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Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Q1. Explain:
(a) Why the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement?
Ans: 

  • People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism. 
  • The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together. 
  • But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently. Their experiences were varied and their notions of freedom were not always the same. The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement. But the unity did not emerge without conflict.Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.

Ans: 
War created a new political and economic situation.

  • Led to a huge increase in defense expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: custom duties were increased and income tax introduced.
  • Forced recruitment in villages caused widespread anger.
  • Crops failed; this resulted in an acute shortage of food.
  • 12 to 13 million people died due to famines and epidemics.


(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.

Ans: 

  • Indians had hoped that after the war their hardships would be over and the government would take steps to improve their condition.

Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

  • On the other hand, the government passed the Rowlatt Act in the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919 against the united opposition of the Indian members.
  • The Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities. It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
  • Its provisions meant the suspension of two principles of justice - trial by jury and habeas corpus.


(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Ans: 

Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement because of the following reasons:

  • In February 1922, at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur (UP), a group of peaceful Indian demonstrators turned violent. They burnt alive 22 policemen. When Mahatma Gandhi came to know about it, he decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
  • He felt that the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.
  • Within Congress too, some leaders like C.R. Dass and Motilal Nehru were now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils.


Q2. What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?

Ans: 

  • Satyagraha is pure soul-force. Truth is the very substance of the soul. That is why this force is called Satyagraha.
  • The idea of Satyagraha suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
  • Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence. Thus non-violence is the supreme dharma.
  • In Satyagraha, oppressors - had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence.

SatyagrahaSatyagraha


Q3. Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission

Ans: 
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre:
Today is 13 April - Baisakhi. A large crowd of people had gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh. Some came to protest against the government’s Rowlatt Act. Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. Being from outside the city, many villagers were unaware of the Martial Law that had been imposed. Gen. Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd killing hundreds.
His object was to ‘produce a moral effect’ to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
After the massacre, the wounded were left without medical help. The number of exact casualties is not known. It is an example of oppressive rule by the Imperialist Power.

Jallianwala Bagh MassacreJallianwala Bagh Massacre

(b) The Simon Commission:

Lahore: 30th October 1928 - Today Simon Commission to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and to submit a detailed report on reforms, reached Lahore. It is really strange that though object of the Commission is to look into an Indian problem but no Indian has been appointed as its member. All the members were Britishers. This is a gross injustice. Indians must raise their voice against it and resist the Commission at all levels so that the British government may include Indians in the Commission.
Thus, today people gathered at the station. Lala Lajpat Rai and others led the procession and raised slogans, “Simon Go Back”. There was a clash between police and protesters. Lala Lajpat Rai was hit near his heart and felt pain.Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10


Q4. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.

Ans: 

  • There are two images of Bharat Mata one by Abanindranath Tagore and the second by another artist. 
  • In the image by Tagore, Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure. She has been shown as calm, composed, divine and spiritual. She is shown also as dispensing learning food and clothing. Abanindranath Tagore tried to develop a style of painting that could be seen as truly Indian.
  • In the second figure, Bharat Mata is shown with a Trishul, standing beside a lion and an elephant both symbols of power and authority. This figure is a contrast to the one painted by Abanindranath Tagore.
  • On the other hand, the image of Germania by Philip Veet wears a crown of oak leaves which stands for heroism. Thus, there is one similarity between Bharat Mata and Germania - both have an element of bravery i.e., power, authority and heroism.

Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10


Q5. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.

Ans: 

  • Different Social Groups had participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement initiated by Mahatma Gandhi. 
  • The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement started in January 1921.Each social group had diverse aspirations and their involvement in Non-Cooperation were motivated by varied reasons. 

The different social groups which participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement are listed below:

  1. Middle Class participation in Towns and Cities.
  2. Workers in Plantations.
  3. Peasants in Countryside
  4. Tribals

Gandhiji believed that British rule would collapse and Swaraj would come if the Indians did not cooperate. Gandhiji believed that British rule was established and survived in India due to cooperation of Indians.

