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Legal Maxims A - M Notes | Study Legal Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

Document Description: Legal Maxims A - M for CLAT 2022 is part of Legal Reasoning for CLAT preparation. The notes and questions for Legal Maxims A - M have been prepared according to the CLAT exam syllabus. Information about Legal Maxims A - M covers topics like Important Legal Maxims and Legal Maxims A - M Example, for CLAT 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Legal Maxims A - M.

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Important Legal Maxims
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Legal maxim, a broad proposition (usually stated in a fixed Latin form), a number of which have been used by lawyers since the 17th century or earlier. Some of them can be traced to early Roman law.

  • Most lawyers love to throw around Latin phrases. The reason for this is that ancient Rome's legal system has had a strong influence on the legal systems of most western countries. After all, at one time, the Romans had conquered most of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.
  • The Roman motto was divide et impera (dee-vee-deh eht im-peh-rah) — "divide and conquer." As they conquered nations, they set out to "Latinize" the "barbarians" (anyone who wasn't Roman). Their goal was to teach them how to think, act, and be like real Romans. As the Roman Empire slowly crumbled and disappeared, the new orders in all these lands gradually adapted to the existing legal system. This is why lawyers today love those Latin phrases!

Legal Maxims A - M Notes | Study Legal Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

Important Legal Maxims

Terms with 'A'

  • A vinculo matrimonii → From the bond of matrimony.
  • Ab extra → From outside. 
  • Ab initio → From the beginning. 
  • Absoluta sententia expositore non-indiget  → An absolute judgement needs no expositor
  • Abundans cautela non nocet → Abundant caution does no harm.
  • Accessorium non ducit sed sequitur suum principale → An accessory does not draw, but follows its principal.
  • Acta exteriora iudicant interiora secreta → Outward acts indicate the inward intent.
  • Actio non accrevit infra sex annos → The action has not accrued within six years.
  • Acton non datur non damnificato → An action is not given to one who is not injured.
  • Actio personalis moritur cum persona  → A personal action dies with the person
  • Actiones legis → Law suits.
  • Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea → The act dies not make one guilty unless there be a criminal intent.
  • Actus reus → A guilty deed or act.
  • Ad ea quae frequentius acciduuntura adaptantur → The laws are adapted to those cases which occur more frequently
  • Ad hoc → For this purpose.
  • Ad infinitum → Forever, without limit, to infinity
  • Ad perpetuam rei memoriam → For a perpetual memorial of the matter.
  • Aequitas legem sequitur → Equity follows the law 
  • Alibi → At another place, elsewhere.
  • Alienatio rei praefertur juri accrescendi → Alienation is preferred by law rather than accumulation.
  • Aliunde → From elsewhere, or, from a different source. 
  • Allegans contraria non est audiendus → One making contradictory statements is not to be heard.
  • Ambiguitas verborum patens nulla verificatione excluditur → A patent ambiguity is never helped by averment.
  • Amicus curiae → A friend of the court. 
  • Animo furandi → With an intention of stealing.
  • Animo testandi → With an intention of making a will
  • Arbitrium est judicium → An award is a judgement
  • Arbor dum crescit; lignum cum crescere nescit → A tree while it grows, wood when it cannot grow.
  • Argumentum ab auctoritate fortissimum est in lege → An argument drawn from authority is the strongest in law.
  • Assentio mentium → The meeting of minds, i.e. mutual assent

Terms with 'B'

  • Bis dat qui cite dat → He gives (pays) twice who pays promptly.
  • Bona fide → Sincere, in good faith.
  • Bona vacantia → Goods without an owner.
  • Boni judicis lites dirimere est.  → It is the duty of a good judge to prevent litigation
  • Breve judiciale non cadit pro defectu formae → A judicial writing does not fail through defect of form.

Terms with 'C'

  • Cadit quaestio → The matter admits of no further argument. 
  • Casus fortuitus non est spectandus, et nemo tenetur divinare → A fortuitous event is not to be foreseen and no person is bound to divine it.
  • Catalla reputantur inter minima in lege → Chattels are considered in law among the minor things.
  • Causa proxima, non remota spectatur → The immediate, and not the remote cause isto be considered.
  • Consuetudo loci observanda est → The custom of the place is to be observed.
  • Contra → To the contrary.
  • Contra bonos mores → Against good morals.
  • Contractus est quasi actus contra actum → A contract is an act as it were against an act.
  • Conventio est modus vincunt legem → A contract and agreement overcome the law.
  • Coram non judice → Before one who is not a judge.
  • Corpus → Body
  • Corpus delicti  → The body, i.e. the gist of crime.
  • Crescente malitia crescere debet et poena → Vice increasing, punishment ought also to increase.
  • Crimen omnia ex se nata vitiat → Crime Vitiates everything, which springs from it.
  • Cujus est dare, ejus est disponere → He who has a right to give has the right to dispose of the gift
  • Cujus est solum, ejus est usque ad coelam; et ad inferos → He, who owns the soil owns it upto the sky; and to its depth. 
  • Curiae est lex curiae → The practice of the court is the law to the court.
  • Custos morum → A guardian of morals.

