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Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

UPSC : Doc: Major Irrigation and Power Projects UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Major Irrigation and Power Projects

Multipurpose Projects
A multipurpose project is river valley project which realises a few objectives simultaneously and hence called multipurpose project. Under this a huge single dam or a series of small dams are built on a river and its tributaries which serve the following purposes: 
(i) Impounds huge amounts of rain water for future use; 
(ii) Controls floods and protects soils; 
(iii) Supplies water for irrigation in command areas; 
(iv) Preserves "wild land" and natural ecosystem through afforestation of catchment areas of dams which also helps in avoiding silting of dams, lakes, river channels and irrigation canals thus extending their life and economic viability; 
(v) Wild land so developed helps in preserving wildlife, the most precious heritage of mankind; 
(vi) Checks soil erosion through afforestation and flood control; 
(vii) Generation of hydroelectricity, by making the stored water to fall from high head; hydroelectricity is one of the neatest, cleanest and pollution free forms of energy derived from water which is a renewable resource (i.e. inexhaustible); 
(viii) Development of inland waterways which is the cheapest means of transport for heavy goods; 
(ix) Reclamation of waterlogged lands and thereby control of malaria; 
(x) Development of fisheries; 
(xi) Development of river sides as recreation spots and health resorts and hence centres of tourist attraction.

Damodar Valley Multipurpose Project
Damodar, though a small river, was called the river of sorrow owing to devastating floods it caused. It flows from Chhotanagpur in south Bihar to West Bengal.
The Damodar Valley Project was conceived for the unified development of irrigation, flood control, promotion of navigation and power generation in West Bengal and Bihar. The project is administered by the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) patterned on the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) of USA. The project includes:
(i) multipurpose storage dams at Tilaiya, Konar, Maithon and Panchet;
(ii) hydel power stations at Tilaiya, Maithon and Panchet;
(iii) a 692-metre-long and 11.58-metre-high barrage at Durgapur and about 2,500 km irrigation-cum-navigation canals, and
(iv) 3 thermal power stations at Bokaro, Chandrapura and Durgapur.
The project provides a flood cushion to about 129.50 crore m3 and has 2,495 km long irrigation canals fed by the 89-km-long right bank main canal. Its total irrigation potential is 3.7 lakh hectares mostly in Burdwan district of West Bengal. It has a total power capacity of 2,146 mw of which 144 mw is contributed by 3 hydro power stations and 1,920 mw by 3 thermal power stations. A 137 km long navigation canal on the left bank connects Durgapur with Calcutta. The major industries situated in Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Burnpur and Kulti and the coal mines of Jharia and Raniganj use DVC power.

Bhakra-Nangal Multipurpose Project
It is a joint venture of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan and is the largest multipurpose project in India. It comprises: (i) the Bhakra Dam across the Sutlej at the foot of the Siwalik range in Himachal Pradesh; (ii) the Nangal barrage across the river, 123 km below the Bhakra Dam; (iii) the Nangal Hydel Channel and the Bhakra Main Canal taking off from the Nangal Barrage, and (iv) 4 power houses, 2 at the foot of the Bhakra Dam and 2 on the Nangal Hydel Channel.

The Bhakra Dam is built  at a strategic point where two hills on either side of Sutlej are very close to each other and therefore, is not very wide. It is the highest gravity dam in the world with a length of 518 m and height 226 m and holds a reservoir with a gross storage capacity of 986.78 crore m3. The Nangal Barrage is 305 m long and 29 m high. It serves as a balancing reservoir and directs the river water to the 64-km-long Nangal Hydel Channel which supplies water to the Bhakra Main Canal. The Bhakra Main canal, 174-km-long, feeds nearly 1,100-km-long irrigation canals and 3,400 km-long distributaries providing irrigation to 1.46 million hectares. This is one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. The project has 4 power houses with a total installed capacity of 1,204 mw. Two of these are situated at the foot of the Bhakra Dam, one on either side and the other 2 on the Nangal Hydel Channel at Gangwal and Kotla, 19 and 29 km respectively, from the Nangal Barrage.

