Ques 1: Multiple choice questions
(i) Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area?
(a) Shifting Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture
(d) Intensive Agriculture
Ans: (b) Plantation Agriculture
Fig: Plantation Agriculture
(ii) Which one of the following is a rabi crop?
Ans: (b) Gram
(iii) Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?
Ans: (a) Pulses
(iv) Which one of the following is announced by the government in support of a crop?
(a) Maximum support price
(b) Minimum support price
(c) Moderate support price
(d) Influential support price
Ans: (b) Minimum support price
Ques 2: Ans the following questions in 30 words.
(i) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.
(ii) Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.
(iii) Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
(iv) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?
Ans: (i) (a) (1) Tea is an important beverage crop.
(2) It is an example of plantation agriculture also.
(b) Geographical conditions: (1) Tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil so rich in humus and organic matter.
(2) Temperature for growth 20°C to 30°C.
(3) Annual rainfall of 150 cm to 300 cm.
(4) Warm and moist-free climate all through the year.
(5) Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year.
(ii) (a) Rice is a staple crop of India.
(b) Regions, where it is produced, are plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and deltaic regions i.e., West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. In Punjab and Haryana, parts of Rajasthan and western Uttar Pradesh it is grown with the help of canal irrigation and tube wells.
(iii) Institutional reforms: (a)Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood etc., was introduced.
(b) Establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks to provide loans at lower rates of interest.
(c) Kissan credit cards, Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS).
(d) Special weather bulletins.
(e) Announcement of MSP, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops.
(iv) Land under cultivation has got reduced day by day: (a) It would lead to the reduction in net sown area under cereals and pulses.
(b) With the growing population of India, the declining food production may create a problem over country's future food security.
Ques 3: Ans the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
(ii) Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture.
(iii) Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.
Ans: (i) To ensure increase in agricultural production, the government prioritised collectivisation, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari system. 'Land reform' was the main focus of the First Five Year Plans. In the 1960s and 1970s, agricultural reforms were the order of the day. The Green Revolution and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were aimed at improving Indian agricultural productivity.
Fig: Initiative was taken by Govt. to increase agriculture production
During the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated. Under this, various technical and institutional reforms were introduced by the government for the benefit of farmers, e.g., Minimum Support Price policy, provision for crop insurance, subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilisers, Grameen banks, Kissan Credit Card, Personal Accident Insurance Scheme, and special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes like 'Krishi Darshan' on national television.
(ii) The impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture has been felt since colonial times. Raw cotton and spices were important export items from India. In 1917, Indian farmers revolted in Champaran against being forced to grow indigo in place of food grains, in order to supply dye to Britain’s flourishing textile industry. Thus, globalisation has had its boons and banes for Indian agriculture.
Post-liberalisation, Indian farmers face new challenges in the form of competition from highly subsidised agriculture of developed nations. This prompts the need for making Indian agriculture successful and profitable by improving the conditions of small and marginal farmers, countering the negative effects of Green Revolution, developing and promoting organic farming, and diversifying cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops.
(iii) Rice is a Kharif crop grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and deltaic regions. It requires high temperatures (above 250C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In areas with less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation via canals and tube-wells.