NCERT Exemplar: Biotechnology & its Applications - 1 Notes | Study NEET Revision Notes - NEET

NEET: NCERT Exemplar: Biotechnology & its Applications - 1 Notes | Study NEET Revision Notes - NEET

The document NCERT Exemplar: Biotechnology & its Applications - 1 Notes | Study NEET Revision Notes - NEET is a part of the NEET Course NEET Revision Notes.
All you need of NEET at this link: NEET

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 

Q.1. Bt cotton is not:
(a) A GM plant
(b) Insect resistant
(c) A bacterial gene expressing system
(d) Resistant to all pesticides
Ans.
(d)
Solution.
Bt cotton is a GM plant, insect resistant and a bacterial gene expressing system.

Q.2. C-peptide of human insulin is:
(a)
A part of mature insulin molecule
(b) Responsible for formation of disulphide bridges
(c) Removed during maturation of pro-insulin to insulin
(d) Responsible for its biological activity
Ans. (c)

Q.3. GEAC stands for:
(a)
Genome Engineering Action Committee
(b) Ground Environment Action Committee
(c) Genetic Engineering Approval Committee
(d) Genetic and Environment Approval committee
Ans. (c)

Q.4. α - 1 antitrypsin is:
(a)
An antacid
(b) An enzyme
(c) Used to treat arthritis
(d) Used to treat emphysema
Ans. (d)

Q.5. A probe which is a molecule used to locate homologous sequences in a mixture of DNA or RNA molecules could be:
(a) A ssRNA
(b) A ssDNA
(c) Either RNA or DNA
(d) Can be ssDNA but not ssRNA
Ans.
(c)
Solution.
A single stranded DNA or RNA, tagged with a radioactive molecule is called Probe.

Q.6. Choose the correct option regarding Retrovirus:
(
a) An RNA virus that synthesises DNA during infection
(b) A DNA virus that synthesises RNA during infection
(c) A ssDNA virus
(d) A dsRNA virus

Ans. (a)
Solution.
Retrovirus is an RNA virus that can synthesise DNA during infection.

Q.7. The site of production of ADA in the body is:
(a)
Erythrocytes
(b) Lymphocytes
(c) Blood plasma
(d) Osteocytes
Ans. (b)

Q.8. A protoxin is:
(a) A primitive toxin
(b) A denatured toxin
(c) Toxin produced by protozoa
(d) Inactive toxin
Ans.
(d)
Solution.
Bt toxin is a protein. This toxin does not kill the Bacillus because the Bt toxin protein exists as inactive protoxins but once an insect ingest the inactive toxin, it is converted into an active form of toxin due to the alkaline pH of the gut which solubilise the crystals.

Q.9. Pathophysiology is the:
(a)
Study of physiology of pathogen
(b) Study of normal physiology of host
(c) Study of altered physiology of host
(d) None of the above
Ans. (c)

Q.10. The trigger for activation of toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis is:
(a)
Acidic pH of stomach
(b) High temperature
(c) Alkaline pH of gut
(d) Mechanical action in the insect gut
Ans. (c)

Q.11. Golden rice is:
(a)
A variety of rice grown along the yellow river in China
(b) Long stored rice having yellow colour tint
(c) A transgenic rice having gene for β - carotene
(d) Wild variety of rice with yellow coloured grains
Ans. (c)

Q.12. In RNAi, genes are silenced using:
(a) ss DNA
(b) ds DNA
(c) ds RNA
(d) ss RNA
Ans. 
(c)
Solution.
RNAi takes place in all eukaryotic organisms as a method of cellular defense. This method involves silencing of a specific mRNA due to the complementary dsRNA molecule that binds to and prevents translation of the mRNA (silencing).

Q.13. The first clinical gene therapy was done for the treatment of:
(a) AIDS
(b) Cancer
(c) Cystic fibrosis
(d) SCID (Severe Combined Immuno Deficiency resulting form deficiency of ADA)
Ans. 
(d)
Solution.
A first clinical gene therapy was given in 1990 to a 4 year old girl with ADA (Adenosine deaminase) deficiency. ADA deficiency causes SCID (Severe Combined Immuno Deficiency) in which B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes are not formed.

Q.14. ADA is an enzyme which is deficient in a genetic disorder SCID. What is the full form of ADA?
(a) Adenosine deoxyaminase
(b) Adenosine deaminase
(c) Aspartate deaminase
(d) Arginine deaminase
Ans.
(b)
Solution.
ADA stands for Adenosine deaminase.

Q.15. Silencing of a gene could be achieved through the use of:
(a) RNAi only
(b) Antisense RNA only
(c) Both RNAi and antisense RNA
(d) None of the above
Ans.
(c)
Solution.
Silencing of a gene could be achieved through the use of (RNAi) only and Antisense RNA only.


VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. In view of the current food crisis, it is said, that we need another green revolution. Highlight the major limitations of the earlier green revolution.
Ans.
Limitations of green revolution:

  • The Green Revolution succeeded in tripling the food supply but yet it was not enough to feed the growing human population. Increased yields have partly been due to the use of improved crop varieties, but mainly due to the use of better management practices and use of agrochemicals (fertilisers and pesticides). However, for farmers in the developing world, agrochemicals are often too expensive, and further increases in yield with existing varieties are not possible using conventional breeding.
  • Use of agrochemicals causes eutrophication in aquatic ecosystems and biomagnification in terrestrial ecosystems.
  • Water logging and soil salinity are some of the problems that have come in the wake of green revolution.


Q.2. Expand GMO. How is it different from a hybrid?
Ans.
GMO stands for Genetically Modified Organism. It differs from a hybrid because in a hybrid, cross is done between total genomes of two species or strains, where as in a GMO, foreign gene(s) is introduced in the organism and is usually maintained as extra-chromosomal entity or is integrated into the genome of the organism.