Nagarjunasagar Multipurpose Project
The Nagarjunasagar Project, initiated in 1956, is one of India's largest irrigation project. The project comprises : a 1,450 m-long and 124.7 m-high masonry dam with storage capacity of 546.19 crore m3 across the Krishna in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh, and 2 canals, one on either side of the river along with their irrigation distributary systems. The Right Bank Canal, 204 km long and the Left Bank Canal, 179 km long together irrigate 8.60 lakh hectares in Khammam, West Godavari, Guntur, and Nellore districts.The project also envisages a power house at the toe of the Nagarjunasagar dam with 2 units of 50 mw each capacity. Work on this pumped storage hydel scheme began in 1970.

Kosi Multipurpose Project
It is an international project set up in accordance with an agreement signed between India and Nepal in 1954 and revised in 1966. The project is entirely being executed by India (Bihar state) but its benefits are being shared by Nepal.
The main purpose of the Kosi project is irrigation, flood control and power generation. The project includes: 
(i) a 1,149 m long barrage across the Kosi near Hanumannagar on the Indo-Nepal border; 
(ii) flood-embankments, 270.36 km in length, on both sides of the river in Saharsa and Darbhanga districts of Bihar and in Nepal; and 
(iii) 3 canal systems– Eastern Kosi canal, Western Kosi canal and Rajpur Canal– in Bihar and Nepal.
The 43.5 km long Eastern Kosi Canal provides perennial irrigation to 5.16 lakh hectares in Purnea and Saharsa districts of Bihar. The canal has been extended to irrigate 1.60 lakh additional hectares in Saharsa and Monghyr districts. The 9.66-km-long Rajpur Canal will irrigate about 1.13 lakh hectares in Saharsa and Darbhanga districts of Bihar and the Western Canal, 112.65 km long, taking off from the right bank of the Kosi barrage will provide irrigation to 3.25 lakh hectares in Darbhanga district (Bihar) and 12,120 hectares in Saptari district (Nepal). The ultimate irrigation potential is 8.75 lakh hectares in Bihar. A 20-mw capacity power house under construction on the Eastern Kosi Canal will provide 50 per cent of the power to Nepal.

Chambal Valley Multipurpose Project
It is a multipurpose inter-state project of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. It aims at soil conservation in the Chambal basin and harnessing the Chambal river for irrigation and power in Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
The project includes : 
(i) 3 storage dams across the river, namely, the Gandhisagar Dam in Mandsaur district (Madhya Pradesh), the Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and the Jawahar Sagar Dam in Rajasthan; 
(ii) the Kota Barrage near Kota City; 
(iii) power stations at all the three dams; and 
(iv) canals from the Kota Barrage.
The 3.2 km long Left Bank Canal taking off from the Kota Barrage and the 376.6 km long Right Bank Canal together irrigate about 5.66 lakh hectares of which 2.83 lakh hectares are in Kota, Bundi and Sawaimadhopur districts of Rajasthan and the other 2.83 lakh hectares in Bhind and Morena districts of Madhya Pradesh. The total power capacity of this project is 386 mw of which the power house at Gandhi Sagar contributes 115 mw, Rana Pratap Sagar 172 mw and Jawahar Sagar 99 mw. The power from this is supplied to Rajasthan and the western districts of Madhya Pradesh.

Tungabhadra Multipurpose Project
This project is jointly executed by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Its main objectives are irrigation and power generation. The project includes : 
(i) 2,441 m-long and 49.38 m-high straight gravity masonry dam across the Tungabhadra in Bellary district  of Karnataka; 
(ii) 2 canals on the right side and one canal on the left side of the river taking off from the reservoir; 
(iii) and similarly 2 power houses on the right side and one on the left side.
The project provides irrigation to 3.92 lakh hectares– 3.32 lakh hectares in Raichur and Bellary districts of Karnataka and 0.60 lakh hectares in Anantapur and Kurnool districts of Andhra Pradesh.