1. Non-Cooperation Movement – Middle Class participation in Towns and Cities

Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

  • The Non-Cooperation Movement started in cities with the participation of the Middle Class.
  • Teachers and headmasters resigned from schools and colleges.
  • Lawyers gave up their practice.
  • Thousands of students left the Government controlled schools and colleges.
  • In many places merchants and traders refused to finance foreign trade.
  • Foreign goods were boycotted by people. In many places traders and merchants refused to trade in foreign goods.
  • Foreign clothes were burnt in huge bonfires.
  • Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up as people started wearing only Indian clothes by discarding imported clothes.
  • Liquor shops were picketed.

Struggles of Middle Class in Non Cooperation Movement

  • Predominantly, to substitute the British Institutions, there were no alternative Indian institutions.
  • Teachers and students started going back to Government colleges and schools.
  • Lawyers joined back the Government courts.
  • People could no longer afford to boycott mill cloth for too long. Poor people could not afford Khadi clothes which were very expensive compared to mass produced mill cloth.

2. Non-Cooperation Movement – Workers in Plantations

In Assam, for plantation workers, the meaning of Swaraj was retaining the link with the village they hail from, and right to move freely in and out of the enclosed place they were working in. Workers had a different understanding of the Swaraj call given by Mahatma Gandhi.

Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Swaraj in Plantations – Assam

  • The plantation workers were rarely given permission to move out.
  • Plantation workers in the tea garden had to seek permission before leaving.
  • This rule was implemented as per the Inland Emigration Act of 1859.
  • When the workers came to know about the Non-Cooperation Movement, all the workers defied the rules and authorities by leaving the plantations without permission and they headed to their home village.
  • The plantation workers believed that Gandhi raj would become a reality and all of them would be given lands in their villages.

Struggles of Plantation Workers in Non-Cooperation Movement

  • However, these plantation workers were not able to reach their destination.
  • They were stranded because of a strike called by the steamers and railways.
  • Plantation workers were caught by the police and they were brutally beaten up.
  • However, the Congress did not define the vision of these movements.
  • Plantation workers had interpreted the meaning of Swaraj in their own way.

3. Non-Cooperation Movement – Peasants in Countryside

Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

The struggles of Peasants were drawn into the fold of the Non cooperation movement.

  • Landlords and Talukdars used to demand high rents and other cesses from the peasants.
  • Peasants were forced to work in the Landlord’s farm without any payment. This forced contribution without any payment was known as Begar.
  • As peasants had no right over the leased land, they did not have security of tenure, they were frequently evicted.
  • Baba Ramchandra led the peasant movement in Awadh.
  • The peasant movement demanded to socially boycott oppressive landlords, demanded to abolish begar, and demanded reduction of revenue.
  • Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up in October 1920, headed by Baba Ramchandra, Jawaharlal Nehru and others.
  • As the movement spread grain hoards were taken over, bazaars were looted, merchants and talukdars houses were attacked.
  • The name of Mahatma Gandhi was being invoked to sanction all action and aspirations.

4. Non-Cooperation Movement – Tribals

Tribal peasants interpreted the idea of swaraj and the message of Mahatma Gandhi in yet another way.

  • A militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s, in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh.
  • The hill people were enraged because they were prevented from entering the forests to collect fruits, firewood and graze cattle.
  • Large forest areas were closed by the British colonial government.
  • Tribals felt their traditional rights were denied, and it affected their livelihoods.
  • The hill people revolted against British Government, when the tribals were forced to pay Begar.
  • Alluri Sitaram Raju led the revolt.
  • Alluri Sitaram Raju said he was inspired by the Non-Cooperation Movement and persuaded people to give up drinking and wear Khadi.
  • To achieve Swaraj, the Tribals carried out Guerrilla warfare.

Gandhiji felt Satyagrahis needed to be trained properly for mass struggles. Gandhiji realised the Non-Cooperation Movement was turning violent in many places. Hence, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922.

Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Non-cooperation Movement of 1921


Q6. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Ans: 
Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.

  • The Salt March started from Gandhi’s ashram in Sabarmati to Dandi, a coastal town located in the state of Gujarat.
  • The Salt March was over a distance of 240 miles.

