NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Physics Class 11

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Class 11 : NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

The document NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 11 Course Physics Class 11.
All you need of Class 11 at this link: Class 11

NCERT QUESTION

(Mechanical Properties of Fluids)

Ques 10.1: Explain why
(a) The blood pressure in humans is greater at the feet than at the brain
(b) Atmospheric pressure at a height of about 6 km decreases to nearly half of its value at the sea level, though the height of the atmosphere is more than 100 km
(c) Hydrostatic pressure is a scalar quantity even though pressure is force divided by area.
Ans:  (a) The pressure of a liquid is given by the relation:
P = g
Where,
P = Pressure
h = Height of the liquid column
ρ = Density of the liquid
g = Acceleration due to the gravity
It can be inferred that pressure is directly proportional to height. Hence, the blood pressure in human vessels depends on the height of the blood column in the body. The height of the blood column is more at the feet than it is at the brain. Hence, the blood pressure at the feet is more than it is at the brain.

(b) Density of air is the maximum near the sea level. Density of air decreases with increase in height from the surface. At a height of about 6 km, density decreases to nearly half of its value at the sea level. Atmospheric pressure is proportional to density. Hence, at a height of 6 km from the surface, it decreases to nearly half of its value at the sea level.

(c) When force is applied on a liquid, the pressure in the liquid is transmitted in all directions. Hence, hydrostatic pressure does not have a fixed direction and it is a scalar physical quantity.

Ques 10.2: Explain why
(a) The angle of contact of mercury with glass is obtuse, while that of water with glass is acute.
(b) Water on a clean glass surface tends to spread out while mercury on the same surface tends to form drops. (Put differently, water wets glass while mercury does not.)
(c) Surface tension of a liquid is independent of the area of the surface
(d) Water with detergent dissolved in it should have small angles of contact.
(e) A drop of liquid under no external forces is always spherical in shape
Ans:  (a) The angle between the tangent to the liquid surface at the point of contact and the surface inside the liquid is called the angle of contact (θ), as shown in the given figure.

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Sla, Ssa, and Ssl are the respective interfacial tensions between the liquid-air, solid-air, and solid-liquid interfaces. At the line of contact, the surface forces between the three media must be in equilibrium, i.e.,

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

The angle of contact θ , is obtuse if Ssa < Sla (as in the case of mercury on glass). This angle is acute if Ssl < Sla (as in the case of water on glass).

(b) Mercury molecules (which make an obtuse angle with glass) have a strong force of attraction between themselves and a weak force of attraction toward solids. Hence, they tend to form drops.

On the other hand, water molecules make acute angles with glass. They have a weak force of attraction between themselves and a strong force of attraction toward solids. Hence, they tend to spread out.

(c) Surface tension is the force acting per unit length at the interface between the plane of a liquid and any other surface. This force is independent of the area of the liquid surface. Hence, surface tension is also independent of the area of the liquid surface.

(d) Water with detergent dissolved in it has small angles of contact (θ). This is because for a small θ, there is a fast capillary rise of the detergent in the cloth. The capillary rise of a liquid is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle of contact (θ). If θ is small, then cosθ will be large and the rise of the detergent water in the cloth will be fast.

(e) A liquid tends to acquire the minimum surface area because of the presence of surface tension. The surface area of a sphere is the minimum for a given volume. Hence, under no external forces, liquid drops always take spherical shape.

Ques 10.3: Fill in the blanks using the word(s) from the list appended with each statement:
(a) Surface tension of liquids generally . . . with temperatures (increases / decreases)
(b) Viscosity of gases. .. with temperature, whereas viscosity of liquids . . . with temperature (increases / decreases)
(c) For solids with elastic modulus of rigidity, the shearing force is proportional to . . . , while for fluids it is proportional to . .. (shear strain / rate of shear strain)
(d) For a fluid in a steady flow, the increase in flow speed at a constriction follows (conservation of mass / Bernoulli’s principle)
(e) For the model of a plane in a wind tunnel, turbulence occurs at a ... speed for turbulence for an actual plane (greater / smaller)
Ans:  (a) decreases
The surface tension of a liquid is inversely proportional to temperature.
(b) increases; decreases
Most fluids offer resistance to their motion. This is like internal mechanical friction, known as viscosity. Viscosity of gases increases with temperature, while viscosity of liquids decreases with temperature.
(c) Shear strain; Rate of shear strain
With reference to the elastic modulus of rigidity for solids, the shearing force is proportional to the shear strain. With reference to the elastic modulus of rigidity for fluids, the shearing force is proportional to the rate of shear strain.
(d) Conservation of mass/Bernoulli’s principle
For a steady-flowing fluid, an increase in its flow speed at a constriction follows the conservation of mass/Bernoulli’s principle.
(e) Greater
For the model of a plane in a wind tunnel, turbulence occurs at a greater speed than it does for an actual plane. This follows from Bernoulli’s principle and different Reynolds’ numbers are associated with the motions of the two planes.

