Early Medieval Age (800-1200 A.D.) - Rajput Age UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : Early Medieval Age (800-1200 A.D.) - Rajput Age UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Early Medieval Age (800-1200 A.D.)

Rajput Age

 After the death of Harshavardhan, the political power in North India got distributed among various dynasties. The tendencies of feudalism and decentralization became the main feature of the polity during this period. After Harsha, various Rajputas clans ruled over the northern part of the country.

Rajputs                                               

There are different theories about the origin of Rajputs. The following are the various theories related to the origin of Rajputs:

  • According to one view the Rajputs were descendent of Sakas.
  • Some scholars consider them to be the descendents of the Yu-Chi tribe which was related to Kushanas
  • They are also considered to be ancient Kshatriyas of lunar and solar dynasty
  • According to Prithvi Raso composed by Chandravardai, Rajputs originated from the Agnikula or fire altar.

 

S. No.

 

Rajput Kingdoms

Time Period

Capital

Founder

1.

Chauhan/Chahaman of Delhi-Ajmer 

7th century-1192

Delhi

Vasudeva

2.

Pratihara/ Parihar of Kannauj

730-1036

Avanti, Kannauj

Nagabhatt I

3.

Pawar/ Parmar of Malwa

790-1150

Ujjain, Dhar

Seeak II ‘Sri Harsha’

4.

Chaulukya/ Solanki of Kathiyawar

942-1187

Anihalvada

Mularaja I

5.

Rastrakuta of Malkhand

752-973

Malkhand/ Manyakheta

Manyakheta

Dantidurg (Danti Vaman II)

6.

Chandela of Jejakabhukti

831-1202

Khajuraho, Mohobo, Kalinjar

Nannuk Chandela

7.

Kalchuri/Haihaya of Chedi

850-1211

Tripuri

Kokkala I

8.

Gadhawal/ Rathor of Kannauj

1090-1194

Kannauj

Chandradeva

9.

Tomar of Delhi 

 

Dhillika

 

10.

Guhilota/ Sisodiya of Mewar

8th cen-1930

Chittor

Bappa Rawal, Hammir I

 

 

Tripartitie struggle for Kannauj

During this period the three great powers were in constant tussle with each other to gain control over the city of Kannauj. The tripartite struggle for the supremacy among the Palas (from east), Partiharas (from north) and the Rashtrakutas (from Deccan) was the important event of these centuries.

The Palas            

  • Gopala founded the Pala Empire in 750 AD.
  • His son Dharmpala (770-810) succeeded him.
  • Dharmpala revived Nalanda University.
  • He was defeated by Dhurva (Rashtrkuta) and Nagabhatta II (Pratihara).
  • He founded the Vikramshila University.
  • Dharampala captured Kannauj and placed the portage Chakrayudha on the throne.
  • Devpal was the successor of Dharampal, he shifted the capital to Mongyer.
  • Rampal was one of the successors of Devpal. One of the important events during his reign was rebellion by Kaivarta peasants.
  • The Pala dynasty was succeeded by Sena dynasty of Bengal. Jayadeva (Gita Gobinda) was the great court poet of Luxman Sen.

The Rashtrakutas 

  • Rashtrakutas claimed descent from Satyaki (the Yadava king of Mahabharata)
  • They were feudatories of the Chalukyas of Badami.
  • Dantidurg (752 to 756 A.D.), who fixed his capital at Malkhand/Malkhet (Gulbarga distt., Karnataka), founded the kingdom.
  • The greatest Rashtrakuta rulers were Govinda III (793-814) and Amoghvarsha (814-878).
  • Amoghvarsha ruled for 64 years but by temperament he preferred pursuit of religion and literature to war. He was himself an author and wrote Kavirajamarga, the earliest Kannada book on Poetics.
  • He patronized Jaina
  • The famous rock-cut temple of Shiva at Ellora was built by one of the Rashtrakuta king Krishna I.

The Gurjara Prathiharas

  • The dynasty was founded by Nagabhatta I who traced his descent from Laxmana
  • One of the ruler of the dynasty, Nagabhata II defeated Dharampal
  • Mihir Bhoja was one of the great rulers of this dynasty. He was a devotee of Vishnu and adopted Adivaraha as the title
  • The last ruler of this dynasty was Rajyapal who was defeated by Ghazni.

 

Rajputs Society : The Feudal order was strongly established among the Rajputs. The Rajputs rulers divided the Kingdoms among landed units called Jagirs and distributed them among faithful nobles. The Rajputs were Hindus and were known as Kshatriyas, beign a warrior class. They celebrated the major Hindu festivals and invoked goddess like Durga or Bhavani for strength and valour. Rajputs women were respected in society but did not enjoy the same position as men.

Rajputs Art and Architecture : The fort structure reached perfection under the Rajputs. The palaces of Jaipur and Udaipur and the forts of Chittor, Mandu, Jodhpur and Gwalior are fine specimens of Rajputs architecture. Dilwara temples at Mount Abu, the Vimla Vasahi and the Luna Vasahi were built by Solankis of Gujarat.

Rajputs Paintings : The Rajputs paintings are divided into the Rajput School of Art and the Pahari School of Art. The Rajasthani School flourished in Mewar, Bikanar, Jaipur, Jodhpur adn Jaisalmer and specialized in depicting scenes from Krishna Lila, Nayika Veda and Ritu Charita. The Pahari School was patronized by the rulers of Himalayan states especially in the regions of Basoli, Mandi, Jammu, Kangra and Garhwal.

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