Ramanganga Multipurpose Project
This project in Uttar Pradesh includes: 
(i) a 625.8 m-long and 125.6 m-high earth and rock-filled dam across the Ramganga and a 75.6 m-high saddle dam across the Ghuisot stream near Kalagarh in Garhwal district; 
(ii) a 546 m-long weir across the river at Hareoli; 
(iii) an 82 km-long feeder canal taking off from the Hareoli Weir; 
(iv) 3,880 km long new branch canal and remodelling of 3,388 km of existing canals– Lower Ganga Canal, Agra Canal, Upper Ganga Canal and Ramganga Canal; and 
(v) a power house on the right bank at the toe of the dam with an installed capacity of 198 mw. The project irrigates 5.75 lakh hectares in western and central Uttar Pradesh and supplies 200 cusecs of water for the Delhi Water Supply Scheme and reduces the flood intensity in central and western Uttar Pradesh.

Matatilla Multipurpose Project
This project serves Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. It includes : 
(i) a 6,378 m-long and 36.6 m-high earthen dam on the Betwa, 56 km south-west of Jhansi town; 
(ii) a power house with 30 mw installed capacity at the foot of the dam; and 
(iii) a III-km-long irrigation canal taking off from the reservoir. The project irrigates 1.65 lakh hectares in Jhansi, Jalaun and Hamirpur districts of Uttar Pradesh and Gwalior district of Madhya Pradesh.

Hirakund Multipurpose Project
The main purpose of this project is irrigation, flood control and power generation. The project comprises : 
(i) the Hirakund dam across the Mahanadi in Orissa and 
(ii) a canal taking off from the reservoir.
The Hirakund dam, with a maximum height of 51m and length 4,801m, is one of the longest in the world. It has a gross storage capacity of 810 crore m3.
A 147-km-long canal taking off from the reservoir irrigates 2.54 lakh hectares in Bolangir and Sambalpur districts. The installed power capacity of the project is 270 mw– the main power house contributing 198 mw and second power house at Chiplima contributing 72 mw.

Irrigation Projects
Indira Gandhi (Rajasthan Canal) Project
It is an ambitious project to bring new areas under irrigation for cultivation. Under this project the waters of Beas and Ravi are diverted to the Sutlej so that waters of all the three rivers are now being almost fully used to irrigate north-western Rajasthan which is a part of the Thar desert. The project includes: 
(i) the Rajasthan Feeder taking off from the Harike Barrage across the Sutlej near its confluence with the Beas in Punjab; and 
(ii) the Rajasthan Main Canal taking its water-supply from the Rajasthan Feeder.
The 215 km long Rajasthan Feeder canal, which runs through Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan, is a fully lined  masonry work and does not provide any irrigation. It feeds the 469 km-long Rajasthan Main Canal (now called Indira Gandhi Canal) which lies entirely within Rajashthan at a distance of 40-64 km from the Indo-Pakistan border. It is the longest irrigation canal in the world and can irrigate about 11.5 lakh hectares in Ganganagar, Bikaner and Jaisalmer districts.

Gandak Irrigation Project
This is a joint venture of India and Nepal. It is entirely executed by India (Bihar and Uttar Pradesh) but its benefits are also shared by Nepal in accordance with an agreement signed in 1959. The project includes: 
(i) a barrage across the Gandak at Balmikinagar below the Tribeni Canal Head Regulator in Bihar; 
(ii) 4 canals, 2 each in India and Nepal; and 
(iii) a power house.
Half of the 747.37 m long and 9.81 m high barrage is in Nepal. Inside India the 66 km long Main Western Canal will irrigate 4.84 lakh hectares in Saran district of Bihar and 3.44 lakh hectares in Gorakhpur and Deoria districts of Uttar Pradesh and the 256.68 km-long Main Eastern Canal will irrigate 6.03 lakh hectares in Champaran, Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga districts of Bihar. The western Canal of Nepal will irrigate 16,600 hectares in Bhairwa district. The Eastern Canal of Nepal will irrigate 42,000 hectares in Parasa, Bara and Rautuhat districts. A power house with 15 mw installed capacity on the Main Western Canal has been commissioned and handed over to Nepal as a gift.

Mahanadi Delta Irrigation Project
The purpose of this project is to make use of the releases from the Hirakund reservoir. It includes 1,353-m-long concrete weir and a 386.24 km-long canal with an irrigation potential of 5.35 lakh hectares in the Mahanadi delta in Orissa.

