Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
1. Choose the right answers of the following from the given options.
(i) Regional planning relates to:
1. Development of various sectors of economy.
2. Area specific approach of development.
3. Area differences in transportation network.
4. Development of rural areas.
Ans. (2) Area specific approach of development.
(ii) ITDP refers to which one of the following?
1. Integrated Tourism Development Programme
2. Integrated Travel Development Programme
3. Integrated Tribal Development Programme
4. Integrated Transport Development Programme
Ans. (3) Integrated Tribal Development Programme
(iii) Which one of the following is the most crucial factor for sustainable development in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
1. Agricultural development
3. Transport development
4. Colonisation of land
Ans. (1) Agricultural development
2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What are the social benefits of ITDP in the Bharmaur tribal region?
Ans. The social benefits derived from ITDP include tremendous increase in literacy rate, improvement in sex ratio and decline in child marriage. The female literacy rate in the region increased from 1.88 per cent in 1971 to 42.83 per cent m 2001.The difference between males and females in literacy level i.e. gender inequality,has also declined.
(ii) Define the concept of sustainable development.
Ans. Sustainable development has been defined in many ways, but the most frequently quoted definition is from Our Common Future, also known as the Brundt land Report: "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs."
(iii) What are the positive impacts of irrigation on Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area?
Ans. The introduction of canal irrigation in this dry land has transformed its ecology, economy and society. It has influenced the environmental conditions of the region both positively as well as negatively.
1. There was transformation in the agricultural region in the economy.
2. The spread of canal irrigation has led to an increase in cultivated area and intensity of cropping.
3. Earlier, only drought resistant crops like Bajra, guar, moong, gram etc.were grown. Now, other crops like cotton, groundnut, wheat, mustard and even rice are grown.
3. Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Write short notes on drought-prone area programme. How does this programme help in the development of dry-land agriculture in India?
Ans. Drought-prone area programme was initiated during the Fourth Five Year Plan. It was designed to provide employment to the rural poor in drought prone areas and to mitigate the effects of droughts. The main emphasis is on integrated development of the area in relation to irrigation projects,land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development,rural electrification and programmes of infrastructure development.
In 1967, Planning Commission of India identified 67 districts (entire or partly) of the country prone to drought. In 1972, Irrigation Commission introduced the criterion of 30 per cent irrigated area and demarcated the drought prone areas. Most of the drought-prone areas in India are spread over semi-arid and arid tracts of Rajasthan Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Marathwada region of Maharashtra, Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka plateau and highlands and interior parts of Tamil Nadu. This programme has played an important role in the development of dry land agriculture in India.
1. This programme was largely confined to the development of agriculture and allied sectors.
2. Emphasises given on the irrigation project in drought prone area programme and land development programme.
3.Integrated Watershed Development approach at micro level is adopted which will help in the storing of water for the irrigation during droughts.
4. There is urgent need to generate alternative employment opportunities in drought prone areas because even the marginal lands are being used for agriculture in view of the increasing pressure of growing population.
This is one of the primary causes of ecological degradation. The restoration of ecological balance should be the main objective of development of drought prone areas.
(ii) Suggest the measures of promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area.
Ans. Following measures are suggested for the promotion of sustainability in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area:
1. There is an urgent need to strictly implement the water management policy.
2. Water intensive crops should be avoided and instead plantation crops such as Citrus fruits should be encouraged.
3. The CAD programmes such as lining of water courses, land development, and levelling and warabandi system (equal distribution of canal water in the command area of outlet) shall be effectively implemented to reduce the conveyance loss of water.
4. Efforts should be made to reclaim areas affected by water logging and soil salinity.
5. Afforestation, shelter belt plantation and pasture development are necessary for ecodevelopment.
6. For achieving social sustainability, land allotted with poor economic background should be given sufficient financial and institutional support so that they can cultivate their land in a proper way.
7. Other sectors of economy, in addition to agriculture, animal husbandry and allied activities, should be encouraged for attaining economic sustainability