NCERT Textbook - ईंटें, मनके तथा अस्थिया Notes | EduRev

इतिहास (History) for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims in Hindi

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - ईंटें, मनके तथा अस्थिया Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


b±Vsa] euosQ rFkk vfLFk;k¡
gM+Iik lH;rk
gM+IikbZ eqgj (fp=k 1.1) laHkor% gM+Iik vFkok ¯lèkq ?kkVh lH;rk
dh lcls fof'k"V iqjkoLrq gSA lsy[kM+h uked iRFkj ls cukbZ xbZ bu
eqgjksa ij lkekU; :i ls tkuojksa osQ fp=k rFkk ,d ,slh fyfi osQ fpÉ
mRdhf.kZr gSa ftUgsa vHkh rd i<+k ugha tk ldk gSA fiQj Hkh gesa bl
{ks=k esa ml le; cls yksxksa osQ thou osQ fo"k; esa muosQ }kjk ihNs
NksM+h xbZ iqjkoLrqvksaµtSls muosQ vkoklksa] e`nHkk.Mksa] vkHkw"k.kksa] vkS”kkjksa
rFkk eqgjksaµnwljs 'kCnksa esa iqjkrkfRod lk{;ksa osQ ekè;e ls cgqr
tkudkjh feyrh gSA vc ge ns[ksaxs fd ge gM+Iik lH;rk osQ fo"k;
esa D;k vkSj oSQls tkurs gSaA ge ;g vUos"k.k djsaxs fd iqjkrkfRod
lk{;ksa dh O;k[;k oSQls dh tkrh gS vkSj bu O;k[;kvksa esa oSQls
dHkh&dHkh cnyko vk tkrk gSA fuf'pr :i ls bl lH;rk osQ dbZ igyw
vkt Hkh gekjh tkudkjh ls ijs gSa vkSj gks ldrk gS] ges'kk gh jgsaA
ikfjHkkf"kd 'kCn] LFkku rFkk dky
¯lèkq ?kkVh lH;rk dks gM+Iik laLÑfr Hkh dgk tkrk gSA iqjkrRofon ^laLÑfr* 'kCn dk
iz;ksx iqjkoLrqvksa osQ ,sls lewg osQ fy, djrs gSa tks ,d fof'k"V 'kSyh osQ gksrs gSa vkSj
lkekU;r;k ,d lkFk] ,d fo'ks"k HkkSxksfyd {ks=k rFkk dky&[kaM ls lac¼ ik, tkrs gSaA
gM+Iik lH;rk osQ lanHkZ esa bu fof'k"V iqjkoLrqvksa esa eqgjsa] euosQ] ckV] iRFkj osQ iQyd
(fp=k 1.2) vkSj idh gqbZ b±Vsa lfEefyr gSaA ;s oLrq,¡ vI
+
kQxkfuLrku] tEew] cywfpLrku
(ikfdLrku) rFkk xqtjkr tSls {ks=kksa ls feyh gSa tks ,d nwljs ls yach nwjh ij fLFkr gSa
(ekufp=k 1)A
bl lH;rk dk ukedj.k] gM+Iik uked LFkku] tgk¡ ;g laLÑfr igyh ckj [kksth xbZ Fkh
(i`"B 6)] osQ uke ij fd;k x;k gSA bldk dky fuèkkZj.k yxHkx 2600 vkSj 1900 bZlk
iwoZ osQ chp fd;k x;k gSA bl {ks=k esa bl lH;rk ls igys vkSj ckn esa Hkh laLÑfr;k¡ vfLrRo
esa Fkha ftUgsa Øe'k% vkjafHkd rFkk ijorhZ gM+Iik dgk tkrk gSA bu laLÑfr;ksa ls gM+Iik lH;rk
dks vyx djus osQ fy, dHkh&dHkh bls fodflr gM+Iik laLÑfr Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
fp=k 1.1
,d gM+IikbZ eqgj
fp=k 1.2
euosQ] ckV rFkk iQyd
fo"k;
,d
Page 2


b±Vsa] euosQ rFkk vfLFk;k¡
gM+Iik lH;rk
gM+IikbZ eqgj (fp=k 1.1) laHkor% gM+Iik vFkok ¯lèkq ?kkVh lH;rk
