NCERT Textbook - गुरुत्वाकर्षण Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - गुरुत्वाकर्षण Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


vè;k; 8
xq#Rokd"kZ.k
8.1 Hkwfedk
ge vius vkjafHkd thou esa gh] lHkh inkFkks± osQ i`Foh dh vksj vkdf"kZr gksus
dh izÑfr dks tku ysrs gSaA tks Hkh oLrq Åij isaQdh tkrh gS og i`Foh dh
vksj fxjrh gS] igkM+ ls uhps mrjus dh rqyuk esa igkM+ ij Åij tkus esa dgha
vfèkd Fkdku gksrh gS] Åij cknyksa ls o"kkZ dh cw¡nsa i`Foh dh vksj fxjrh gSa]
rFkk vU; ,slh gh cgqr lh ifj?kVuk,¡ gSaA bfrgkl osQ vuqlkj bVyh osQ HkkSfrd
foKkuh xSyhfy;ks (1564&1642) us bl rF; dks ekU;rk iznku dh fd lHkh
fi.M] pkgs muosQ nzO;eku oqQN Hkh gksa] ,dleku Roj.k ls i`Foh dh vksj
Rofjr gksrs gSaA ,slk dgk tkrk gS fd mUgksaus bl rF; dk lkoZtfud fun'kZu
fd;k FkkA ;g dguk] pkgs lR; Hkh u gks] ijarq ;g fuf'pr gS fd mUgksaus vkur
lery ij yksVuh fi.Mksa osQ lkFk oqQN iz;ksx djosQ xq#Roh; Roj.k dk ,d
eku izkIr fd;k Fkk] tks ckn esa fd, x, iz;ksxksa }kjk izkIr vf/d ;FkkFkZ ekuksa
osQ dkiQh fudV FkkA
vk| dky ls gh cgqr ls ns'kksa esa rkjksa] xzgksa rFkk mudh xfr;ksa osQ izs{k.k
tSlh vlac¼ izrhr gksus okyh ifj?kVuk,¡ è;kukd"kZ.k dk fo"k; jgh gSaA vk|
dky osQ izs{k.kksa }kjk vkdk'k esa fn[kkbZ nsus okys rkjksa dh igpku dh xbZ]
ftudh fLFkfr esa lkyksalky dksbZ ifjorZu ugha gksrk gSA izkphu dky ls ns[ks
tkus okys fi.Mksa esa oqQN vf/d jkspd fi.M Hkh ns[ks x,] ftUgsa xzg dgrs
gSa] vkSj tks rkjksa dh i`"BHkwfe esa fu;fer xfr djrs izrhr gksrs gSaA xzgh; xfr;ksa
osQ lcls izkphu izekf.kr ekWMy dks vc ls yxHkx 2000 o"kZ iwoZ VkWyeh us
izLrkfor fd;k FkkA ;g ^HkwosQUnzh* ekWMy Fkk] ftlosQ vuqlkj lHkh vkdk'kh;
fi.M rkjs] lw;Z rFkk xzg i`Foh dh ifjØek djrs gSaA bl ekWMy dh /kj.kk osQ
vuqlkj vkdk'kh; fi.Mksa dh laHkkfor xfr osQoy o`Ùkh; xfr gh gks ldrh
FkhA xzgksa dh izsf{kr xfr;ksa dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, VkWyeh us xfr;ksa osQ ftl
foU;kl dks izfrikfnr fd;k og cgqr tfVy FkkA blosQ vuqlkj xzgksa dks o`Ùkksa
esa ifjØek djus okyk rFkk bu o`Ùkksa osQ osQUnzksa dks Lo;a ,d cM+s o`Ùk esa