Tawa Irrigation Project
This irrigation scheme in Madhya Pradesh comprises: 
(i) an earth-cum-masonry dam, 1630.2 m-long and 57.95 m-high, across the Tawa, a tributary of the Narmada, in Hoshangabad district; 
(ii) and two irrigation canals taking off from the reservoir. The 120 km-long Left Bank Main Canal and the 76.85 km-long Right Bank Canal will irrigate 3.32 lakh hectares in Hoshangabad district.

Pochampad Irrigation Project
It is the second largest irrigation project in Andhra Pradesh and comprises : 
(i) a 812 m long and 43 m high masonry dam with a storage capacity of 230.36 crore m3 on the Godavari in Adilabad district, and 
(ii) 112.63-km-long main canal which will irrigate 2.30 lakh hectares in Adilabad and Karimnagar districts.

Upper Krishna Irrigation Project
This project in Bijapur-Gulbarga districts of Karnataka includes : 
(i) a 1631 m-long and 34.76 m-high dam across the Krishna at Almatti in Bijapur district; 
(ii) a second 6,951 m-long and 23.63 m-high dam on the river at Narayanpur in Gulbarga district; 
(iii) a 170.58-km-long canal taking off from the Almatti Dam; and (iv) a 222-km-long canal taking off from the Narayanpur Dam.
The project will irrigate 2.43 lakh hectares in Bijapur, Raichur and Gulbarga districts of Karnataka.

Power Projects
Rihand Hydro-electric project
This project is one of the largest man-made lake in India on the borders of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh and comprises a 934 m-long and 91.4 m-high straight gravity masonry dam across the Rihand near Pipri in Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. It impounds 1,060 crore m3 of water. Its power generating capacity is 300 mw.

Koyan Hydro-electirc Project
This project in Maharashtra comprises : 
(i) a 853.44 m-long and 85.3 m-high dam across the Koyna at Deshmukhawadi in Satara district of Maharashtra; and 
(ii) an underground power station at Pophali below the Ghats. The gross storage capacity of reservoir is 277.53 crore m3. Its installed capacity is 880 mw. It feeds power to Bombay-Pune industrial region.

Sharavati Hydro-electric Project
Located in Karnataka, this is one of the largest hydroelectric projects in India. It includes : the main dam across the Sharavati near Linganmakki and a balancing dam at Talakalale near Jog Folls in Shimoga district of Karnataka. The 2,750 m-long and 61.28 m-high Linganmakki dam has a gross storage capacity of 441.58 crore m3. The 484.8 m-long and 62.5 m-high Talakalale dam has a gross storage capacity of 14.06 crores m3. The total capacity of power house is 891 mw. It feeds Bangalore industrial region and also some parts of Goa and Tamilnadu.

Sabagiri (Pamba-Kakki)  Hydro-electic Project
This project in Kerala has 3 storage dams, one each on the Pamba and Kakki rivers and one flanking dam. The total power potential of this project is 300 mw. It fees power to Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Idukki Hydro-Electirc Project
This project also in Kerala, has 3 storage dams, one each on the Periyar and Cherutheni rivers and one at Idukki and the power house at Moolammattom, all in Idukki district. Its total installed capacity is 390 mw.

Kundah Hydro-electric Project
This project in Tamilnadu has 8 storage dams on the Kundah and its tributaries in the Nilgiri hills and has a total installed capacity of 535 mw.
 

Talcher Thermal Power Project
Situated in Orissa, this power station has an installed capacity of 250 mw. This project is based on cheap coal available from the Talcher coalfield.
 

Neyveli Thermal Power Project
This is associated with the Neyveli Lignite Project in the South Arcot district of Tamilnadu. It is based on lignite produced in the area. Its installed capacity is 600 mw which is fed to the Tamilnadu State Power Grid.
 

Korba Thermal Power Station
Located near the Korba coalfields in Bilaspur district (Madhya Pradesh), it has a total installed capacity of 300 mw. It feeds power to the various places in Bilaspur and Raipur divisions of Madhya Pradesh.

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