Ques 10.4: Explain why
(a) To keep a piece of paper horizontal, you should blow over, not under, it
(b) When we try to close a water tap with our fingers, fast jets of water gush through the openings between our fingers
(c) The size of the needle of a syringe controls flow rate better than the thumb pressure exerted by a doctor while administering an injection
(d) A fluid flowing out of a small hole in a vessel results in a backward thrust on the vessel
(e) A spinning cricket ball in air does not follow a parabolic trajectory
Ans:  (a) When air is blown under a paper, the velocity of air is greater under the paper than it is above it. As per Bernoulli’s principle, atmospheric pressure reduces under the paper. This makes the paper fall. To keep a piece of paper horizontal, one should blow over it. This increases the velocity of air above the paper. As per Bernoulli’s principle, atmospheric pressure reduces above the paper and the paper remains horizontal.
(b) According to the equation of continuity:
Area × Velocity = Constant
For a smaller opening, the velocity of flow of a fluid is greater than it is when the opening is bigger. When we try to close a tap of water with our fingers, fast jets of water gush through the openings between our fingers. This is because very small openings are left for the water to flow out of the pipe. Hence, area and velocity are inversely proportional to each other.
(c) The small opening of a syringe needle controls the velocity of the blood flowing out. This is because of the equation of continuity. At the constriction point of the syringe system, the flow rate suddenly increases to a high value for a constant thumb pressure applied.
(d) When a fluid flows out from a small hole in a vessel, the vessel receives a backward thrust. A fluid flowing out from a small hole has a large velocity according to the equation of continuity:
Area × Velocity = Constant
According to the law of conservation of momentum, the vessel attains a backward velocity because there are no external forces acting on the system.
(e) A spinning cricket ball has two simultaneous motions – rotatory and linear. These two types of motion oppose the effect of each other. This decreases the velocity of air flowing below the ball. Hence, the pressure on the upper side of the ball becomes lesser than that on the lower side. An upward force acts upon the ball. Therefore, the ball takes a curved path. It does not follow a parabolic path.

Ques 10.5: A 50 kg girl wearing high heel shoes balances on a single heel. The heel is circular with a diameter 1.0 cm. What is the pressure exerted by the heel on the horizontal floor?
Ans:  Mass of the girl, m = 50 kg
Diameter of the heel, d = 1 cm = 0.01 m
Radius of the heel, r 
NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev
Area of the heel  NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev
= π (0.005)2
= 7.85 × 10–5 m2
Force exerted by the heel on the floor:
F = mg
= 50 × 9.8
= 490 N
Pressure exerted by the heel on the floor:
 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev
= 6.24 × 106 N m–2
Therefore, the pressure exerted by the heel on the horizontal floor is
6.24 × 106 Nm–2.

Ques 10.6: Toricelli’s barometer used mercury. Pascal duplicated it using French wine of density 984 kg m–3. Determine the height of the wine column for normal atmospheric pressure.
Ans:  10.5 m
Density of mercury, ρ1 = 13.6 × 103 kg/m3
Height of the mercury column, h1 = 0.76 m
Density of French wine, ρ2 = 984 kg/m3
Height of the French wine column = h2
Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.8 m/s2
The pressure in both the columns is equal, i.e.,
Pressure in the mercury column = Pressure in the French wine column

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

= 10.5 m
Hence, the height of the French wine column for normal atmospheric pressure is 10.5 m.