xfr'khy crk;k x;k FkkA yxHkx 400 o"kZ osQ i'pkr Hkkjrh; [kxksyKksa us Hkh
blh izdkj osQ fl¼kar izfrikfnr fd,A rFkkfi] vk;ZHkêð (5 oha 'krkCnh esa)
8.1 Hkwfedk
8.2 osQIyj osQ fu;e
8.3 xq#Rokd"kZ.k dk lkoZf=kd
fu;e
8.4 xq#Roh; fu;rkad
8.5 i`Foh dk xq#Roh; Roj.k
8.6 i`Foh osQ i`"B osQ uhps rFkk
Åij xq#Roh; Roj.k
8.7 xq#Roh; fLFkfrt ÅtkZ
8.8 iyk;u pky
8.9 Hkw mixzg
8.10 d{kk esa xfr'khy mixzg dh
ÅtkZ
8.11 rqY;dkyh rFkk /zqoh; mixzg
8.12 Hkkjghurk
lkjka'k
fopkj.kh; fo"k;
vH;kl
vfrfjDr vH;kl
Page 2


vè;k; 8
xq#Rokd"kZ.k
8.1 Hkwfedk
ge vius vkjafHkd thou esa gh] lHkh inkFkks± osQ i`Foh dh vksj vkdf"kZr gksus
dh izÑfr dks tku ysrs gSaA tks Hkh oLrq Åij isaQdh tkrh gS og i`Foh dh
vksj fxjrh gS] igkM+ ls uhps mrjus dh rqyuk esa igkM+ ij Åij tkus esa dgha
vfèkd Fkdku gksrh gS] Åij cknyksa ls o"kkZ dh cw¡nsa i`Foh dh vksj fxjrh gSa]
rFkk vU; ,slh gh cgqr lh ifj?kVuk,¡ gSaA bfrgkl osQ vuqlkj bVyh osQ HkkSfrd
foKkuh xSyhfy;ks (1564&1642) us bl rF; dks ekU;rk iznku dh fd lHkh
fi.M] pkgs muosQ nzO;eku oqQN Hkh gksa] ,dleku Roj.k ls i`Foh dh vksj
Rofjr gksrs gSaA ,slk dgk tkrk gS fd mUgksaus bl rF; dk lkoZtfud fun'kZu
fd;k FkkA ;g dguk] pkgs lR; Hkh u gks] ijarq ;g fuf'pr gS fd mUgksaus vkur
lery ij yksVuh fi.Mksa osQ lkFk oqQN iz;ksx djosQ xq#Roh; Roj.k dk ,d
eku izkIr fd;k Fkk] tks ckn esa fd, x, iz;ksxksa }kjk izkIr vf/d ;FkkFkZ ekuksa
osQ dkiQh fudV FkkA
vk| dky ls gh cgqr ls ns'kksa esa rkjksa] xzgksa rFkk mudh xfr;ksa osQ izs{k.k
tSlh vlac¼ izrhr gksus okyh ifj?kVuk,¡ è;kukd"kZ.k dk fo"k; jgh gSaA vk|
dky osQ izs{k.kksa }kjk vkdk'k esa fn[kkbZ nsus okys rkjksa dh igpku dh xbZ]
ftudh fLFkfr esa lkyksalky dksbZ ifjorZu ugha gksrk gSA izkphu dky ls ns[ks
tkus okys fi.Mksa esa oqQN vf/d jkspd fi.M Hkh ns[ks x,] ftUgsa xzg dgrs
gSa] vkSj tks rkjksa dh i`"BHkwfe esa fu;fer xfr djrs izrhr gksrs gSaA xzgh; xfr;ksa
osQ lcls izkphu izekf.kr ekWMy dks vc ls yxHkx 2000 o"kZ iwoZ VkWyeh us
izLrkfor fd;k FkkA ;g ^HkwosQUnzh* ekWMy Fkk] ftlosQ vuqlkj lHkh vkdk'kh;
fi.M rkjs] lw;Z rFkk xzg i`Foh dh ifjØek djrs gSaA bl ekWMy dh /kj.kk osQ
vuqlkj vkdk'kh; fi.Mksa dh laHkkfor xfr osQoy o`Ùkh; xfr gh gks ldrh