Q.3. Differentiate between diagnostics and therapeutics. Give one example and for each category.
Ans.
A diagnostic technique helps us to identify a disease. Example: ELISA is a test for HIV.A therapeutic agent on the other hand helps in the treatment of a disease. Example: Antibiotics for bacterial infections.

Q.4. Give the full form of ELISA. Which disease can be detected using it? Discuss the principle underlying the test.
Ans.
Enzyme Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay (ELISA) is used for the detection of AIDS. ELISA is based on the principle of antigen-antibody interaction. Infection by pathogen can be detected by the presence of antigens (proteins, glycoproteins, etc.) or by detecting the antibodies synthesised against the pathogen.

Q.5. Can a disease be detected before its symptoms appear? Explain the principle involved.
Ans. 
Presence of a pathogen (bacteria, viruses, etc.) is normally suspected only when the pathogen has produced a disease symptom. By this time the concentration of pathogen is already very high in the body. However, very low concentration of a bacteria or virus (at a time when the symptoms of the disease are not yet visible) can be detected by amplification of their nucleic acid by PCR.

Q.6. Write a short note on Biopiracy highlighting the exploitation of developing countries by the developed countries.
Ans.
Biopiracy is the term used to refer to the use of bio-resources by multinational companies and other organisations without proper authorisation from the countries and people concerned without compensatory payment. Most of the industrialised nations are rich financially but poor in biodiversity arid traditional knowledge. In contrast the developing and the underdeveloped world is rich in biodiversity and traditional knowledge related to bio-resources. Traditional knowledge related to bio-resources can be exploited to develop modem applications and can also be used to save time, effort and expenditure during their commercialisation.

Q.7. Many proteins are secreted in their inactive form. This is also true of many toxic proteins produced by micro organisms. Explain how the mechanism is useful for the organism producing the toxin?
Ans.
Many proteins including certain toxins are secreted in their inactive form. They get activated, only when exposed to a specific trigger (pH. temperature etc.). It is advantageous to the bacteria producing it because the bacteria does not get killed due to the action of protein.

Q.8. While creating genetically modified organisms, genetic barriers are not respected. How can this be dangerous in the long run?
Ans.
The manipulation of living organisms by the human race cannot go on any further, without regulation. Some ethical standards are required to evaluate the morality of all human activities that might help or harm living organisms. Going beyond the morality of such issues, the biological significance of such things is also important. Genetic modification of organisms can have unpredictable results when such organisms are introduced into the ecosystem.

Q.9. Why has the Indian Parliament cleared the second amendment of the country’s patents bill?
Ans.
The Indian Parliament has recently cleared the second amendment of the Indian Patents Bill, that take such issues into consideration, including patent terms emergency provisions and research and development initiative.

Q.10. Give any two reasons why the patent on Basmati should not have gone to an American Company.
Ans. 

(i) Rice is an important food grain, the presence of which goes back ‘ thousands of years in Asia’s agricultural history. There is an estimated 200,000 varieties of rice in India alone. The diversity of rice in India is one of the richest in the world. Basmati rice is distinct for its unique aroma and flavour and 27 documented varieties of Basmati are grown in India.
(ii) There is a reference to Basmati in ancient texts, folklore and poetry.

Q.11. How was Insulin obtained before the advent of rDNA technology? What were the problems encountered?
Ans.
Insulin used for diabetes was earlier extracted from pancreas of slaughtered cattle and pigs. Insulin from an animal source, though caused some patients to develop allergy or other types of reactions to the foreign protein.

Q.12. With respect to understanding diseases, discuss the importance of transgenic animal models.
Ans.
Many transgenic animals are designed to increase our understanding of how genes contribute to the development of disease. These are specially made to serve as models for human diseases so that investigation of new treatments for diseases is made possible. Today transgenic models exist for many human diseases such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer’s.

Q.13. Name the first transgenic cow. Which gene was introduced in this cow?
Ans.
Rosie was the name of the first transgenic cow. Gene for human alpha lactalbumin was introduced in its gene, which made the milk nutritionally richer.

Q.14. PCR is a useful tool for early diagnosis of an infectious disease. Elaborate.
Ans.
PCR is a very sensitive technique which enables the specific amplification of desired DNA from a limited amount of DNA template. Hence, it can detect the presence of an infectious organism in the infected patient at an early stage of infection (even before the infectious organism has multiplied to large number).

Q.15. What is GEAC and what are its objectives?
Ans.
GEAC (Genetic Energy Approval Committee) is an Indian government organisation. Its objective are to:
(a) examine the validity of GM (Genetic modification of organism) research.
(b) inspect the safety of introducing GM for public services.

Q.16. For which variety of Indian rice, the patent was filed by a USA Company?
Ans.
Indian Basmati was crossed with semi-dwarf variety and was claimed as a new variety for which the patent was filed by a USA company.

Q.17. Discuss the advantages of GMO.
Ans. 
Plants, bacteria, fungi and animals whose genes have been altered by manipulation are called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). GM plants have been useful in many ways. Genetic modification has:

  1.  Made crops more tolerant to abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salt, heat).
  2.  Reduced reliance on chemical pesticides (pest-resistant crops).
  3. Helped to reduce post-harvest losses.
  4. Increased efficiency of mineral usage by plants (this prevents early exhaustion of fertility of soil).
  5. Enhanced nutritional value of food,
    Example: Vitamin ‘A’ enriched rice.
The document NCERT Exemplar: Biotechnology & its Applications - 1 Notes | Study NEET Revision Notes - NEET is a part of the NEET Course NEET Revision Notes.
All you need of NEET at this link: NEET

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