NCERT Solutions - Security in the Contemporary World Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

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Humanities/Arts : NCERT Solutions - Security in the Contemporary World Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document NCERT Solutions - Security in the Contemporary World Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Political Science Class 12.
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TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

1. Match the terms with their meaning:
1. Confidence Building Measures (CBMs)
2. Arms Control
3. Alliance
4. Disarmament
(a) Giving up certain types ofweapons.
(b) A process of exchanging information on defence matters between nations on a regular basis.
(c) A coalition of nations meant to deter or defend against military attacks.
(d) Regulates the acquisition of development of weapons.
Answer: (i)-(b); (ii)-(d); (iii)-(c); (iv)-(a).

2. Which among the following would you consider as a traditional security concern/non-traditional/not a threat?
(a) The spread of chikungunya/dengue fever
(b) Inflow of workers from a neighbouring nation.
(c) Emergence of a group demanding nationhood for their region.
(d) Emergence of a group demanding autonomy for their region.
(e) A newspaper that is critical of the armed-forces in the country.
Answer: (a) Non-traditional (b) Non-traditional !(c) Traditional id) Not a threat
 (e) Not a threat

3. What is the difference between traditional and non-traditional security? Which category would the creation and sustenance of alliances belong to?
Answer:
NCERT Solutions - Security in the Contemporary World Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
NCERT Solutions - Security in the Contemporary World Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
 Creation and sustenance of alliances belong to traditional notion of security.

4. What are the differences in the threats that people in the third world face and those living in the First World face?
Answer: The threats are different in the third world and first world peoples because their regions are changed, hence they face different security challenges.in the following manner:
 1. The newly independent countries faced the military conflicts even with their neighbouring states.
 2. These countries faced threats not only from outside their borders, mostly from neighbours, but also from within.
 3. Internally, new states worried about threats from separatist movements which wanted to form independent countries.
 4. Sometimes, the external and internal threats merged.
 5. For the new states, external wars with neighbours and internal wars posed a serious challenge to their security.

5. Is terrorism a traditional or non- traditional threat to security?
Answer: Terrorism is a non-traditional threat to wound the peace and order in the country:
 1. Terrorism refers to political violence to target civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.
 2. Civilians are usually terrorised to be it as a weapon against national government and other parties in the conflict.
 3. Terrorism involves hijacking planes or planting bombs in trains, cafes, markets and other crowded places.
 4. After a terrorist attack on World Trade Centre on 11 September 2001, the other governments and public also are paying more attention to terrorism.

6. What are the choices available to a state when its security is threatened, according to traditional security perspective?
Answer: Traditional security perspective emphasises on compromises to limit the violence by giving following three choices to the state if its security is threatened:
 1. To surrender when actually confronted by war, but they will not advertise this as the policy of country.
 2. To prevent the other side from attacking by promising to raise the costs of war to an unacceptable level.
 3. To defend to protect itself when war actually breaks out so as to deny the attacking country its objectives and to turn back or to defeat the attacking forces altogether
 4. Hence, state’s security policy is to prevent war which is called deterrence and with limiting or heading war called defence.

7. What is Balance of Power? How could a state achieve this?
Answer: ‘Balance of Power’ is a balance between bigger and smaller countries by cooperating with each other economically and technologically. A smaller country is always suspicious to break out a war from bigger or powerful country. Hence, they maintain a balance of power to build up one’s military power together with economic and technological power-to protect one’s own security.

8. What are the objectives of military alliances? Give an example of a functioning military alliance with its specific objectives.
Answer: Objectives:
 1. Alliance building is important component of traditional security to threats to deal between states and nations to deter or defend against military attacks.
 2. Alliances are formalised in written treaties and identification of who constitutes the threats.
 3. Alliances are formed to increase their effective power relative to another alliance.
 4. Alliances are based on national interests and can change when national interest change. Example-The US backed the Islamic militants in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union in 1980s, but later attacked them when Al-Qaeda, a group of Islamic militants, led by Osama Bin Laden launched terrorist strikes against America on 11th September 2001.

