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Introduction to Computer
Computer is a general purpose machine which can be programmed to perform Arithmetic and Logical operations. The Physical parts of the Computer are known as Hardware, and Programs or Instructions given to the Computer to carry out different tasks are known as Software.
How a Computer works?
Computer accepts inputs or directions from a user and carries out certain instructions based on the programs already written in it and perform a task.
Hardware parts of the Computer
1. Micro Processor – It is an Integrated Circuit (IC) used to carry out different operations (Arithmetic or Logical) in the Computer. Examples are intel Pentium, intel i3, i5, i7 etc. Otherwise we can say that Micro Processor is executing the tasks inside a Computer. The speed of the Computer is mainly determined by the speed of the Micro Processor. Usually the speed of the Micro Processor is expressed in Giga Hertz. This indicates the instructions executed in a second.
(A) Non Volatile Memory– Hard Disc- It is permanent Storage device. When we save our data like songs or word files or excel sheets, it is saved in the Permanent memory. Flash Memory, ROM, EPROM, EEPROM etc are other types of permanent memory devices.
(B) Volatile Memory– RAM- it is temporary Storage device. When we turn off the Power to the Computer, the data in this memory will be lost. This can be considered as a real time memory.
Why we need Hard Disc and RAM in a Computer?
Let us consider a Library. Where we store the books? In a shelf or racks. This is similar to Hard Disc or permanent memory. Are we reading the books in the shelf or racks? No. We will take the books to a table for reading and keep it back to the shelf after reading. Here the table can be considered analogues to a RAM. Real time operations in a Computer are carried out inside RAM. If you want to refer more books at a time you need bigger table. Similarly if you want to work with high speed and more applications, we need more RAM. Thus one of the parameter determining the speed of a Computer is size of the RAM.
3. Interfacing Circuits- These are Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) with certain ICs and other circuit elements. These are used to communicate to other devices inside and outside the Computer. Example: Network Interface.
4. Peripheral Devices (I/O Devices)
Can you imagine a person without Hands, mouth, ear etc? Similarly Computer needs some peripheral devices to communicate with the User. The Peripheral Devices can be Input device or Output device.
Monitor you are reading now is an example of Output device. However mouse, keyboard etc are input devices.
Software parts of the Computer
Some Input Devices in Computer
Some Output Devices in Computer
Different Memory types in Computer
Different Types of Computing Devices
Types of Software
Eg. Device Drivers, Operating Systems etc.
3. Development Software: Computer programs that Software developers use to create, debug and maintain other Computer Programs. Eg. Compilers, Interpreters, Debuggers etc.
Malicious Software or Malware: Computer programs designed to harm the Computers and Networks. Eg. Viruses, Worms, Trojan etc.
Types of Computer Mouse
Types of Computer Key Board Layouts
Ports available in a Computer/Laptop
Types of Printers