Ques 10.7: A vertical off-shore structure is built to withstand a maximum stress of 109 Pa. Is the structure suitable for putting up on top of an oil well in the ocean? Take the depth of the ocean to be roughly 3 km, and ignore ocean currents.
Ans:  Yes
The maximum allowable stress for the structure, P = 109 Pa
Depth of the ocean, d = 3 km = 3 × 103 m
Density of water, ρ = 103 kg/m3
Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.8 m/s2
The pressure exerted because of the sea water at depth, d = ρdg
= 3 × 103 × 103 × 9.8
= 2.94 × 107 Pa
The maximum allowable stress for the structure (109 Pa) is greater than the pressure of the sea water (2.94 × 107 Pa). The pressure exerted by the ocean is less than the pressure that the structure can withstand. Hence, the structure is suitable for putting up on top of an oil well in the ocean.

Ques 10.8: A hydraulic automobile lift is designed to lift cars with a maximum mass of 3000 kg. The area of cross-section of the piston carrying the load is 425 cm2. What maximum pressure would the smaller piston have to bear?
Ans:  The maximum mass of a car that can be lifted, m = 3000 kg
Area of cross-section of the load-carrying piston, A = 425 cm2 = 425 × 10–4 m2
The maximum force exerted by the load, F = mg
= 3000 × 9.8
= 29400 N
The maximum pressure exerted on the load-carrying piston, P = F / A
 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev
= 6.917 × 105 Pa
Pressure is transmitted equally in all directions in a liquid. Therefore, the maximum pressure that the smaller piston would have to bear is 6.917 × 105 Pa.

Ques 10.9: A U-tube contains water and methylated spirit separated by mercury. The mercury columns in the two arms are in level with 10.0 cm of water in one arm and 12.5 cm of spirit in the other. What is the specific gravity of spirit?
Ans:  The given system of water, mercury, and methylated spirit is shown as follows:

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Height of the spirit column, h1 = 12.5 cm = 0.125 m
Height of the water column, h2 = 10 cm = 0.1 m
P0 = Atmospheric pressure
ρ1 = Density of spirit
ρ2 = Density of water
Pressure at point B = NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev
Pressure at point D = NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev
Pressure at points B and D is the same.
 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev
Therefore, the specific gravity of spirit is 0.8.

Ques 10.10: In problem 10.9, if 15.0 cm of water and spirit each are further poured into the respective arms of the tube, what is the difference in the levels of mercury in the two arms? (Specific gravity of mercury = 13.6)
Ans:  Height of the water column, h1 = 10 15 = 25 cm
Height of the spirit column, h2 = 12.5 15 = 27.5 cm
Density of water, ρ1 = 1 g cm–3
Density of spirit, ρ2 = 0.8 g cm–3
Density of mercury = 13.6 g cm–3
Let h be the difference between the levels of mercury in the two arms.
Pressure exerted by height h, of the mercury column:
= g
= h × 13.6g … (i)
Difference between the pressures exerted by water and spirit:
 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev
= g(25 × 1 – 27.5 × 0.8)
= 3g … (ii)
Equating equations (i) and (ii), we get:
13.6 hg = 3g
h = 0.220588 ≈ 0.221 cm
Hence, the difference between the levels of mercury in the two arms is 0.221 cm.

Ques 10.11: Can Bernoulli’s equation be used to describe the flow of water through a rapid in a river? Explain.
Ans:  No

Bernoulli’s equation cannot be used to describe the flow of water through a rapid in a river because of the turbulent flow of water. This principle can only be applied to a streamline flow.

Ques 10.12: Does it matter if one uses gauge instead of absolute pressures in applying Bernoulli’s equation? Explain.

Ans:  No

It does not matter if one uses gauge pressure instead of absolute pressure while applying Bernoulli’s equation. The two points where Bernoulli’s equation is applied should have significantly different atmospheric pressures.

Ques 10.13: Glycerine flows steadily through a horizontal tube of length 1.5 m and radius 1.0 cm. If the amount of glycerine collected per second at one end is 4.0 × 10–3 kg s–1, what is the pressure difference between the two ends of the tube? (Density of glycerine = 1.3 × 103 kg m–3 and viscosity of glycerine = 0.83 Pa s). [You may also like to check if the assumption of laminar flow in the tube is correct].

Answer: 9.8 × 102 Pa

Length of the horizontal tube, l = 1.5 m

Radius of the tube, r = 1 cm = 0.01 m

Diameter of the tube, d = 2r = 0.02 m

Glycerine is flowing at a rate of 4.0 × 10–3 kg s–1.