9. Rapid environmental degradation is causing a serious threat to security. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.
Answer: Yes, we agree with the statement because in some situations one country may have to disproportionately bear the brunt of a global problem i.e. environmental degradation causing a serious threat to security, for example, due to global warming, a sea level rise of 1.5-2.0 meters would flood 20% of Bangladesh, inundate most of Maldives and threaten nearly half the population of Thailand, Hence, international cooperation is vital due to global nature of these problems.

10. Nuclear weapons as deterrence or defence have limited usage against contemporary security threats to states. Explain the statement.
Answer: Nuclear weapons have limited usage due to arms-control method of cooperation. One of the arms-control treaty was the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 to regulate the acquisition of nuclear weapons. As per this treaty those countries that had fasted and manufactured nuclear weapons before 1967 were allowed to keep their weapons and those that had not done so were to give up the right to acquire them. The NPT did not abolish nuclear weapons rather it limited the number of countries that could have them.

11. Looking at the Indian scenario, what type of security has been given priority in India, traditional or non-traditional? What examples could you cite to substantiate the arguments?
Answer: India has faced traditional (military) and non-traditional threats to its security that have emerged from within as well as outside its borders. Its security strategy has four broad components i e :
 1. To strengthen its military capabilities because:
 (a) India has been involved in conflict with its neighbours as Pakistan in 1947-48,1965,1971 and 1999 and China in 1962.
 (b) In South Asian Region, India is
 surrounded by nuclear armed countries. Hence India’s decision to conduct nuclear test in 1998 was justified to safeguard national security.
 (c) India first tested nuclear device in 1974.
 2. To strengthen international norms and international institutions:
 (a) India’s first Prime Minister J.L. Nehru supported Asian solidarity, disarmament, decolonisation and the UN as a forum to settle down international conflict.
 (b) India took initiatives to bring about a universal and non- discriminatory non-proliferation regime to enjoy some rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction.
 (c) It used non-alignment to help to carve out an area of peace outside the blocs.
 (d) India signed Kyoto Protocol in 1997 to be a part of roadmap for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases to check global warming.
 3. To meet security challenges within the country:
 (a) Several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab, Kashmir have sought to break away from India.
 (b) India makes efforts to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system by providing freedom of speech and expression alongwith the right to vote.
 4. To develop its economy:
 (a) India develops the way to lift vast mass of citizens out of poverty, misery and huge economic inequalities.
 (b) A democratically elected government is supposed to combine economic growth with human development without any demarcation between the rich and the poor.

12. Read the cartoon below and write a short note in favour or against the connection between war and terrorism depicted in this cartoon.
NCERT Solutions - Security in the Contemporary World Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev
Answer: Terrorism is non-traditional threat to security as it is goal oriented political


MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED

Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]

1. Define security.
Answer: Security is an essence for existence of human life to protect from threats either external or internal.

2. What is meant by disarmament?
Answer: Disarmament bounds states to give up certain kinds of weapons to avoid mass- destruction through signing various treaties.

3. Mention any two human rights in political field. 
Answer: 1. Freedom of speech and expression.
 2. Freedom to assemble in a peaceful manner.

4. Define cooperative security.
Answer: Cooperative security is the involvement of international cooperation depending on the nature of the threat and the willingness and ability of countries to respond.

5. Which is the greatest danger to a security as per traditional notion of security?
Answer: It is from military threats which lies in another country to endanger the core values of sovereignty, independence and territorial integration of a country.

6. Why human security is more important in the contemporary world than territorial security?weapon. It is a war against democracy and a crime against humanity:
1. Terrorism refers to political violence to target civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.
2. Civilians are targeted to be terrorised to use it as a weapon into this war.
3. Even, the US superpower could not escape itself from terrorism and it became a global phenomenon i.e. terrorist attack on World Trade Tower on 11th September 2001
Answer: Human security is about the protection of people more than protection of states because, during the last 100 years more people have been killed by their own governments than by foreign armies:
 1. Protecting citizens from foreign
 attack ‘
 2. Security from violent threats
 3. Security from threats to human dignity.

7. What is Global Security?
Answer: Global Security implies protection from threats which may have effect on people and states globally. It emerged in 1990 to respond global warming, terrorism, health epidemics etc.

8. What is Global Poverty?
Answer: Global Poverty signifies a condition available in the states to be suffered from low incomes and less economic growth i.e. developing or underdeveloped countries.

