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Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CAT

Document Description: Summary & Examples: Number Series for CAT 2022 is part of Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) preparation. The notes and questions for Summary & Examples: Number Series have been prepared according to the CAT exam syllabus. Information about Summary & Examples: Number Series covers topics like What is Number Series?, Some Common Types of Number Series, Few Important things to Remember and Summary & Examples: Number Series Example, for CAT 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Summary & Examples: Number Series.

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Table of contents
What is Number Series?
Some Common Types of Number Series
Few Important things to Remember
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What is Number Series?

Number series is a form of sequence, where some numbers are mistakenly put into the series of numbers and some number is missing in that series, we need to observe first and then find the accurate number to that series.

The sequence is the list of numbers written in a specific order.

Example:  1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36....


Some Common Types of Number Series

Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CAT

Type 1: Addition / Subtraction or Multiplication / Division

These series follow the pattern of addition or subtraction of even or odd numbers.

Example 1:  What should come in place of question mark in the following series: 19, 23, 39, 75, ?, 239.  

  • The most common trick to solve a number series is to solve by checking the difference between two adjacent numbers, but the difference could not only lead to addition/subtraction but it can also be with multiplication/division.
  • Therefore, to check whether to think addition wise or multiplication wise in increasing sequence, one must assume with the help of the difference between the first and last number of the given sequence.
  • If the difference seems to be less according to the number of steps used to make the last number from first than we should check addition.
  • If the difference seems to be large or too large one must check the multiplication trick between the adjacent numbers.

In Example 1, given above, the difference between first no. (19) and last number (239) is 220.

  • Now a question will arise how we will assume whether the difference is more or less. We will assume it by keeping in mind the number of steps required to start from the first number till the last number.
  • In Example 1, 19 becomes 239 in five steps, because there are four more numbers between them, one of which we have to find out.
  • The difference of 220 between 19 and 239 in five steps logically giving priority to addition over multiplication in an increasing sequence like this.

Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CAT

  • 75 + 64 = 139, 139 + 100 = 239
    139 is correct answer.

Question for Summary & Examples: Number Series
Try yourself:Look at this series: 7, 10, 8, 11, 9, 12, ... What number should come next?
View Solution


Example 2: What should come in place of question mark in the following series: 10, 31, 95, 288, ?, 2609. 

As we can see in the above example, the difference between the first number (10) and the last number (2609) is 2599 in five steps, which indicate us to check multiplication trick between the numbers.
Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CAT

(288*3) + 4 = 868, is the correct answer.


Note : While checking multiplication trick always start from right end of the sequence.


Example 3: What should come in place of question mark in the following series: 30, 34, 43, 59, 84, 120, ?.
(a) 169
(b) 148
(c) 153
(d) 176
(e) None of these

Correct Answer is Option (a)
The given pattern is:

+4, +9, +16, +25 and so on.
So, missing term is 169 = 120 + 49


Example 4: What should come in place of question mark in the following series: 40, 54, 82, ?, 180, 250.  
(a) 142
(b) 124
(c) 136
(d) 163
(e) None of these

Correct Answer is Option (c)
The pattern is: +14, + 28, + 42, + 52, + 70
So, missing term is 82 + 42 = 124

Question for Summary & Examples: Number Series
Try yourself:Look carefully for the pattern, and then choose which pair of numbers comes next - 8,11, 21, 15, 18, 21, 22
View Solution


Example 5: Find the wrong number in the below mentioned series: 
0, 1, 3, 8, 18, 35, 264
(a) 62
(b) 35
(c) 18
(d) 8
(e) None of these

Correct Answer is Option (a)

There is a pattern in difference between the consecutive numbers:

0 - 1  = 1 ← 02 +  1
1 - 3 = 2 ← 12 +  1
3 - 8 = 5 ← 22 +  1
8 - 18 = 10 ← 32 +  1
18 - 35 = 17  ←   42 +  1
Next difference should be  52 + 1   i.e. 26.
35 - 61 = 26 ← 52 +  1
From above the correct sequence would be: 0, 1, 3, 8, 18, 35, 61 and
so, the wrong number is: 264