M = 4.0 × 10–3 kg s–1

Density of glycerine, ρ = 1.3 × 103 kg m–3

Viscosity of glycerine, η = 0.83 Pa s

Volume of glycerine flowing per sec:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

= 3.08 × 10–6 m3 s–1

According to Poiseville’s formula, we have the relation for the rate of flow:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Where, p is the pressure difference between the two ends of the tube

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

= 9.8 × 102 Pa

Reynolds’ number is given by the relation:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Reynolds’ number is about 0.3. Hence, the flow is laminar.

Ques 10.14: In a test experiment on a model aeroplane in a wind tunnel, the flow speeds on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing are 70 m s–1and 63 m s–1 respectively. What is the lift on the wing if its area is 2.5 m2? Take the density of air to be 1.3 kg m–3.

Ans:  Speed of wind on the upper surface of the wing, V1 = 70 m/s

Speed of wind on the lower surface of the wing, V2 = 63 m/s

Area of the wing, A = 2.5 m2

Density of air, ρ = 1.3 kg m–3

According to Bernoulli’s theorem, we have the relation:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Where,

P1 = Pressure on the upper surface of the wing

P2 = Pressure on the lower surface of the wing

The pressure difference between the upper & lower surfaces of the wing provides lift to the aeroplane.

Lift on the wing = (P2 – P1)A

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

= 1512.87

 = 1.51 × 103 N

Therefore, the lift on the wing of the aeroplane is 1.51 × 103 N.

Ques 10.15: Figures 10.23 (a) and (b) refer to the steady flow of a (non-viscous) liquid. Which of the two figures is incorrect? Why?

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Ans:  (a)

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Take the case given in figure (b).

Where,

A1 = Area of pipe 1

A2 = Area of pipe 2

V1 = Speed of the fluid in pipe 1

V2 = Speed of the fluid in pipe 2

From the law of continuity, we have:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

When the area of cross-section in the middle of the venturimeter is small, the speed of the flow of liquid through this part is more. According to Bernoulli’s principle, if speed is more,then pressure is less.

Pressure is directly proportional to height. Hence, the level of water in pipe 2 is less.

Therefore, figure (a) is not possible.

Ques 10.16: The cylindrical tube of a spray pump has a cross-section of 8.0 cm2 one end of which has 40 fine holes each of diameter 1.0 mm. If the liquid flow inside the tube is 1.5 m min–1, what is the speed of ejection of the liquid through the holes?

Ans:  Area of cross-section of the spray pump, A1 = 8 cm= 8 × 10–4 m2

Number of holes, n = 40

Diameter of each hole, d = 1 mm = 1 × 10–3 m

Radius of each hole, r = d/2 = 0.5 × 10–3 m

Area of cross-section of each hole, a = πr2 = π (0.5 × 10–3)2 m2

Total area of 40 holes, A2 = n × a

= 40 × π (0.5 × 10–3)2 m2

= 31.41 × 10–6 m2

Speed of flow of liquid inside the tube, V1 = 1.5 m/min = 0.025 m/s

Speed of ejection of liquid through the holes = V2

According to the law of continuity, we have:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

= 0.633 m/s

Therefore, the speed of ejection of the liquid through the holes is 0.633 m/s.

Ques 10.17: A U-shaped wire is dipped in a soap solution, and removed. The thin soap film formed between the wire and the light slider supports a weight of 1.5 × 10–2 N (which includes the small weight of the slider). The length of the slider is 30 cm. What is the surface tension of the film?

Ans:  The weight that the soap film supports, W = 1.5 × 10–2 N

Length of the slider, l = 30 cm = 0.3 m

A soap film has two free surfaces.

∴Total length = 2l = 2 × 0.3 = 0.6 m

Surface tension,

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev  

Therefore, the surface tension of the film is 2.5 × 10–2 N m–1.

Ques 10.18: Figure 10.24 (a) shows a thin liquid film supporting a small weight = 4.5 × 10–2 N. What is the weight supported by a film of the same liquid at the same temperature in Fig. (b) and (c)? Explain your answer physically.

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Ans:  Take case (a):

The length of the liquid film supported by the weight, l = 40 cm = 0.4 cm

The weight supported by the film, W = 4.5 × 10–2 N

A liquid film has two free surfaces.

∴Surface tension = W / 2l

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

In all the three figures, the liquid is the same. Temperature is also the same for each case. Hence, the surface tension in figure (b) and figure (c) is the same as in figure (a), i.e., 5.625 × 10–2 N m–1.

