Early Medieval Age-II (800-1200 A.D.) - Arab Conquest of Sindh UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : Early Medieval Age-II (800-1200 A.D.) - Arab Conquest of Sindh UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Early Medieval Age-II (800-1200 A.D.)

Arab Conquest of Sindh


In 712 AD, AI Hajjaj, the Governor of Basra, led an expedition against Sindh's ruler Dahir,  under his nephew and son-in-law, Muhammad-bin-Qasim. This expedition put Sindh under the Arabs.

Early Medieval Age-II (800-1200 A.D.) - Arab Conquest of Sindh UPSC Notes | EduRev

The cause of this expedition was neither the desire for territorial expansion nor religious. The king of Ceylon had sent some gifts to the king of Turkey which were looted at Debal in Sindh by the pirates. The ruler of Sindh, Dahir, refused to compensate the loss by showing his ignorance to the incident. This emerged AI Hajjaj and he attacked Sindh.

However, the Arabs failed to build a permanent empire in India. Several factors were responsible for this.

  1. Imprisonment of Muhammad bin Qasim by the new Khalifa
  2. New Khalifa's indifferent attitude towards desert Sindh province
  3. Diversion of Arab attention due to fight over Khilafat or Caliphate
  4. Bravery and Heroism of Indian ruler
  5. Long distance between Baghdad and Sindh.

Impact of Arab Rule in Sindh 

  • Conversion of Sindh population to Islam, albeit on a very limited and temporary scale
  • Laying the foundation of Islam in India
  • Introduction of formal slavery system in India
  • Promotion to Arab trade.
  • New Arab settlements on sea-coast.

 

Attacks of Muhmud of Ghazni

Early Medieval Age-II (800-1200 A.D.) - Arab Conquest of Sindh UPSC Notes | EduRev

Mahmud of Ghazni raided India for the first time in AD 1000 for her wealth. He wanted to make Ghazni, a principality of Afghanistan, into a region wielding formidable power in the politics of Central Asia. In a short period of 25 years, he made 17 raids. He destroyed many temple e.g. Somnath temple in Gujarat (1025 AD) as they were ddepositories of vast quantitites of wealth.

Muhmud did not make any systematic effort to capture India. However, he may be seen as the founder of Turkish rule in India to th extent that his expeditions opened India to conquest from the north-west.

 

Dynasties (Regions) 

King/Kings 

Hindu Shahi (Kabul and Punjab)

Jayapala, Anandapal

Lohar (Kashmir)

Rani Didda, Sangam Raj

Tomar (Delhi)

Angapal

Pratihara (Kannauj)

Rajyapala

Paramara (Malwa)

Sindhuraj

Chaulkya (Gujarat)

Chamundaran, Durlabharaj

Chandellas (Bundelkhand)

Vidyadhara

Kalachuri (Tripuri)

Kokkal II, Gangeyadeva

Pala (Bengal)

Mahipala

Chalukyas of Kalyani (Maharashtra)

Jaisimha II

Significance of Muhmud Ghazni's Invasion 

  • Exposition of India's military weakness.
  • Exposition of India's political disunity.
  • Weakening of the economic condition of India as Mahmud carried huge wealth out of the country.
  • Great setback to Indian art and sculpture owing to destruction of idols and templses.
  • Opening of India to foreign attacks.
  • Opportunity to Islam to set its foothold in India
  • Growing of the feeling of hatred and fear among the Hindus towards the Muslims.
  • Arrivals of Muslim saints, called the Sufis ,providing impetus to greater Hindu-Muslim interaction.

 

Attacks of Muhammed Ghori

The second attack from north-west was made by the Muhammed Ghori at the end of 12th century, for which India was not prepared. He attacked from Gomal Pass in 1182, and conquered Sindh. In 1182, he conquered Lahore and soon after, an attack was commenced on the Rajputs kingdoms controlling the Ganges plain. Prithviraj Chauhan led the Rajputs against Muhammed Ghori at the First battle of Tarain in 1191 and the Rajputs became victorious. At the Second battle of Tarain in 1191 at the same place, Prithviraj was defeated by the kingdom of Delhi fell to Ghori. Muhammad Ghori defeated and killed Jayachandra, the king of Kanauj, in the Battle of Chadawar. Before his assassination in 1206, Turks had conuered the Ganga-Yamuna doab and its neighbouring areas, and Bihar and Bengal wwere also overrun. This started a new era in Indian history.


Raids of Muhmammad Ghori 

Ist Raid

1175 AD

Over Multan and Uchha

IInd Raid

1178 AD

Over Abu and Anilwar

IIIrd Raid

1179 AD

Over Punjab (Peshawar)

IVth Raid

1185 AD

Over Sialkot

Vth Raid

1186 AD

Defeated Malik Khusoro of Lahore and captured Punjab

VIth Raid

1191 AD

Ist Battle of Tarain

VIIth Raid

1192 AD

IInd Battle of Tarain

VIIIth Raid

1194 AD

Against Kannauj, defeated Jaichand

IXth Raid

1205,1206 AD

Against Khokkar (A tribe of Punjab)

 

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