Chronology of Revolutionary Activities
- B.G. Tilak a pioneer in starting politico-religious festivals like Ganapati and Shivaji festivals to popularise the concept of Swaraj among the people.
- Chapekar brother killed Mr. Rand, the cruel Plague Commissioner at Poona on 22 June, 1897.
- On 18 Feb., 1905 Krishnavarma set up India Home Rule Society in London to work for India’s freedom.
- Madan Lal Dhingra shot dead Col. William Curzon Wyllie at India House, London on 1 July, 1909.
- Jackson, the District Magistrate of Nasik, was shot dead on 21 Dec., 1909.
- Agitation against partition of Bengal stirred political consciousness at an unprecedented pitch during the early 20th century.
- Violent activities and robberies erupted in different parts of Bengal during 1906-1907.
- Muzaffarpur murder on 30 April, 1908 by Khudiram Bose.
- Public Prosecutor was shot dead in Calcutta in Feb., 1909.
- Deputy Suprintendent of Police, Calcutta was killed on 24 Feb., 1909.
Bomb thrown at Lord Hardinge on 23 Dec., 1912.
- Ghadar organisation formed by Indian revolutionaries at San Francisco, U.S.A. on 1 Nov., 1913. Its aim was to send volunteers to organise mutiny and rebellion in India
- Kamagata Maru incident at Calcutta on 29 Sept., 1914.
- Meeting of All-lndia revolutionaries at Kanpur in Oct., 1924.
- Kakori Dacoity case on 9 August, 1925.
- Hindustan Socialist Republican Association founded in Sept., 1928 to:
(a) do propaganda against non-violent methods.
(b) propagate value of Direct Action.
(c) preach Socialist ideology.
- Shooting of Mr. Saunders, Assistant Police Suprintendent at Lahore on 17 Dec., 1928.
- Bomb thrown in Central Legislative Assembly, Delhi on 8 April, 1929.
- Chittagong Armoury raid on 18 April, 1930.
- Execution of Freedom martyrs Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru on 23 March, 1931.
- Popular revolts in many parts of India in August, 1942.
- Vivekananda: “For our own motherland a junction of the two great systems, Hinduism and Islam_is the only hope”.
- Vivekanand: “So long as the millions live in hunger and ignorance, l hold everyman a traitor, who having been educated at their expense, pays not the least heed to them’.
- R.C. Majumdar: “It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the so-called first national War of Independence of 1857 is neither first nor national, nor war of independence.
- Lord Ripon: “Judge me by my acts and not by my words”.
- Pt. M.M. MaIviya: In his presidential address at the Congress session at Lahore in 1909, “Ripon was the greatest and the most beloved Viceroy whom India has known”.
- Lord Curzon: “The East is a University in which the scholar never takes a degree”.
- Lala Lajpat Rai: “India aimed at self-government and freedom, Curzon aimed at prolongation of their period of bondage.”
- Nehru remarked over the Act of 1935: “A machine with strong breaks but no engine.”
- Anand Mohan Bose as Congress President (1898): “The educated classes are the friends and not the foes of England_her natural and necessary allies in the great work that lies before her.”
- Tilak about Congress: “We will not achieve any success in our labours if we croak once a year like a frog.”
- Jawahar Lal Nehru: “One communalism does not end the other; each feeds on the other and both fatten”.
- Mahatma Gandhi: “Our heads bend before Bhagat Singh’s bravery and sacrifice”
THE LUCKNOW PACT
- After the declaration of First World War in 1914, the British asked the Indian leaders for their cooperation. Indian response was three fold:
- Moderate Congress leaders wanted to help in defence of the empire as a matter of duty.
- Extremist leaders promised to help in the hope of getting concessions.
- Terrorist Revolutionaries hoped to gain their objective out of England’s difficulties.
- Two major developments during First World War in Indian politics were reunion of the Moderates and the Extermists and the Congress League Lucknow Pact of 1916.
- Reunion of the Moderates and the Extremists took place due to following factors:
- Tilak clarified his objective of attainment of self-govt. by constitutional means.
- Death of Gokhale and Mehta in 1915 softended Moderates’ attitude.
- Mrs. Besant played the role of mediator.
- Congress constitution amended to make possible the entry of Extremists.
- Due to all this, the union was achieved at Lucknow session in Dec., 1916.
Congress-League Lucknow Pact, 1916
- Indian Muslims were estranged from British Government over:
- Annulment of Partition of Bengal.
- Britain’s anti-Turkish attitude.
- Arrest of Muslim leaders.
- Congress was willing to make compromise with the League so that the national movement could be made stronger. A compromise formula was worked out.
- Muslim League was to support Congress demand for self-government. Congress was to accept League’s demand for communal electorates.
- Reform Scheme Demands were:
- Reduction of Secretary of State’s control over Indian affairs.
- 80% members of Central and Provincial Legislative Councils to be elected.
- 50% members of Governor General’s and Governor’s Executive Councils to be Indians.
- Legislative Councils not to discuss any bill if 75% councils members of any community objected to it.
- The Congress of 1916 at Lucknow was memorable in several ways. It was attended by extremists, moderates, Muslim League–in short all political workers belonging to different schools of thought and owning different creeds participated in it.
- The Congress and the League drew up a joint scheme for reforms. It marked the unity of the Hindus and the Muslims under what is known as Lucknow Pact.
- The Congress called upon the British
Facts To Be Remembered
- “When the Queen desires that none should die, when the Governor declares that all should live.....will you kill yourself by timidity and starvation.
- “Pather Dabi” of Sarat Chandra glorified the path of violent revolution and was banned by the British Government.
- Ganesh Savarker was the founder of the secret society “Abhinava Bharat.”
- Jatindranath Bandopadhyay was the revolutionary terrorist who ended his days as a Ramkrishna Mission Swamiji.
- Tej Bahadur Sapru and Jayakar played an important role in the signing of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
- Jamnalal Bajaj served as a AICC treasurer for many years and went to jail in 1930.
- Lord Irwin is 1929 made the “Deepavali Declaration.”
- “The Muslims were fools to ask for safeguards, and the Hindus were greater fools to refuse them.”
—Abul Kalam Azad
- “This orderly disciplined anarchy should go, and if as a result there is complete lawlessness I would risk it.”
- In 1927 the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) was founded.
- Statr of India was published by Indian Muslim League.
- E.V. Ramaswami Naicker founded the Tamil journal called “Kudi Arasu”.
- Lord Mayo was the Viceroy who was assassinated by a convict when he visited the Andamans.
- Subhas Chandra Bose defeated Pattabhi Sitaramayya in his re-election, as President of the Congress at the Tripura session in 1939.
- The Anti-Zamindari Movement in East Bengal betwen 1872 and 1876 was popularly known as “Pabna Movement”.
- Indian Association of Calcutta was the most important of all the pre-congress nationalist organisations.
- To declare that its aim was to grant self-government to India in view of its cultural and educational advancement;
- To accept the Congress-League scheme for Home Rule;
- To grant Dominion status to India;
- To apply Defence of India Act under the circumstances similar to those for Defence of Realm Act.