9. Is the same notion of security applicable to all the states?
Answer: All states do not experience the same threats at a time, hence security is grouped into two as per requirements:
 (a) Traditional conception
 (b) Non-traditional conception


Very Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks]

1. Suggest any one effective step which would limit war or violence between countries.
Answer: An effective step may be in the form of cooperative security only that involves international cooperation which may be bilateral, regional, continental or global which depends on the nature of the threat and the willingness, and ability of countries to respond to limit war or violence cooperative security place at national and international levels.

2. Highlight any two threats of a country’s security at per traditional notion of security. 
Or
Explain traditional concept of security.
Answer: The “Traditional Notion of Security” covers both the external and internal threats of a country’s security. External threats consist of four components i.e. military threats, threat of war, balance of power, alliance building. Internal threats include maintenance of internal peace and order and recognise cooperative security to limit violence.

3. Write a note on Human Security.
Answer: Human Security refers to the protecting people more than protection of states which includes:
 1. To protect citizens from foreign attack.
 2. To secure people from violence.
 3. To protect from individual economic threats.
 4. To protect human dignity also.

4. What is military threat?
Answer: Military threat refers to military action from another country to endanger the core values of country’s sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity.Military action often targets the men and women i.e. ordinary citizens.

5. Mention some human rights.
Answer: Human rights are the basic conditions which an individual is supposed to be entitled as a human being for all round
 development. These rights have been categorised as follows:
 1. Political rights
 2. Freedom of speech and expression
 3. Freedom to assemble in a peaceful manner.
 4. Economic rights
 5. Social and civil rights
 6. Rights of indigenous minorities

6. Human security stresses on “freedom from want” and “freedom from fear”. Justify the statement.
Answer: 1. ‘Freedom from want’ refers to economic equality i.e. equal opportunity and economic privileges.
 2. ‘Freedom from fear’ refers to protection from hunger, disease, natural disaster, military threats, genocide and terrorism.

7. Explain Non-traditional concept of security.
Answer: Non-traditional concept of security includes human and global security covering a wide range of threats affecting human existence:
 1. It does not cover the states only but also the individual and communities.
 2. It emphasises on security on nature of threat and right approach to deal with the threat.


Short Answer Type Questions [4 Marks]

1. Explain any four components of India’s security strategy.
Answer: (a) To strengthen its military capa¬bilities:
 (i) India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours as Pakistan in 1947-48,1965,1971, 1999 and China in 1962.
 (ii) In South Asian region, India is surrounded by nuclear armed countries.
 (b) To strengthen international norms and institutions:
 (i) India’s first Prime Minister J.L. Nehru supported Asian solidarity, disarmament, decolonisation and the UN as a forum to settle down international conflict.
 (ii) It used non-alignment to help to carry out an area of peace outside the blocs.
 (c) To meet security challenges within country:
 (i) Several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab, Kashmir have sought to break away from India.
 (ii) India has made efforts to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system by providing freedom of speech and expression alongwith the right to vote.
 (d) To develop its economy:
 (i) India develops the way to lift vast mass of citizens out of poverty, misery and huge economic inequalities.
 (ii) A democraticallj^ elected government is supposed to combine economic growth with human development without any demarcation between the rich and the poor.

2. Identify and explain any four new sources of threats to security.
Answer: Four new sources of threats to security can be identified as follows:
 1. Terrorism is a war against democracy and a crime against humanity. It refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and discriminately to use it as a weapon against national government. It has become a global phenomena because even superpower is not free from terrorist attacks.
 2. Human rights are those basic conditions which an individual is supposed to enjoy as a human being. These rights include political rights, freedom of speech and expression, economic rights, social and civil rights and rights of indigenous people to lead as honourable and dignified life.
 3. Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income and low standard of living of developing or least developed countries.
 4. Health epidemics is a very serious threat to a country’s security because severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), HIV-AIDS, bird flue etc. diseases spread across countries through migration business, tourism and military operations.