Terms with 'D'

  • Damnum sine injuria → Damage without legal injury.
  • De bonis asportatis → Of goods carried away. 
  • De bonis non administratis → Of goods not administered 
  • De die in diem → From day-to-day. 
  • De facto → In fact. 
  • De futuro → In the future. 
  • De integro → As regards the whole. 
  • De jure → Rightful, by right. 
  • De novo → Starting afresh. 
  • Dubitante → Doubting the correctness of the decision.
    Question for Legal Maxims A - M
    Try yourself: Bona Vacantia means _______
    View Solution

Terms with 'E'

  • El incumbit probatio qui → The onus of proving a fact rests upon the man.
  • El incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat → The burden of the proof lies upon him who affirms, not he who denies.
  • Error, qui non resistitur approbatur → An error not resisted is approved.
  • Et cetera → Other things of that type.
  • Ex concessis → In view of what has already been accepted
  • Ex facie → On the fact of it.
  • Ex gratia → By favour.
  • Ex nihilo nil fit → From nothing comes
  • Ex nudo pacto actio non oritur → No actie arises on a contract without a consideration
  • Ex parte → Proceeding brought by one person in the absence of another
  • Ex post facto → By reason of a subsequent act.
  • Ex praecedentibus et consequentibus optima fit interpretatio → The best interpretation is made from things preceding and following.
  • Ex turpi causa non oritur actio → No action arises on immoral contract.
  • Exception probat regulam → An exception proves the rule.
  • Executio est executio juris secundum judicium → Execution is the fulfilment of the law in accordance with the judgement.
  • Executio est finis et fructus legis → An execution is the end and the fruit of the law.
  • Executio legis non habet injuriam → Execution of the law does not injury.

Terms with 'F'

  • Faciendum → Something which is to be done.
  • Factum → An act or deed. 
  • Facultas probationum non est angustanda → The right of offering proof is not to be narrowed.
  • Falsa demonstratio non nocet → A false description does not vitiate.

Terms with 'G'

  • Generale nihil certum implicat → A general expression implies nothing certain
  • Generalia praecedunt, specialia sequuntur → Things general precede, things special follow
  • Generalia specialibus non derogant → Things general do not derogate from things special.
  • Generalis regula generaliter est intelligenda → A general rule is to be geneld understood.
  • Gravius est divinani quani temporalem laedcre majestatem → It is more serious to hurt divine than temporal majesty

Terms with 'H'

  • Habeas corpus → That you have the body.
  • Habemus optimum testem confitentem reum → We have the best witness, a confessing defendant.
  • Haeredem est nomen collectum → Heir is a collective name.
  • Haeres est nomen juris, filius est nomen naturae → Heir is a term of law, son, one of nature.
  • Haeres legitimus est quem nuptiae demonstrant → He is the lawful heir whom the marriage indicates.
  • Homo vocabulum est naturae; persona juris civilis → Man is term of nature, person of the civil law.

Terms with 'I'

  • Id est (i.c.) → That is.
  • Idem → The same person or thing.
  • Idem nihil dicere et insufficienter dicere est → It is the same to say nothing as not to say enough.
  • Ignorantia facti excusat, ignorantia juris non excusat → Ignorance of fact excuses, ignorance of law does not excuse.
  • Impotentia excusat legem → Impossibility is an excuse in the law.
  • Impunitas semper ad deteriora invitat → Impunity always leads to greater crimes.
  • In alta proditone nullus potest esse acessorius; sed principalis solum modo → In high treason no one can be an accessory; but a principal only. 
  • In camera → In private. 
  • In delicto → At fault. 
  • In esse → In existence. 
  • In extenso → At full length.
  • In fictione legis aequitas existit → A legal fiction is consistent with equity.
  • In foro conscientiae → In the forum of conscience.
  • In futoro → In the future.
  • In limine → At the outset, on the threshold.
  • In loco parentis → In place of the parent.
  • In mortua manu → In dead hand.
  • In omnibus → In every respect.
  • In personam → Against the person.
  • In pleno → In full.
  • In situ → In its place.
  • In terrorem → As a warning or deterrent.
  • In verbis, non verba sed res et ratio quaerenda est → In words, not words, but the thing and the meaning are to be inquired into.
  • Indicia → Marks, signs.
  • Injuria non excusat injuriam → A wrong does not excuse a wrong.
  • Intentio inservire debet legibus, non leges intentioni → Intention ought to be subservient to the laws, not the laws to the intention.
  • Inter alia → Amongst other things.
  • Ira furor brevis est → Anger is brief insanity.
  • Iter arma leges silent → In war, the laws are silent.