Example 6: Find the wrong number in the below mentioned series:
5531, 5506, 5425, 5304, 5135, 4910, 4621
(a) 5531
(b) 5425
(c) 4621
(d) 5135
(e) 5506

Correct Answer is Option (a)

The number should be 5555 in place of 5531.
-72, -92, -112, -132, -152, -172…


Example 7: Find the wrong number in the below mentioned series: 
6, 7, 9, 13, 26, 37, 69
(a) 7
(b) 26
(c) 69
(d) 37
(e) 9

Correct Answer is Option (b)

The number should be 21 in place of 26.
The pattern is: +1, +2, +4, +8, +16, +32


Example 8: Find the wrong number in the below mentioned series:
1, 3, 10, 36, 152, 760, 4632
(a) 3
(b) 36
(c) 4632
(d) 760
(e) 152

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The number should be 770 in place of 760.
The pattern is: ×1 +2, ×2 +4, ×3 +6, ×4 + 8, ×5 +10, ×6 + 12, …


Example 9: Find the wrong number in the below mentioned series: 
4, 3, 9, 34, 96, 219, 435
(a) 4
(b) 9
(c) 34
(d) 435
(e) 219

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The series is 02+ 4, 12+2, 32+0, 62-2, 102-4, 152- 6, 212 – 8…
Hence, 435 should be replaced with 433


Example 10: Find the wrong number in the below mentioned series:
157.5, 45, 15, 6, 3, 2, 1
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 6
(d) 157.5
(e) 45

Correct Answer is Option (a)

The number should be 2 in place of 1.
3.5, 3, 2.5, 2, 1.5, 1


Type 2: Perfect Square or Perfect Cube  

Question: 4, 18, 48, 100, 180, ___.

  • In case, if Type-1 is not applicable in a sequence, then in the next step, we must compare given numbers or their differences to square or cube of natural numbers, as in the above example.
    Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CAT
  • Therefore, (7)3-(7)2 = 294, is the correct answer.

(a) Perfect Square Series: This type of series is based on the square of a number that is in the same order and one square number is missing in that given series. 


Example 11: In the following options, a few number series are present. One of them has an error, pick the wrong one out: 

(a) 3, 9, 15, 21

(b) 9, 81, 225, 441

(c) 441, 529, 676, 841

(d) 900, 841, 784, 729

Answer:  (c)

Solution: The first series is just an A.P. with a common difference of 6. Now, we can see that the second sequence is the perfect square sequence. This series can be formed from the series given in option A. The third sequence is a two-tier square series but in place of 841, we must have 900. This is a wrong series. The last series is also a square series. So the correct option or the wrong series of the four options presented above is C) 441, 529, 676, 841. 


Example 12: What should come in place of question mark in the following series:
841, ?, 2401, 3481, 4761
Answer: 292, 392, 492, 592, 69


Question for Summary & Examples: Number Series
Try yourself: In the sequence given below, a term is missing. The missing term is written in the options that are present below. Find the missing term and choose it from the options below: 8, 12, 21, 37, __
View Solution


Example 13: What should come in place of question mark in the following series:
1, 9, 25, ?, 81, 121
Answer: 12, 32, 52, 72, 92, 112


Example 14: What should come in place of question mark in the following series:
289, 225, 169, ?, 81
Answer: 172, 152, 132, 112, 92

(b) Perfect Cube Series: This type of series is based on the cube of a number that is in the same order and one cube number is missing in that given series.
Example 15: What should come in place of question mark in the following series:
3375, ?, 24389, 46656, 79507
Answer: 153, 223, 293, 363, 433
(Each cube digit added with seven to become next cube number)


Example 16: What should come in place of question mark in the following series:
729, 6859, 24389, ?, 117649, 205379
Answer: 93, 193, 293, 393, 493, 593


Example 17: What should come in place of question mark in the following series:
1000, 8000, 27000, 64000, ?
Answer: 103, 203, 303, 403, 50


Question for Summary & Examples: Number Series
Try yourself:In the following series, a number is such that it does not belong to the arrangement.
8000, 27000, 64000, 105000
Select the option that has this number:
View Solution


Type 3: Factorisation / Prime Factorisation 

  • If Type 1 and Type 2 is not applicable in a sequence, one must try to make factors of the numbers in the next step.

