Q1. Discuss three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions.
Ans: The three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions:
Q2. When does a social difference become a social division?
Q3. How do social divisions affect politics? Give two examples.
Q4. ________________ social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions. ________________ social differences do not usually lead to conflicts.
Ans: Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions. Cross-cutting social differences do not usually lead to conflicts.
Q5. In dealing with social divisions which one of the following statements is NOT correct about democracy?
(a) Due to political competition in a democracy, social divisions get reflected in politics.
(b) In a democracy, it is possible for communities to voice their grievances in a peaceful manner.
(c) Democracy is the best way to accommodate social diversity.
(d) Democracy always leads to the disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.
Ans: (d) Democracy always leads to the disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.
Q6. Consider the following three statements.
Α. Social divisions take place when social differences overlap.
Β. It is possible that a person can have multiple identities.
C. Social divisions exist in only big countries like India.
Which of the statements is/are correct?
(a) A, B and C
(b) A and B
(c) B and C
(d) Only C
Ans: (b) A and B
Q7. Arrange the following statements in a logical sequence and select the right answers by using the code given below.
Α. But all political expression of social divisions need not be always dangerous.
B. Social divisions of one kind or the other exist in most countries.
C. Parties try to win political support by appealing to social divisions.
D. Some social differences may result in social divisions.
(a) D, B, C, A
(b) D, B, A, C
(c) D, A, C, B
(d) A, B, C, D
Ans: (a) D, B, C, A
Q8. Among the following, which country suffered disintegration due to political fights on the basis of religious and ethnic identities?
Ans: (c) Yugoslavia
Q9. Read the following passage from a famous speech by Martin Luther King Jr. in 1963. Which social division is he talking about? What are his aspirations and anxieties? Do you see a relationship between this speech and the incident in Mexico Olympics mentioned in this chapter?
"I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character. Let freedom ring − when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children − back men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics − will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: 'Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!' I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: 'We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal'."
Ans: In this extract, Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. is talking about racism in the USA. He is referring to the segregation policies adopted by the Whites towards the Coloured people.
He aspires for a country where there will be security for all; where racial abuse will not occur; and where everyone will be treated as equal irrespective of the colour of their skin. This speech and the incident at the Mexico Olympics are both parts of a movement that wanted to highlight the plight of the African-American people.
|1. What is the relationship between democracy and diversity?|
|2. How does democracy protect the rights of minority groups?|
|3. Can diversity be a challenge to democracy?|
|4. How does democracy promote cultural and religious pluralism?|
|5. What are the advantages of a diverse society in terms of democracy?|