Doc: Irrigation UPSC Notes | EduRev

Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

UPSC : Doc: Irrigation UPSC Notes | EduRev

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  • The main methods of irrigation in India are (1) canals, (2) wells and tube wells, and (3) tanks. Canals irrigate nearly 40 per cent of the irrigated area in the country, wells and tubewells also nearly 40 per cent and the tanks nearly 12 per cent.
  • Canal irrigation is extensively practised in the Northern Plain, especially Punjab, Haryana, U.P. and Bihar.
  • Well irrigation is practised all over the country but most significantly in Uttar Pradesh and submontane region of Punjab.
  • Tank irrigation is practised in the Deccan Plateau, especially in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Orissa.
  • lIrrigable water is measured in the unit of hectare metres. One hectare metre of water is quantity of water standing to a depth of one metre over a level piece of land, one hectare in area.
  • Average run-off in the river system of the country has been assessed as 1869 Km3. Of this, the utilisable portion is estimated as about 690 Km3.
  • In addition, there is substantial replenishable ground water potential in the country estimated at 432 Km3. 
  • The per-capita availability of water has reducedfrom about 5277 m3 in the year 1955 to the present level of 1970 m3. 
  • Underground water resources are about 27 million hectare metres. Of this, about one-third is being used for irrigation. 
  • At present, only about one-fourth of the net area under cultivation has been provided with irrigation. The land area that can ultimately be irrigated has been assessed to be 113 million hectares as against a possible gross cropped area of 210 million hectares on full development of irrigation potentialities. 
  • Cands irrigata about 39 per cent wells and tube well 48 per cent and tanks about 8 per cent.
  • Expansion of irrigation facilities along with consolidation of the existing systems has been the main strategy for increasing production of foodgrains. Irrigation support is provided through major, medium and minor irrigation projects and command area development. 
  • With sustained and systematic development of irrigation, irrigation potential has increased from 22.6 mha in1951, when the process of planning began in India, to about 102.77 mha at the end of 2006-07.

 

WORLD-RESOURCES

 

Resource

Major Producers

1.

Coal

USA, Russia

2.

Lignite

Germany, Russia

3.

Petroleum

Saudi Arabia, Russia

4.

Natural Gas

USA

5.

Electricity

USA, Russia

6.

Nuclear power

USA, UK, Germany

7.

Iron ore

Russia, Australia

8.

Copper

USA, Russia

9.

Tin

Malaysia, Bolivia

10.

Bauxite

Australia, Jamaica

11.

Lead

USA & Russia

12.

Zinc

Canada, Russia

13.

Nickel

Canada, Russia

14.

Managanese

Russia, South Africa

15.

Chromium

South Africa, Russia

16.

Tungsten

China, Russia, Bolivia

17.

Cobalt

Zaire, Zambia

18.

Vanadium

South Africa, Russia

19.

Molybdenum

USA, Canada

20.

Gold

South Africa, Canada

21.

Silver

Mexico, Russia

22.

Platinum

Canada, South Africa

23.

Diamond

Zaire, Russia

24.

Asbestos

Russia, Canada

25.

Mica

India, USA

 

Command Area Development Programme

  • A Centrally-sponsored Command area Development Programme was launched in 1974-75 with the main objective of improving utilisation of irrigation potential and optimising agricultural productivity and production from the irrigated areas by integrating all functions related with irrigated agriculture.
  • Beginning with 60 major and medium irrigation projects in 1974, the Programme included 314 irrigation projects at the end of 2005-06 with Culturable Command area (CCA) of 28.68 million hectares spread over 23 States and two Union Territories.
  • The CAD Programme has been restrured and renamed “Command Area Development and Wats Management Programme” from 1st April.

Ground Water Development

  • In India ground water has been used for irrigation and domestic water supply since time immemorial.
  • At present, more than 70 per cent of the population uses ground water for its domestic needs and more than half of irrigation is provided from this source.
  • The total replenishable ground water in India is estimated tobe about 43.18850 million hectare metre per year (about 432 billion cubic meter).
  • About 7.1 m ha m/yr is used for domestic and industrial use. It is estimated that about 32.47264 m ha m/yr is available for irrigation. According to an estimate by Central Ground water Board, 32 per cent of available ground water resources have so far been developed.

 

WORLD AGRICULTURE

S.No.

Crop / Commodity

Major Producers

1.

Rice

China, India, Indonesia

2.

Wheat

USA, Russia, China

3.

Maize

USA, China, Brazil

4.

Barley

Russia, USA, Canada

5.

Oats

Russia, USA, Canada

6.

Rye

Russia, Poland, Germany

7.

Millet

USA, India, China

8.

Potatoes

Russia, Poland, China

9.

T omatoes

USA, Russia

10.

Apples

USA, Brazil

11.

Citus fruits

USA, Brazil

12.

Dates

Egypt, Iraq, Iran

13.

Cassava

Brazil, Indonesia

14.

Y ams

Nigeria, Togo

15.

Sweet Potatoes

China, Japan

16.

Ground Nuts

India, China

17.

Soya beans

China, USA

18.

Pine apples

Mexico, Cuba

19.

Pepper

Sarawak, Johore

20.

Cloves

Pamba, Zanzibar

21.

Vanilla

Mexico and Malagasy

22.

Tea

India, Sri Lanka

23.

Coffee

Brazil, Colombia

24.

Cocoa

China, Brazil

25.

Beer

USA, Germany

26.

Cider

France and Britain

27.

Whiskey

USA, Japan

28.

Sugar cane

India, China, Pakistan

29.

Sugar beet

Russia, France

30.

Rubber

Malaysia, Indonesia

31.

Synthetic Rubber

USA, Japan

32.

Tyres

USA, Japan

33.

Oil palm

Malaysia, Nigeria

34.

Coconuts

Philippines, Indonesia

35.

Copra

Philippines, Indonesia

36.

Olives

Italy, Spain

37.

Cotton seeds

Russia, USA

38.

Linseed

Argentina, Canada

39.

Tobacco

China, USA, India

40.

Wool

Australia, Russia

41.

Wool yarn

Russia, U.K., Italy

42.

Silk

Japan, China

43.

Cotton

USA, Russia, China

44.

Cotton Yarn

Russia, China

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