dh lcls fof'k"V iqjkoLrq gSA lsy[kM+h uked iRFkj ls cukbZ xbZ bu
eqgjksa ij lkekU; :i ls tkuojksa osQ fp=k rFkk ,d ,slh fyfi osQ fpÉ
mRdhf.kZr gSa ftUgsa vHkh rd i<+k ugha tk ldk gSA fiQj Hkh gesa bl
{ks=k esa ml le; cls yksxksa osQ thou osQ fo"k; esa muosQ }kjk ihNs
NksM+h xbZ iqjkoLrqvksaµtSls muosQ vkoklksa] e`nHkk.Mksa] vkHkw"k.kksa] vkS”kkjksa
rFkk eqgjksaµnwljs 'kCnksa esa iqjkrkfRod lk{;ksa osQ ekè;e ls cgqr
tkudkjh feyrh gSA vc ge ns[ksaxs fd ge gM+Iik lH;rk osQ fo"k;
esa D;k vkSj oSQls tkurs gSaA ge ;g vUos"k.k djsaxs fd iqjkrkfRod
lk{;ksa dh O;k[;k oSQls dh tkrh gS vkSj bu O;k[;kvksa esa oSQls
dHkh&dHkh cnyko vk tkrk gSA fuf'pr :i ls bl lH;rk osQ dbZ igyw
vkt Hkh gekjh tkudkjh ls ijs gSa vkSj gks ldrk gS] ges'kk gh jgsaA
ikfjHkkf"kd 'kCn] LFkku rFkk dky
¯lèkq ?kkVh lH;rk dks gM+Iik laLÑfr Hkh dgk tkrk gSA iqjkrRofon ^laLÑfr* 'kCn dk
iz;ksx iqjkoLrqvksa osQ ,sls lewg osQ fy, djrs gSa tks ,d fof'k"V 'kSyh osQ gksrs gSa vkSj
lkekU;r;k ,d lkFk] ,d fo'ks"k HkkSxksfyd {ks=k rFkk dky&[kaM ls lac¼ ik, tkrs gSaA
gM+Iik lH;rk osQ lanHkZ esa bu fof'k"V iqjkoLrqvksa esa eqgjsa] euosQ] ckV] iRFkj osQ iQyd
(fp=k 1.2) vkSj idh gqbZ b±Vsa lfEefyr gSaA ;s oLrq,¡ vI
+
kQxkfuLrku] tEew] cywfpLrku
(ikfdLrku) rFkk xqtjkr tSls {ks=kksa ls feyh gSa tks ,d nwljs ls yach nwjh ij fLFkr gSa
(ekufp=k 1)A
bl lH;rk dk ukedj.k] gM+Iik uked LFkku] tgk¡ ;g laLÑfr igyh ckj [kksth xbZ Fkh
(i`"B 6)] osQ uke ij fd;k x;k gSA bldk dky fuèkkZj.k yxHkx 2600 vkSj 1900 bZlk
iwoZ osQ chp fd;k x;k gSA bl {ks=k esa bl lH;rk ls igys vkSj ckn esa Hkh laLÑfr;k¡ vfLrRo
esa Fkha ftUgsa Øe'k% vkjafHkd rFkk ijorhZ gM+Iik dgk tkrk gSA bu laLÑfr;ksa ls gM+Iik lH;rk
dks vyx djus osQ fy, dHkh&dHkh bls fodflr gM+Iik laLÑfr Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
fp=k 1.1
,d gM+IikbZ eqgj
fp=k 1.2
euosQ] ckV rFkk iQyd
fo"k;
,d
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl osQ oqQN fo"k;
2 2 2 2 2
ekufp=k 1
oqQN egRoiw.kZ
fodflr gM+Iik iqjkLFky
js[kkfp=k
iSekuk ugha fn;k x;k gSA
ekaMk
gM+Iik
cukoyh
jk[khx<+h
ferkFky
xaosjhokyk
dksVnhth
pUgqnM+ks vkejh
ckykdksV
eksgutksnM+ks
lqRdkxsaMksj
èkkSykohjk
yksFky
ukxs'oj
jaxiqj
dkyhcaxu
>sye
psukc
jkoh
¯lèk
;equk
xaxk
pacy
lkcjerh
vjc lkxj
ekgh
ueZnk
lryt
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. vkjaHk