Since the length of the film in all the cases is 40 cm, the weight supported in each case is 4.5 × 10–2 N.

Ques 10.19: What is the pressure inside the drop of mercury of radius 3.00 mm at room temperature? Surface tension of mercury at that temperature (20°C) is 4.65 × 10–1 N m–1. The atmospheric pressure is 1.01 × 105 Pa. Also give the excess pressure inside the drop.

Ans: 1.01 X 10Pa; 310 Pa

Radius of the mercury drop, r = 3.00 mm = 3 × 10–3 m

Surface tension of mercury, S = 4.65 × 10–1 N m–1

Atmospheric pressure, P0 = 1.01 × 105 Pa

Total pressure inside the mercury drop

= Excess pressure inside mercury Atmospheric pressure

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

= 1.0131 × 105

= 1.01 ×105 Pa

Excess pressure = 2S / r

  NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev = 310 Pa

Ques 10.20: What is the excess pressure inside a bubble of soap solution of radius 5.00 mm, given that the surface tension of soap solution at the temperature (20 °C) is 2.50 × 10–2 N m–1? If an air bubble of the same dimension were formed at depth of 40.0 cm inside a container containing the soap solution (of relative density 1.20), what would be the pressure inside the bubble? (1 atmospheric pressure is 1.01 × 105 Pa).

Ans:  Excess pressure inside the soap bubble is 20 Pa;

Pressure inside the air bubble is NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Soap bubble is of radius, r = 5.00 mm = 5 × 10–3 m

Surface tension of the soap solution, S = 2.50 × 10–2 Nm–1

Relative density of the soap solution = 1.20

∴Density of the soap solution, ρ = 1.2 × 103 kg/m3

Air bubble formed at a depth, h = 40 cm = 0.4 m

Radius of the air bubble, r = 5 mm = 5 × 10–3 m

1 atmospheric pressure = 1.01 × 105 Pa

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.8 m/s2

Hence, the excess pressure inside the soap bubble is given by the relation:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Therefore, the excess pressure inside the soap bubble is 20 Pa.

The excess pressure inside the air bubble is given by the relation:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Therefore, the excess pressure inside the air bubble is 10 Pa.

At a depth of 0.4 m, the total pressure inside the air bubble

= Atmospheric pressure  + g + P

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Therefore, the pressure inside the air bubble is 1.06 x 105 Pa.

Ques 10.21: A tank with a square base of area 1.0 m2 is divided by a vertical partition in the middle. The bottom of the partition has a small-hinged door of area 20 cm2. The tank is filled with water in one compartment, and an acid (of relative density 1.7) in the other, both to a height of 4.0 m. compute the force necessary to keep the door close.

Ans:  Base area of the given tank, A = 1.0 m2

Area of the hinged door, a = 20 cm2 = 20 × 10–4 m2

Density of water, ρ1 = 103 kg/m3

Density of acid, ρ2 = 1.7 × 103 kg/m3

Height of the water column, h1 = 4 m

Height of the acid column, h2 = 4 m

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.8

Pressure due to water is given as:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Pressure due to acid is given as:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Pressure difference between the water and acid columns:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Hence, the force exerted on the door = ΔP × a

= 2.744 × 104 × 20 × 10–4

= 54.88 N

Therefore, the force necessary to keep the door closed is 54.88 N.

Ques 10.22: A manometer reads the pressure of a gas in an enclosure as shown in Fig. 10.25 (a) When a pump removes some of the gas, the manometer reads as in Fig. 10.25 (b) The liquid used in the manometers is mercury and the atmospheric pressure is 76 cm of mercury.

(a) Give the absolute and gauge pressure of the gas in the enclosure for cases (a) and (b), in units of cm of mercury.

(b) How would the levels change in case (b) if 13.6 cm of water (immiscible with mercury) are poured into the right limb of the manometer? (Ignore the small change in the volume of the gas).

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Ans:  (a) 96 cm of Hg & 20 cm of Hg; 58 cm of Hg & –18 cm of Hg

(b) 19 cm

(a) For figure (a)

Atmospheric pressure, P0 = 76 cm of Hg

Difference between the levels of mercury in the two limbs gives gauge pressure

Hence, gauge pressure is 20 cm of Hg.

Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure Gauge pressure

= 76 20 = 96 cm of Hg

For figure (b)

Difference between the levels of mercury in the two limbs = –18 cm

Hence, gauge pressure is –18 cm of Hg.

