
Formation of NaCl is given below:
• Na
+
ion has the configuration of Ne while Cl
–
ion represents the configuration of Ar.
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FAQs on Chemical bonding PPT Chemistry Class 11

1. What is chemical bonding?
Ans. Chemical bonding refers to the process by which atoms join together to form molecules or compounds. It involves the sharing, transferring, or rearrangement of outer electrons between atoms to achieve a more stable electronic configuration.
2. What are the different types of chemical bonds?
Ans. There are three main types of chemical bonds: ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and metallic bonds. Ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons between atoms, covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons, and metallic bonds occur between metal atoms where electrons are freely shared.
3. How does an ionic bond form?
Ans. An ionic bond forms when there is a large difference in electronegativity between two atoms. One atom, usually a metal, donates electrons to another atom, typically a nonmetal, resulting in the formation of positively and negatively charged ions. These ions are then attracted to each other and form an ionic bond.
4. What are the properties of covalent bonds?
Ans. Covalent bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between atoms. They tend to form between nonmetal atoms with similar electronegativities. Covalent bonds have properties such as low melting and boiling points, poor electrical conductivity, and a wide range of physical states (solid, liquid, gas).
5. How does metallic bonding occur?
Ans. Metallic bonding occurs in metals where the outer electrons of metal atoms are delocalized and form a "sea" of electrons. These electrons are free to move throughout the metal lattice, creating a strong attractive force between the positive metal ions and the negatively charged electrons. This type of bonding is responsible for the unique properties of metals, such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, malleability, and ductility.
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