Terms with 'J'

  • Judes est loquens → A judge is the law speaking
  • Judex non potest esse testis in propira causa → A judge cannot be witness in his own cause.
  • Judex non potest injuriam sibi datam punire → A judge cannot punish a wrong done to himself.
  • Jura naturae sunt immutabilia → The laws of nature are immutable.
  • Jura publica ant referenda privates juribus → Public right are to be preferred to private rights.
  • Jus naturale → Natural justice.
  • Justitia neminl neganda est → Justice is to be denied to no one.

Terms with 'L'

  • Leges posteriores primes contrarlas abrogant → Subsequent laws repeal prior conflicting ones.
  • Legibus sumptis desineulibus legibus naturae utendum est → When laws imposed by the state fail, we must use the laws of nature.
  • Lex aliquando sequitur aequitatem → The law sometimes follows equity.
  • Lex citius tolerare vult privatum damnum quant publicum malum → The law would rather tolerate a private injury than a public evil. 
  • Lex dabit remedium → The law will give a remedy. 
  • Lex dilationes abhorret → The law abhors delays. 
  • Lex est judicum tutissimus ductor → The law is the safest guide forjudges.
  • Lex est sanctio sancta jubens honesta et prohibens contraria → The law is a sacred sanction, commanding what is right and prohibiting the contrary.
  • Lex indendit vicinum vicini facta scire → The law presumes that one neighbour knows the acts of another.
  • Lex necessitatis est lex temporis, ie, instanits → The law of necessary is the law of time, that is time present.
  • Lex neminem cogit ad vana seu impossiblia → The law compels no one to do vain or impossible things.
  • Lex nil frustra facit → The law does nothing in vain.
    Question for Legal Maxims A - M
    Try yourself:What is the legal maxim for 'Spoken words which are defamatory because they have a double meaning.?
     
    View Solution
  • Lex non a rege est violanda → The law must not be violated even by the King.
  • Lex non deflcere potest in justitia exhibenda → The law cannot fail in dispensing justice
  • Lex non novit paterm, nec matermsolam veritatem → The law does not know neither father nor mother, only the truth
  • Lex non requirit verificari quod appar curiae → The law does not require that to be proved which is apparent to the court.
  • Lex non favet delicatorum votis → The lavv does not favour the wishes of the dainty.
  • Lex plus laudatur quando ratione probatur → The law is the more praised whe it is supported by reson.
  • Lex prospicit not respicit → The law looks forward, not backward.
  • Lex punit mendaciam → The law punishes falsehood.
  • Lex succurrit ignoranti → The law succors th ignotant.
  • Lex tutissima cassis, sub clypeo legis nemo decipitur → Law is the safest helmet; under the shield of the law no one is deceived.
  • Lex uno ore omnes alloquitur → The law speaks to all through one mouth.
  • Longa possessio parit jus possidendi et tollit actionem vero domino → Long possession produces the right of possession and takes away from the true owner his action.

Terms with 'M'

  • Magister rerum usus; magistra rerum experientia → Use is the master of things; experience is the mistress of things.
  • Major continet in se minus → The greater contains the less.
  • Majus est delictum se ipsum occidere quam alium → It is a greater crime to kill oneselves than another.
  • Mala fide → In bad faith.
  • Mala grammatica non vitiat chart am → Bad grammar does not vitiate a deed. 
  • Mala prohibita → Crimes prohibited.
  • Mala animo → With evil intent .
  • Mandamus → We command.
  • Maximus magistcr erroris populus cst → The people are the greatest master of error. 
  • Melior esl conditio possidentis, ubi neuter jus habet → Better is the condition of the possessor where neither of the two has the right.
  • Mens rea → Guilty state of mind.
  • Mentiri est contra menten ire → To lie is to act against the mind.
  • Miseta est servitus, ubi jus est vagum aut incertum → It is a miserable slavery where the law is vague or uncertain.
  • Mors dicitur ultimum supplicium → Death is called the extreme penalty.
  • Muita exercitatione facilius quam regulis percipies → You will perceive many things more easily by experience than by rules.
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