Fractions and their percentage equivalents:
- r% change can be nullified by (100r/100 + r)% change in another direction. Eg: An increase of 25% in prices can be nullified by a reduction of [100 x 25/(100 + 25)] = 20% reduction in consumption.
- If a number ‘x’ is successively changed by a%, b%, c%...
⇒ Final value =
- The net change after two successive changes of a% and b% is