Absolute pressure = Atmospheric pressure Gauge pressure

= 76 cm – 18 cm = 58 cm

(b) 13.6 cm of water is poured into the right limb of figure (b).

Relative density of mercury = 13.6

Hence, a column of 13.6 cm of water is equivalent to 1 cm of mercury.

Let h be the difference between the levels of mercury in the two limbs.

The pressure in the right limb is given as:

Atmospheric pressure 1 cm of Hg

= 76 1 = 77 cm of Hg … (i)

The mercury column will rise in the left limb.

Hence, pressure in the left limb, 

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Equating equations (i) and (ii), we get:

77 = 58  h

h = 19 cm

Hence, the difference between the levels of mercury in the two limbs will be 19 cm.

Ques 10.23: Two vessels have the same base area but different shapes. The first vessel takes twice the volume of water that the second vessel requires to fill upto a particular common height. Is the force exerted by the water on the base of the vessel the same in the two cases? If so, why do the vessels filled with water to that same height give different readings on a weighing scale?

Ans:  Yes

Two vessels having the same base area have identical force and equal pressure acting on their common base area. Since the shapes of the two vessels are different, the force exerted on the sides of the vessels has non-zero vertical components. When these vertical components are added, the total force on one vessel comes out to be greater than that on the other vessel. Hence, when these vessels are filled with water to the same height, they give different readings on a weighing scale.

Ques 10.24: During blood transfusion the needle is inserted in a vein where the gauge pressure is 2000 Pa. At what height must the blood container be placed so that blood may just enter the vein? [Use the density of whole blood from Table 10.1].

Ans:  Gauge pressure, P = 2000 Pa

Density of whole blood, ρ = 1.06 × 103 kg m–3

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.8 m/s2

Height of the blood container = h

Pressure of the blood container, P = g

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev 

The blood may enter the vein if the blood container is kept at a height greater than 0.1925 m, i.e., about 0.2 m.

Ques 10.25: In deriving Bernoulli’s equation, we equated the work done on the fluid in the tube to its change in the potential and kinetic energy. (a) What is the largest average velocity of blood flow in an artery of diameter 2 × 10–3 m if the flow must remain laminar? (b) Do the dissipative forces become more important as the fluid velocity increases? Discuss qualitatively.

Ans:  (a) 1.966 m/s (b) Yes

(a) Diameter of the artery, d = 2 × 10–3 m

Viscosity of blood, NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Density of blood, ρ = 1.06 × 103 kg/m3

Reynolds’ number for laminar flow, NR = 2000

The largest average velocity of blood is given as:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Therefore, the largest average velocity of blood is 1.966 m/s.

(b) As the fluid velocity increases, the dissipative forces become more important. This is because of the rise of turbulence. Turbulent flow causes dissipative loss in a fluid.

Ques 10.26: (a) What is the largest average velocity of blood flow in an artery of radius 2 × 10–3 m if the flow must remain laminar? (b) What is the corresponding flow rate? (Take viscosity of blood to be 2.084 × 10–3 Pa s).

Ans:  (a)Radius of the artery, r = 2 × 10–3 m

Diameter of the artery, d = 2 × 2 × 10–3 m = 4 × 10– 3 m

Viscosity of blood, 

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Density of blood, ρ = 1.06 × 103 kg/m3

Reynolds’ number for laminar flow, NR = 2000

The largest average velocity of blood is given by the relation:

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev 

Therefore, the largest average velocity of blood is 0.983 m/s.

(b) Flow rate is given by the relation:

R = π r2 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Therefore, the corresponding flow rate is 1.235 x 10-5 m3s-1.

Ques 10.27: A plane is in level flight at constant speed and each of its two wings has an area of 25 m2. If the speed of the air is 180 km/h over the lower wing and 234 km/h over the upper wing surface, determine the plane’s mass. (Take air density to be 1 kg m–3).

Ans:  The area of the wings of the plane, A = 2 × 25 = 50 m2

Speed of air over the lower wing, V1 = 180 km/h = 50 m/s

Speed of air over the upper wing, V2 = 234 km/h = 65 m/s

Density of air, ρ = 1 kg m–3

Pressure of air over the lower wing = P1

Pressure of air over the upper wing= P2

The upward force on the plane can be obtained using Bernoulli’s equation as:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

The upward force (F) on the plane can be calculated as:

(P1 – P2)A

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Using Newton’s force equation, we can obtain the mass (m) of the plane as:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

∼ 4400 kg

Hence, the mass of the plane is about 4400 kg.