Example 18: 6, 15, 35, 77, 143, __.
In the above example, all the previous tricks are not applicable to get an answer. Hence, We will make factors of the given numbers.
Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CAT(2,3,5,7,11,13) all are prime numbers in ascending order.
Hence, 13*17 = 221, is the correct answer.


Question for Summary & Examples: Number Series
Try yourself:Next number in series 31, 41, 47, 59, __?
View Solution

Type 4: Fibonacci Series 

  • A series in which a number is made by using previous two numbers are called Fibonacci series.

Example 19: 1, 4, 5, 9, 14, 23, ___
In the above sequence, all the numbers are the sum of the previous two numbers.
Therefore, 23+14 = 37, is the correct answer.

Type 5: Sum of Digits 

Example 20:
Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CATIn the above sequence, the difference between two numbers is the sum of the digits of the first number.
Hence, 89+17 = 106, is the correct answer.

Example 21: 
Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CATAll the numbers are multiplied by their sum or added by their sum alternately.
Therefore, 11788 + 25 = 11813, is the correct answer.

Type 6: Alternate Pattern Series

  • When numbers given as a hint in a question are more or when a question asks two numbers of a series or the same number come twice in a series, these all give a hint to alternate pattern series.

Example 22: 
Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CATSo, numbers are 12+5 = 17, 53-6 = 47
Ans. 17, 47


Example 23:
Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CAT
So, the number is 24+3 = 27
Ans. 27 


Question for Summary & Examples: Number Series
Try yourself:In the given series, a number is missing. The same number is present in the options below. 
32, 40, 24, 16, 24, __
Select the missing number. 
View Solution


Type 7: Decimal Pattern Series

When the numbers of the sequence are given in the decimal form is decimal pattern series.
Example 24: 
Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CATSo, the answer is 18 * 0.8 = 14.4


Example 25:  16, 24, 60, 210, 945, __
The pattern is:
16 * 1.5 = 24
24 * 2.5 =60
60 * 3.5 = 210
210 * 4.5 = 945
945 * 5.5 = 5197.5

Type 8: Bracket Pattern Series

While using bracket pattern we multiply first outside and either add or sub based on given number.

Example 26: 3, 28, 180,  ____,  3676
The pattern is :
(3+1)*7 = 28
(28+2)*6 =180
(180+3)*5 = 915
(915+4)*4 = 3676
Ans. 915


Example 27: 37, 31, 52, 144, __, 2810
The pattern is :
(37-6)*1=31
(31-5)*2=52
(52-4)*3=144
(144-3)*4=564
(564-2)*5=2810
Ans. 564

Type 9: Dual Pattern Series

Example 28:
15,   9,    8,     12,       36,       170
19,   a,    b,     __,       d,           e,
The pattern is :
(15-6)*1=9
(9-5)*2=8
(8-4)*3=12
Similarly:
(19-6)*1=13
(13-5)*2=16
(16-4)*3=36
Ans. 36

Type 10: Factorial Based Series

This is the latest pattern question asked in latest exams.

Example 29: 
Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CATAns. 33


Example 30: 
Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CATAns. 606 + 721 = 1327 


Question for Summary & Examples: Number Series
Try yourself:​In the given series, only one number is wrong.
3, 9, 19, 32
Find out the wrong number. 
View Solution


Few Important things to Remember

1. If the change is slow or gradual, then it is a difference series.

e.g.

Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CAT


2. If the change is equally sharp, then it is ratio series.

e.g.

Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CAT


3. If the rise is sharp initially, but slows down later, then it is formed by adding squared, or cubed numbers.

e.g.

Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CAT


4. If the series is alternating, then it may be either a mixed series or two different operations going on alternately.

e.g.

Summary & Examples: Number Series Notes | Study Logical Reasoning (LR) and Data Interpretation (DI) - CAT

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