Development of Events – Salt March and Civil Disobedience Movement

Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

  • Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin mentioning eleven demands, on 31 January 1930.
  • Some demands were specific demands of different classes from peasants to industrialists, other demands were more general in nature.
  • To make sure that everyone could be brought together in a united campaign, wide ranging demands were placed by Mahatma Gandhi, this was done to make sure that all classes within Indian society could identify with them
  • Abolition of salt tax was the most notable and important demand made by Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Salt was one of the most vital ingredients while preparing food.
  • Mahatma Gandhi revealed that government monopoly over production of salt and salt tax was the most oppressive measure of British rule.
  • Mahatma Gandhi stated in the letter that if the demands were not fulfilled by March 11, a Civil Disobedience Campaign would be launched by the Congress.
  • Lord Irwin was not keen on negotiations.
  • So, Mahatma Gandhi, accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers, started his most famed Salt March.
  • Everyday, the volunteers walked for a distance of around 10 miles. The total days taken to cover the March was 24 days.
  • Thousands of people came to hear Mahatma Gandhi speak, wherever he stopped.
  • Mahatma Gandhi told people to peacefully defy the British and explained to them the meaning of Swaraj.
  • Mahatma Gandhi reached Dandi on April 6. Mahatma Gandhi manufactured salt by boiling sea water, and ceremonially broke the British law.
  • This event marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • Thousands of people demonstrated in front of the salt factories. Thousands of people across the country manufactured salt and broke the salt law. Village officials resigned, Peasants refused to pay chaukidari taxes and revenue.

Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

  • Forest laws were violated by the forest people in many places.
  • The British Colonial government was very apprehensive about the developments and they went around arresting congress leaders.
  • All these led to violent protests by people across the nation.
  • The response of the British Colonial Government was brutal. Women and children were beaten, they carried out attacks on Peaceful satyagrahis, lakhs of people were arrested.
  • As the events turned violent, Gandhi called off the protests and on 5th March 1931, Gandhi entered into a pact with Irwin and agreed to attend the Round Table Conference in London.

Q7. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
Ans: 

  • It was a time when women were kept inside the walls.
  •  A woman's role was considered to be of a homemaker. Though I got a good education, I was not allowed to take part in social or political activities. 
  • But I thought by participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement, I could be a part of the nation making process. 
  • So, at the call of Gandhiji, I couldn't resist myself. 
  • Revolting against my family traditions, and I became an active member of the movement. It was a proud moment for me to participate in Gandhi's Civil Disobedience Movement. 
  • It was a motivating experience for me when I tended to those injured in the lathi-charge. It was like taking care of my own brother. I was full of nationalistic fervour. It was the most memorable and proud phase of my life. 

Q8. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Ans: 

  • Dr B.R. Ambedkar, who organised the Dalits into the Depressed Classes Association in 1930, clashed with Mahatma Gandhi at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits. 

Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

  • When the British government conceded Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society. 
  • Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position, and the result was the Poona Pact of September 1932.
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah was willing to give up the demand for separate electorates if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces (Bengal and Punjab). 
  • Negotiations over the question of representation continued, but all hope of resolving the issue at the All Parties Conference in 1928 disappeared when M.R. Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts at compromise.
The document Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions | Social Studies (SST) Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Nationalism in India NCERT Solutions - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

1. What is nationalism?
Ans. Nationalism is a political and social ideology that emphasizes the importance of one's nation and its culture, customs, and traditions. It aims to create a sense of belongingness and loyalty to one's nation among its citizens.
2. Who were the leaders of the Indian National Congress during the Independence movement?
Ans. The Indian National Congress had several leaders during the Independence movement, including Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Subhas Chandra Bose, and many others.
3. What were the major causes of the rise of nationalism in India?
Ans. The major causes of the rise of nationalism in India were British colonialism, the exploitation of Indian resources and people, the suppression of Indian culture and traditions, and the Indian people's desire for self-rule and independence.
4. How did the Non-Cooperation Movement impact the Indian Independence movement?
Ans. The Non-Cooperation Movement was a significant event in the Indian Independence movement. It led to widespread protests and civil disobedience across the country, which helped mobilize the masses and create a sense of unity and solidarity among Indians. It was also the first time that the Indian National Congress launched a nationwide mass movement against British colonialism.
5. What role did Indian women play in the Indian Independence movement?
Ans. Indian women played a crucial role in the Indian Independence movement. They participated in various movements, including the Salt Satyagraha, the Quit India Movement, and the Non-Cooperation Movement. They also played an essential role in organizing and mobilizing the masses, and many women leaders like Sarojini Naidu, Annie Besant, and Kasturba Gandhi were at the forefront of the struggle for Indian independence.
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