Fundamentals of Medicine, Causes of Disease Notes | Study Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - UPSC

UPSC: Fundamentals of Medicine, Causes of Disease Notes | Study Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - UPSC

The document Fundamentals of Medicine, Causes of Disease Notes | Study Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Science & Technology for UPSC CSE.
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  • Etiology: Etiology is the study of the causation of disease. It may be intrinsic (within the body) or extrinsic (outside the body).Fundamentals of Medicine, Causes of Disease Notes | Study Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - UPSC
  • Pathology: Pathology deals with the study of diseases and their causes.
  • Homeostasis: The mechanism by which the body is kept in equilibrium is known as Homeostasis.
  • Predisposing Causes: These are those that make the person susceptible to the disease and are also known as remote, distant or preparatory causes.
  • Pathogenesis: The mechanism by which the causes produce disease.
  • Symptoms or Signs is the outward manifestations of the patient suffering from disease while alive.
  • The lesion is the alteration in the structure, detectable macroscopically by the naked eye or microscopically.
  • The incubation period is the time that elapses between the action of a cause and the manifestation of disease.
  • Prognosis is the estimation of the probable severity and outcome of the disease. 
  • Morbidity is the percentage of deaths among the population affected by a disease. 
  • An autopsy is seeing with one's own eyes. Also known as necropsy.
  • A biopsy is an examination of tissues received from the living body.

Causes of Disease

Etiological Factors

The disease-causing agents can be classified as follows:

I. Genetic or Inherited Causes: These causes are transmitted to the offspring through the germplasm.

  • Lethal factors: Some factors cause death in utero or after birth death
  • Sublethal factors: Those factors which are inherited and interfere with the function of the body but do not cause death.
  • Defects that are inherited errors in structure or function

Cryptorchidism: The condition in which one or both testicles do not descend to the scrotal sac and remain in the abdominal cavity. The testicle is complete or partial non-functional in this condition.

Webbed digits: Web-like structures are present in between the digits.

Webbed DigitsWebbed Digits

II. Non-genetic or Non-inherited Defects: These causes do not transmit through the germplasm.

Anomalies: Developmental defect affecting an organ or part of the body.

1. Disturbances in the development

2. Arrest of development

  • Agenesia or aphasia: Complete absence of a body part. Agenesia renale—when there is no Kidney in the body.
  • Hypoplasia: Reduction in size of a body part.
  • Atresia: Closer of the lumen of a hollow organ or duct - Atresia ani (closure of ana opening)
  • Fissure: Inability to fuse the part on the median line.
  • Fusion of paired organs: Horseshoe kidney.

3. Excessive Development

  • Congenital hypertrophy: Increase in the size of the organ. Example: Ventricular hypertrophy is the hypertrophy of the myocardium of the ventricle.
  • Increase in number - Example: Polydactyla is the presence of supernumerary digits on the hands or feet.

The document Fundamentals of Medicine, Causes of Disease Notes | Study Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course Science & Technology for UPSC CSE.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
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