bl {ks=k esa fodflr gM+Iik ls igys Hkh dbZ laLÑfr;k¡ vfLrRo esa
FkhaA ;s laLÑfr;k¡ viuh fof'k"V e`nHkk.M 'kSyh ls lac¼ Fkha rFkk
buosQ lanHkZ esa gesa Ñf"k] i'kqikyu rFkk oqQN f'kYidkjh osQ lk{; Hkh
feyrs gSaA cfLr;k¡ vkerkSj ij NksVh gksrh Fkha vkSj buesa cM+s vkdkj dh
lajpuk,¡ yxHkx u osQ cjkcj FkhaA oqQN LFkyksa ij cM+s iSekus ij
bykdksa esa tyk, tkus osQ laosQrksa ls rFkk oqQN vU; LFkyksa osQ R;kx
fn, tkus ls ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd vkjafHkd gM+Iik rFkk gM+Iik
lH;rk osQ chp Øe&Hkax FkkA
2. 2. 2. 2. 2. fuokZg osQ rjhosQ
vkius ekufp=kksa (1 rFkk 2) esa ns[kk gksxk fd fodflr gM+Iik laLÑfr
oqQN ,sls LFkkuksa ij iuih tgk¡ igys vkjafHkd gM+Iik laLÑfr;k¡
vfLrRo esa FkhaA bu laLÑfr;ksa esa dbZ rRo ftuesa fuokZg osQ rjhosQ
'kkfey gSa] leku FksA gM+Iik lH;rk osQ fuoklh dbZ izdkj osQ isM+&ikSèkksa
ls izkIr mRikn vkSj tkuojksa ftuesa eNyh Hkh 'kkfey gS] ls izkIr Hkkstu
djrs FksA tys vukt osQ nkuksa rFkk chtksa dh [kkst ls iqjkrRofon vkgkj
lacaèkh vknrksa osQ fo"k; esa tkudkjh izkIr djus esa liQy gks ik, gSaA
budk vè;;u iqjk&ouLifrK djrs gSa tks izkphu ouLifr osQ vè;;u
vkjafHkd rFkk fodflr
gM+Iik laLÑfr;k¡
¯lèk vkSj pksfyLrku (Fkkj jsfxLrku ls
yxk gqvk ikfdLrku dk jsfxLrkuh {ks=k) esa
cfLr;ksa dh la[;k osQ lacaèk esa ;s vk¡dM+s
nsf[k,A
¯lèk pksfyLrku
cfLr;ksa dh oqQy 106 239
la[;k
vkjafHkd gM+Iik 52 37
LFky
fodflr gM+Iik 65 136
LFky
u, LFkyksa ij 43 132
fodflr gM+Iik
cfLr;k¡
R;kx fn, x, 29 33
vkjafHkd gM+Iik LFky
vaxzs”kh esa ch-lh- (¯gnh esa bZ-iw-)
dk rkRi;Z ^fciQksj ØkbLV* (bZlk
iwoZ) ls gSA dHkh&dHkh vki
frfFk;ksa ls igys ,-Mh- (¯gnh esa bZ-)
fy[kk ikrs gSaA ;g ^,uks MkWfeuh*
uked nks ySfVu 'kCnksa ls cuk gS
rFkk bldk rkRi;Z bZlk elhg osQ
tUe osQ o"kZ ls gSA vktdy ,-
Mh- dh txg lh-bZ- rFkk ch-lh-
dh txg ch-lh-bZ- dk iz;ksx
gksrk gSA lh-bZ- v{kjksa dk iz;ksx
^dkWeu ,jk* rFkk ch-lh-bZ- dk
^fcI
+
kQksj dkWeu ,jk* osQ fy,
gksrk gSA ge bu 'kCnksa dk iz;ksx
blfy, djrs gSa D;ksafd fo'o osQ
vfèkdka'k ns'kksa esa vc ^dkWeu
,jk* dk iz;ksx lkekU; gks x;k
gSA dHkh&dHkh vaxzs”kh osQ ch-ih-
v{kjksa dk iz;ksx gksrk gS] ftldk
rkRi;Z ^fcI
+
kQksj izstsaV* gSA bl
iqLrd esa geus ch-lh-bZ- osQ fy,
bZ-iw-] lh-bZ- osQ fy, bZ- rFkk ch-
ih- osQ fy, orZeku ls igys
'kCnksa dk iz;ksx fd;k gSA
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