3. How is global poverty a source of insecurity? Explain.
Answer.: Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income and low standard of living of developing or least developed countries. It is a source of insecurity because:
 1. Half the world’s population growth occurs in just six countries- India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh and Indonesia, considered developing countries and even in poorest countries population is expected to triple in next 50 years.
 2. Globally, this disparity contributes to the gap between the northern and southern countries of the world.
 3. Poverty in south has also led a large migration to seek a better economic opportunities in the north.
 4. All these created international political friction as international law and norms make a distinction between migrants and refugees as they do not get ready to accept migrants.

4. Which third weapon both the superpowers did not want to give up under the concept of disarmament?
Answer: Disarmament requires all states to give up certain kinds of weapons i.e. the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) banned the production and possession of these weapons. Despite the US and Soviet Union were not ready to give up the third type of weapons of mass-destruction namely nuclear weapons.

5. “The secure states do not imply the secure people in itself’. Examine the statement.
Answer: The secure states are supposed to protect their people from individual in security also rather the territorial security only. Hence they are required to provide security from foreign attack hunger, diseases and natural disasters etc. because it destructs the people rather more than a war.


Passage Based Questions [5 Marks]

1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions:
The US and Soviet’Union signed a number of other arms control treaties including the Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty II (SALT II) and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). The Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 was an arms control treaty in the sense that it regulated the acquisition of nuclear weapons, those countries that had tested and manufactured nuclear weapons before 1967 were allowed to keep their weapons and those that had not done so were to give up the right to acquire them. The NPT did not abolish nuclear weapons; rather, it limited the number of countries that could have them.

Questions
1. What is arms control treaty?
2. Was NPT an arms control treaty? Why?
3. What was the intention behind regulation of NPT?
Answer:
 1. To regulate the acquisition or development of wTeapons among countries.
 2. Yes, because it regulated the acquisition of nuclear weapons to protect world from large seat destruction.
 3. It did not abolish nuclear weapons rather it limited the number of countries that could have them.

2. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions:
Global poverty is another source of insecurity. World population-now at 650 crore-will reach 700 to 800 crore within 25 years and many eventually level out at 900 to 1000 crore. Currently, half the world’s population growth occurs in just six countries — India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh and Indonesia. Among the world’s poorest countries, population is expected to triple in next 50 years whereas many rich countries will see population shrinkage in that period, high per capita income and low population growth make rich states or rich social groups get richer, whereas low incomes and high population growth reinforce each other to make poor states and poor groups get poorer. puui O ta tco CUJ.IL puux gi u upo get puui d.

Questions
1. Name the countries expected to occur half the world’s population growth.
2. Mention two reasons to make rich states more richer.
3. What makes poor countries more poorer?
Answer:
 1. India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Indonesia.
 2. (i) High per capita income (ii) Low population growth.
 3. Low income and high population growth.


Long Answer Type Questions [6 Marks]

1. What is meant by Security? Mention any four components of Indian security strategy.
Answer: At its most basic, security implies freedom from threats. Human existence and the life of a country are full of threats. We generally say that only those things that threaten ‘core values’ should be regarded as being of interest in discussions of security. Thus, security relates only to extremely dangerous threats — threats that could so endanger core values that those values would be damaged beyond repair if we did not do something to deal with the situation.
 India’s security strategy has four broad components which have been used in a varying combination from time to time: (i) The first component was strengthening its military capabilities because India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours — Pakistan in 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and 1999 and China in 1962. Since it is surrounded by nuclear-armed countries in the South Asian region, India’s decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 was justified by the Indian government in terms of safeguarding national security.
 (ii) The second component of India’s
 security strategy has been to strengthen international norms and international institutions to protect its security interests.
 (iii) The third component of Indian security strategy is geared towards meeting security challenges within the country. Several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, the Punjab and Kashmir among others have from time to time sought to break away from India. India has tried to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system.
 (iv) There has been an attempt in India to develop its economy in a way that the vast mass of citizens are lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities are not allowed to exist.

2. Give a comparative analysis of Indian expenditure on traditional and non- traditional security.
Answer: India spends more on traditional security than non-traditional because
 (i) India has been involved in conflict with its neighbours as Pakistan in 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and 1999 and China in 1962.
 (ii) In South Asian Region, India is surrounded by nuclear armed countries. Hence, India’s decision to conduct nuclear test in 1990 was justified to safeguard national security.
 (iii) India’s first tested nuclear device in 1974.
 Though India has made efforts to develop its economy and an individual’s security from poverty but still it is lagging behind even now and we are supposed to make more efforts.

