Multiple Choice Questions
Q1. Which one of the following describes an agriculture system where a single crop is grown on a large area?
(a) Shifting Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture
(d) Intensive Agriculture
Ans: (b) Plantation Agriculture
Q2. Which one of the following is a rabi crop?
Ans: (b) Gram
Q3. Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?
Ans: (a) Pulses
Q4. Which one of the following is announced by the government in support of a crop?
(a) Maximum support price
(b) Minimum support price
(c) Moderate support price
(d) Influential support price
Ans: (b) Minimum support price
The MSP system was started in 1966-67 for wheat and was expanded further to include other essential food crops, which was then sold to the poor under subsidised rates under the public distribution system (PDS).
Answer the Following Questions in 30 words
Q1. Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.
Ans: Tea is an important beverage crop. It is also an example of plantation agriculture.
- Tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil so rich in humus and organic matter.
- Temperature for growth 20°C to 30°C.
- Annual rainfall of 150 cm to 300 cm.
- Warm and moist-free climate all through the year.
- Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year.
Q2. Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.
- Rice is a staple crop of India.
- Regions, where it is produced, are plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and deltaic regions, i.e., West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu.
- In Punjab and Haryana, parts of Rajasthan and western Uttar Pradesh, it is grown with the help of canal irrigation and tube wells.
Q3. Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
- Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood etc., was introduced.
- Establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks to provide loans at lower rates of interest.
- Kissan credit cards, Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS).
- Special weather bulletins.
- Announcement of MSP, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops.
Q4. The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?
Ans: Land under cultivation has got reduced day by day:
Answer the following questions in about 120 words
- It would lead to the reduction in net sown area under cereals and pulses.
- With the growing population of India, declining food production may create a problem over the country's future food security.
Q1. Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
- To ensure an increase in agricultural production, the government prioritised collectivisation, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of the zamindari system.
- 'Land reform' was the main focus of the First Five Year Plans. In the 1960s and 1970s, agricultural reforms were the order of the day.
- The Green Revolution and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were aimed at improving Indian agricultural productivity.
The initiative was taken by Government to increase agriculture production:
- During the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated.
- Under this, various technical and institutional reforms were introduced by the government for the benefit of farmers.
Example: Minimum Support Price policy, provision for crop insurance, subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilisers, Grameen banks, Kissan Credit Card, Personal Accident Insurance Scheme, and special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes like 'Krishi Darshan' on national television.
Q2. Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture.
- The impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture has been felt since colonial times.
- Raw cotton and spices were important export items from India. In 1917, Indian farmers revolted in Champaran against being forced to grow indigo in place of food grains, in order to supply dye to Britain’s flourishing textile industry.
- Thus, globalisation has had its boons and banes for Indian agriculture.
- Post-liberalisation, Indian farmers face new challenges in the form of competition from highly subsidised agriculture of developed nations.
- This prompts the need to make Indian agriculture successful and profitable by improving the conditions of small and marginal farmers, countering the negative effects of Green Revolution, developing and promoting organic farming, and diversifying cropping patterns from cereals to high-value crops.
Q3. Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.
- Rice is a Kharif crop grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and deltaic regions.
- It requires high temperatures (above 250C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
- In areas with less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation via canals and tube-wells.