Ques 10.28: In Millikan’s oil drop experiment, what is the terminal speed of an uncharged drop of radius 2.0 × 10–5 m and density 1.2 × 103 kg m–3? Take the viscosity of air at the temperature of the experiment to be 1.8 × 10–5 Pa s. How much is the viscous force on the drop at that speed? Neglect buoyancy of the drop due to air.

Ans:  Terminal speed = 5.8 cm/s; Viscous force = 3.9 × 10–10 N

Radius of the given uncharged drop, r = 2.0 × 10–5 m

Density of the uncharged drop, ρ = 1.2 × 103 kg m–3

Viscosity of air, 

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Density of air NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev  can be taken as zero in order to neglect buoyancy of air.

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.8 m/s2

Terminal velocity (v) is given by the relation:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Hence, the terminal speed of the drop is 5.8 cm s–1.

The viscous force on the drop is given by:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Hence, the viscous force on the drop is 3.9 × 10–10 N.

Ques 10.29: Mercury has an angle of contact equal to 140° with soda lime glass. A narrow tube of radius 1.00 mm made of this glass is dipped in a trough containing mercury. By what amount does the mercury dip down in the tube relative to the liquid surface outside? Surface tension of mercury at the temperature of the experiment is 0.465 N m–1. Density of mercury = 13.6 × 103 kg m–3.

Ans:  Angle of contact between mercury and soda lime glass, θ = 140°

Radius of the narrow tube, r = 1 mm = 1 × 10–3 m

Surface tension of mercury at the given temperature, s = 0.465 N m–1

Density of mercury, ρ =13.6 × 103 kg/m3

Dip in the height of mercury = h

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.8 m/s2

Surface tension is related with the angle of contact and the dip in the height as:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Here,the negative sign shows the decreasing level of mercury.Hence, the mercury level dips by 5.34 mm

Ques 10.30: Two narrow bores of diameters 3.0 mm and 6.0 mm are joined together to form a U-tube open at both ends. If the U-tube contains water, what is the difference in its levels in the two limbs of the tube? Surface tension of water at the temperature of the experiment is 7.3 × 10–2 N m–1. Take the angle of contact to be zero and density of water to be 1.0 × 103kg m–3 (g = 9.8 m s–2).

Ans:  Diameter of the first bore, d1 = 3.0 mm = 3 × 10–3 m
NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Diameter of the second bore, d2= 6.0 mm
NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev
Surface tension of water, s = 7.3 × 10–2 N m–1

Angle of contact between the bore surface and water, θ= 0

Density of water, ρ =1.0 × 103 kg/m–3

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.8 m/s2

Let h1 and h2 be the heights to which water rises in the first and second tubes respectively. These heights are given by the relations:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

The difference between the levels of water in the two limbs of the tube can be calculated as:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Hence, the difference between levels of water in the two bores is 4.97 mm.

Ques 10.31: (a) It is known that density ρ of air decreases with height y as 

Where ρ= 1.25 kg m–3 is the density at sea level, and y0 is a constant. This density variation is called the law of atmospheres. Obtain this law assuming that the temperature of atmosphere remains a constant (isothermal conditions). Also assume that the value of gremains constant.

(b) A large He balloon of volume 1425 m3 is used to lift a payload of 400 kg. Assume that the balloon maintains constant radius as it rises. How high does it rise?

[Take y0= 8000 m and  = 0.18 kg m–3].

Ans:  (a) Volume of the balloon, V = 1425 m3

Mass of the payload, m = 400 kg

Acceleration due to gravity, g = 9.8 m/s2

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Density of the balloon = ρ

Height to which the balloon rises = y

Density (ρ) of air decreases with height (y) as:

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev 

This density variation is called the law of atmospherics.

It can be inferred from equation (i) that the rate of decrease of density with height is directly proportional to ρ, i.e.,

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Where, k is the constant of proportionality

Height changes from 0 to y, while density changes from ρto ρ.

Integrating the sides between these limits, we get:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Comparing equations (i) and (ii), we get:

 NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

(b)

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

From equations (i) and (iii), we can obtain y as:

NCERT Solutions - Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes | EduRev

Hence, the balloon will rise to a height of 8 km.

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