3. Mention and explain the components and India’s security strategy. 
Answer: India has faced traditional military and non-traditional threats to its security that have emerged from within as well as outside its borders. Its security strategy has four broad components i.e.:
 1. To Strengthen its Military Capa¬bilities:
 Because:
 (a) India has been involved in conflict with its neighbours, as Pakistan in 1947-48,1965,1971 and 1999 and China in 1962.
 (b) In South Asian Region, India is surrounded by nuclear armed countries. Hence, India’s decision to conduct nuclear test in 1990 was justified to safeguard national security.
 (c) India first tested nuclear device in 1974.
 2. To Strengthen International Norms and International Institu¬tions:
 (a) India’s first Prime Minister J.L. Nehru supported Asian solidarity, disarmament, decolonisation and the UN as a forum to settle down international conflict.
 (b) India took initiatives to bring about a universal and non- discriminatory non-proliferation regime to enjoy same rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction.
 (c) It used non-alignment to help to carve out an area of place outside the blocs.
 (d) India signed Kyoto Protocol in 1997 to be a part of roadmap for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases to check global warming.
 3. To Meet Security Challenges
 within the Country:
 (a) Several militant groups from areas such as Nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab, Kashmir have sought to break away from India.
 (b) India makes efforts to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system by providing freedom of speech and expression alongwith the right to vote.
 4. To Develop its Economy:
 (a) India develops the way to lift vast mass of citizens out of poverty, misery and huge economic inequalities.
 (b) A democratically elected government is supposed to combine economic growth with human development without any demarcation between the rich and the poor.

4. Explain the areas of operation of non- traditional notion of security.
Answer: Non-traditional concept of security includes human and global security covering a wide range of threats affecting human existence:
 1. It does not cover only the states but
 also the individuals and communities also.
 2. It emphasises on security on nature of threat and right approach to deal with the threat.
 Its sources can be identified as follows:
 1. Terrorism refers to political violence to target civilians deliberately and discriminately to use it as a weapon against national government.
 2. Human Rights refer to basic conditions which an individual is supposed to enjoy as a human being as political rights, freedom of speech and expression, economic rights, social and civil rights to lead an honourable and dignified life.
 3. Global poverty refers to low economic growth, low national income and low standard of living of developing or least developed countries.
 4. Health epidemics is a very serious threat to country’s security because severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (ARS), HIV-AIDS, bird flue diseases spread across countries through migration, business, tourism and military operations.

5. Write a note on Arms control.
Answer: Arms control regulates the acquisition or development of weapons by adopting following measures:
 1. The Anti Ballistic Missiles Treaty in 1992 stopped the US and Soviet Union from using ballistic missiles to limit large scale production.
 2. Other arms control treaties were also signed i.e. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty and Nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) to limit the weapons which many bring large scale destruction.
 3. NPT regulated the acquisition of nuclear weapons in 1968.
 4. NPT did not abolish nuclear weapons rather it limited number of countries that could have them.


Picture Based Questions [5 Marks]

1. Study the picture given below and answer the questions that follow:

NCERT Solutions - Security in the Contemporary World Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Questions
1. What does the cartoon represent?
2. What does the pigeon and man with goods symbolise?
3. What message does the cartoon convey?
Answer:
 1. The movement of Peace Keeping Force i.e. pigeon (White) a symbol of peace and an army personnel is flying it.
 2. Pigeon symbolises peace and a man with goods to maintain peace at a place where threat has occurred.
 3. Peace Keeping Forces are also supposed to bear arms to initiate peace.

2.Study the picture given below and answer the questions as that follow:
NCERT Solutions - Security in the Contemporary World Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Questions
1. What does the cartoon represent?
2. Is it any different from our country?
3. What message does this cartoon convey?
Answer:
 1. The US’s massive expenditure of defence and lack of money for peace related issues.
 2. Our country spends a lot on peaceful initiations first as well as make efforts to find out a peaceful solution first.
 3. This cartoon conveys message that the countries are ready to spend on military rather than on peaceful initiation.

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