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Demography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSC

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Demography

Demography

Population

  • India is the second most populous country after China in the world with its total population of 1.22 billion (2012).
  • India’s population is larger than the total population of North America, South America and Australia put together.
  • The first population Census in India was conducted in 1872 but its first complete Census was conducted only in 1881.

Density of Population

  • Density of population, is expressed as number of persons per unit area.
  • The density of population in India (2011) is 364 persons per sq km and ranks second among the most densely populated countries of Asia following Bangladesh (849 persons).
  • There has been a steady increase of about 250 persons per sq km over the last 50 years as the density of population increased from 117 persons/ sq km in 1951 to 364 persons/sq km in 2011.
  • Variation of population densities in the country which ranges from as low as 13 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh to 9,340 persons in the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
  • Among the northern Indian States, West Bengal (1030), Bihar (1102) and Uttar Pradesh (828) have higher densities,

Growth of Population

  • Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time.
  • Its rate is expressed in percentage.
  • Population growth has two components namely; natural and induced.
  • While the natural growth is analysed by assessing the crude birth and death rates, the induced components are explained by the volume of inward and outward movement of people in any given area.
  • The decadal and annual growth rates of population in India are both very high and steadily increasing over time.
  • The annual growth rate of India’s population is 2.4 per cent.
  • The growth rate of population in India over the last one century has been caused by annual birth rate and death rate and rate of migration and thereby shows different trends.
  • There are four distinct phases of growth identified within this period:
    • Phase I : The period from 1901-1921
    • Phase II : The decades 1921-1951
    • Phase III : The decades 1951-1981
    • Phase IV : In the post 1981 till present

Demography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSCDemography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSC

  • Phase I : The period from 1901-1921 is referred to as a period of stagnant or stationary phase of growth of India’s population, since in this period growth rate was very low, even recording a negative growth rate during 1911-1921.
  • Both the birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate of increase low.
  • Poor health and medical services, illiteracy of people at large and inefficient distribution system of food and other basic necessities were largely responsible for a high birth and death rates in this period.
  • Phase II : The decades 1921-1951 are referred to as the period of steady population growth.
  • An overall improvement in health and sanitation throughout the country brought down the mortality rate.
  • At the same time better transport and communication system improved distribution system.
  • The crude birth rate remained high in this period leading to higher growth rate than the previous phase.
  • Phase III : The decades 1951-1981 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India, which was caused by a rapid fall in the mortality rate but a high fertility rate of population in the country.
  • The average annual growth rate was as high as 2.2 per cent.
  • It is in this period, after the Independence, that developmental activities were introduced through a centralised planning process and economy started showing up ensuring the improvement of living condition of people at large.
  • Consequently, there was a high natural increase and higher growth rate.
  • Besides, increased international migration bringing in Tibetans, Bangladeshis, Nepalese and even people from Pakistan contributed to the high growth rate.
  • Phase IV : In the post 1981 till present, the growth rate of country’s population though remained high, has started slowing down gradually.
  • A downward trend of crude birth rate is held responsible for such a population growth.
  • This was, in turn, affected by an increase in the mean age at marriage, improved quality of life particularly education of females in the country.
  • The growth rate of population is, however, still high in the country, and it has been projected by World Development Report that population of India will touch 1,350 million by 2025.
  • Population Composition

 

Rural – Urban Composition

  • Composition of population by their respective places of residence is an important indicator of social and economic characteristics.
  • This becomes even more significant for a country where about 72 per cent of its total population lives in villages. India has 638,588 villages according to the Census 2001 out of which 593,731 (93 per cent) are inhabited villages.

LINGUISTIC COMPOSITION

Demography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSCDemography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSC

Demography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSCDemography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSC

  • Hindus are distributed as a major group in many states (ranging from 70 - 90 per cent and above) except the districts of states along Indo- Bangladesh border, Indo-Pak border, Jammu & Kashmir, Hill States of North-East and in scattered areas of Deccan Plateau and Ganga Plain.
  • Muslims, the largest religious minority, are concentrated in Jammu & Kashmir, certain districts of West Bengal and Kerala, many districts of Uttar Pradesh , in and around Delhi and in Lakshadweep. They form majority in Kashmir valley and Lakshadweep.

 

Demography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSCDemography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSC

Working population composition

  • It is observed that in India, the proportion of workers (both main and marginal) is only 39 per cent (2001) leaving a vast majority of 61 per cent as non-workers.
  • This indicates an economic status in which there is a larger proportion of dependent population, further indicating possible existence of large number of unemployed or under employed people.

Demography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSC

Demography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSCDemography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSC

The document Demography - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. Notes | Study Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy.
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