Forests in India - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

UPSC : Forests in India - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Forests in India

Forests in India - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Indian Forest

  • Forest area is the area recorded as forest land irrespective of the existence of trees, while the actual forest is the area occupied by the forest with canopy
  • Forest area is based on the record of the State Revenue Department.
  • Forest area covers 23.28% of the total area of the country
  • These forests supply a wide variety of resources.
  • They provide structural timer and wood for making furniture and pulp, match wood, wood for charcoal, gum, resins, canes and fibred.
  • Beside these, there are may other forest products such as leaves, fruits, tan dyes, medicinal herbs, bee-wax, honey, turpentine oil and lac.

Spatial variation

  • Forest cover vary from state to state
  • Lakshadweep has 0% forest area while A&N Islands have 86.93 %
  • Most of the states with less than 10% of the forest area are : Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Delhi
  • The NE states have more than 30% of the land under forest

Forests in India - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Forests in India - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

  • Problems of Forestry and conservation
  • Over grazing and forest fire often destroy forests.
  • Reckless cutting of the trees causes forest destruction.
  • Jhum cultivations destroy forest; it invites soil erosion.
  • To preserve the forest, the Govt. of India has taken up a series of programmers:
  • The forests are declared as Reserved Forests.
  • The government has chalked out a good programme of ‘Van Mahatsov’.
  • The Forest Research Institute has been set up at Dehra Dun for the promotion and preservation the forests properly.
  • The GoI adopted a forest policy in 1952 which was modified in 1988

The forest policy aimed at:

  1. Forest cover to be increased to 33%
  2. Maintain environmental stability
  3. Conserving the natural heritage of the country
  4. Checking soil erosion
  5. Increasing the productivity of the forests
  6. Crating a massive people movement
  7. Based on the forest conservation policy the following steps were initiated:
  8. Social forestry
  9. Wildlife conservation
  10. Biosphere Reserves

Social forestry

  • It means management and protection of forests and afforestation on barren lands with the purpose of helping in the environment, social and rural development
  • National commission on Agriculture has classified social forestry into:-
    • Urban forestry, Rural forestry & Farm forestry

Urban forestry

  • It pertains to the raising & management of trees on public and privately owned lands in and around public centres such as green belts, parks, roadside avenues etc.

Rural forestry

  • It emphasis on Agro-forestry and Community forestry
  • Agro-Forestry, is the raising of trees and agriculture crops on the same land inclusive of waste patches
  • Community forestry, involves the raising of trees on public or community lands
  • Farm forestry: a process under which farmers grow trees for commercial & non-commercial purposes on their farm lands

Wildlife conservation

  • In 1972 Wildlife Act was enacted with two main objectives-
    • To provide protection to the endangered species
    • To provide legal support to the conservation areas of the country classified as National Parks, sanctuaries and closed areas
  • There are 98 National Parks and 492 wildlife sanctuaries in India

Project Tiger

  • Implemented in 1973
  • Main objective is to ensure maintenance of viable population of tigers in India
  • There are 27 Tiger reserves in 17 states
  • The tiger population has increased from 1827 in 1972 to 3642 in 2001-02

Biosphere Reserves

Forests in India - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

  • A Biosphere reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas.
  • These are the areas where every plant and animal is to protected I its natural habitat
  • It aims at achieving :conservation , development , research & monitoring

Forests in India - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

Forests in India - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS UPSC Notes | EduRev

  • Biosphere reserves recognised by UNESCO namely:
    1. Nanda Devi
    2. Sunderbans
    3. Nilgiri
    4. Gulf of Mannar
  • Nilgiri Biosphere reserve is the first reserve established in 1986
  • Biosphere reserves recognised by UNESCO namely:
  1. Nanda Devi
  2. Sunderbans
  3. Nilgiri
  4. Gulf of Mannar
  • Nilgiri Biosphere reserve is the first reserve established in 1986
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