(a) Why the growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement?
- People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
- The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
- But each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently. Their experiences were varied and their notions of freedom were not always the same. The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement. But the unity did not emerge without conflict.
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India.
War created a new political and economic situation.
- Led to a huge increase in defense expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: custom duties were increased and income tax introduced.
- Forced recruitment in villages caused widespread anger.
- Crops failed; this resulted in an acute shortage of food.
- 12 to 13 million people died due to famines and epidemics.
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act.
- Indians had hoped that after the war their hardships would be over and the government would take steps to improve their condition.
- On the other hand, the government passed the Rowlatt Act in the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919 against the united opposition of the Indian members.
- The Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities. It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
- Its provisions meant the suspension of two principles of justice - trial by jury and habeas corpus.
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement because of the following reasons:
- In February 1922, at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur (UP), a group of peaceful Indian demonstrators turned violent. They burnt alive 22 policemen. When Mahatma Gandhi came to know about it, he decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement.
- He felt that the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles.
- Within Congress too, some leaders like C.R. Dass and Motilal Nehru were now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils.
Q2. What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?
- Satyagraha is pure soul-force. Truth is the very substance of the soul. That is why this force is called Satyagraha.
- The idea of Satyagraha suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
- Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence. Thus non-violence is the supreme dharma.
- In Satyagraha, oppressors - had to be persuaded to see the truth, instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence.
Q3. Write a newspaper report on:
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre:
Today is 13 April - Baisakhi. A large crowd of people had gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh. Some came to protest against the government’s Rowlatt Act. Others had come to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. Being from outside the city, many villagers were unaware of the Martial Law that had been imposed. Gen. Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd killing hundreds.
His object was to ‘produce a moral effect’ to create in the minds of satyagrahis a feeling of terror and awe.
After the massacre, the wounded were left without medical help. The number of exact casualties is not known. It is an example of oppressive rule by the Imperialist Power.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
(b) The Simon Commission:
Lahore: 30th October 1928 - Today Simon Commission to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and to submit a detailed report on reforms, reached Lahore. It is really strange that though object of the Commission is to look into an Indian problem but no Indian has been appointed as its member. All the members were Britishers. This is a gross injustice. Indians must raise their voice against it and resist the Commission at all levels so that the British government may include Indians in the Commission.
Thus, today people gathered at the station. Lala Lajpat Rai and others led the procession and raised slogans, “Simon Go Back”. There was a clash between police and protesters. Lala Lajpat Rai was hit near his heart and felt pain.
Q4. Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
- There are two images of Bharat Mata one by Abanindranath Tagore and the second by another artist.
- In the image by Tagore, Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure. She has been shown as calm, composed, divine and spiritual. She is shown also as dispensing learning food and clothing. Abanindranath Tagore tried to develop a style of painting that could be seen as truly Indian.
- In the second figure, Bharat Mata is shown with a Trishul, standing beside a lion and an elephant both symbols of power and authority. This figure is a contrast to the one painted by Abanindranath Tagore.
- On the other hand, the image of Germania by Philip Veet wears a crown of oak leaves which stands for heroism. Thus, there is one similarity between Bharat Mata and Germania - both have an element of bravery i.e., power, authority and heroism.
Q5. List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
The different social groups which participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement are listed below:
Gandhiji believed that British rule would collapse and Swaraj would come if the Indians did not cooperate. Gandhiji believed that British rule was established and survived in India due to cooperation of Indians.
1. Non-Cooperation Movement – Middle Class participation in Towns and Cities
Struggles of Middle Class in Non Cooperation Movement
2. Non-Cooperation Movement – Workers in Plantations
In Assam, for plantation workers, the meaning of Swaraj was retaining the link with the village they hail from, and right to move freely in and out of the enclosed place they were working in. Workers had a different understanding of the Swaraj call given by Mahatma Gandhi.
Swaraj in Plantations – Assam
Struggles of Plantation Workers in Non-Cooperation Movement
3. Non-Cooperation Movement – Peasants in Countryside
The struggles of Peasants were drawn into the fold of the Non cooperation movement.
4. Non-Cooperation Movement – Tribals
Tribal peasants interpreted the idea of swaraj and the message of Mahatma Gandhi in yet another way.
Gandhiji felt Satyagrahis needed to be trained properly for mass struggles. Gandhiji realised the Non-Cooperation Movement was turning violent in many places. Hence, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922.
Non-cooperation Movement of 1921
Q6. Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
Development of Events – Salt March and Civil Disobedience Movement
Q7. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
Q8. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
|1. What is nationalism?|
|2. Who were the leaders of the Indian National Congress during the Independence movement?|
|3. What were the major causes of the rise of nationalism in India?|
|4. How did the Non-Cooperation Movement impact the Indian Independence movement?|
|5. What role did Indian women play in the Indian Independence movement?|