FkhA xzgksa dh izsf{kr xfr;ksa dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, VkWyeh us xfr;ksa osQ ftl
foU;kl dks izfrikfnr fd;k og cgqr tfVy FkkA blosQ vuqlkj xzgksa dks o`Ùkksa
esa ifjØek djus okyk rFkk bu o`Ùkksa osQ osQUnzksa dks Lo;a ,d cM+s o`Ùk esa
xfr'khy crk;k x;k FkkA yxHkx 400 o"kZ osQ i'pkr Hkkjrh; [kxksyKksa us Hkh
blh izdkj osQ fl¼kar izfrikfnr fd,A rFkkfi] vk;ZHkêð (5 oha 'krkCnh esa)
8.1 Hkwfedk
8.2 osQIyj osQ fu;e
8.3 xq#Rokd"kZ.k dk lkoZf=kd
fu;e
8.4 xq#Roh; fu;rkad
8.5 i`Foh dk xq#Roh; Roj.k
8.6 i`Foh osQ i`"B osQ uhps rFkk
Åij xq#Roh; Roj.k
8.7 xq#Roh; fLFkfrt ÅtkZ
8.8 iyk;u pky
8.9 Hkw mixzg
8.10 d{kk esa xfr'khy mixzg dh
ÅtkZ
8.11 rqY;dkyh rFkk /zqoh; mixzg
8.12 Hkkjghurk
lkjka'k
fopkj.kh; fo"k;
vH;kl
vfrfjDr vH;kl
188 HkkSfrdh
us igys ls gh vius 'kks/ izcU/ esa ,d vf/d ifj"Ñr
ekWMy dk o.kZu fd;k Fkk] ftls lw;Z osQUnzh ekWMy dgrs gSa
ftlosQ vuqlkj lw;Z dks lHkh xzgksa dh xfr;ksa dk osQUnz ekuk
x;k gSA ,d gtkj o"kZ osQ i'pkr iksyS.M osQ ,d bZlkbZ fHk{kq]
ftudk uke fudksyl dksijfudl (1473&1543) Fkk] us
,d iw.kZ fodflr ekWMy izLrkfor fd;k ftlosQ vuqlkj
lHkh xzg] osQUnzh; LFkku ij fLFkr fLFkj lw;Z] osQ ifjr% o`Ùkksa
esa ifjØek djrs gSaA fxjtk?kj us bl fl¼kar ij lansg izdV
fd;kA ijUrq bl fl¼kar osQ yC/ izfrf"Br leFkZdksa esa ,d
xSyhfy;ks Fks] ftuij 'kklu osQ }kjk] vkLFkk osQ fo#¼ gksus
osQ dkj.k] eqdnek pyk;k x;kA
yxHkx xSyhfy;ks osQ gh dky esa MsuekoZQ osQ ,d oqQyhu
iq#"k Vk;dks czsg (1546&1601) us viuk leLr thou dky
viuh uaxh vka[kksa ls lh/s gh xzgksa osQ izs{k.kksa dk vfHkys[ku
djus esa yxk fn;kA muosQ }kjk ladfyr vk¡dM+ksa dk ckn esa
mlosQ lgk;d tksgkUusl osQIyj (1571&1640) }kjk fo'ys"k.k
fd;k x;kA mUgksaus bu vk¡dM+ksa dks lkj osQ :i esa rhu
ifj"Ñr fu;eksa }kjk izfrikfnr fd;k] ftUgsa vc osQIyj osQ
fu;eksa osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA ;s fu;e U;wVu dks Kkr FksA
bu mRo`Q"V fu;eksa us U;wVu dks viuk xq#Rokd"kZ.k dk
lkoZf=kd fu;e izLrkfor djosQ vlk/kj.k oSKkfudksa dh
iafDr esa 'kkfey gksus ;ksX; cuk;kA
8.2 osQIyj osQ fu;e
osQIyj osQ rhu fu;eksa dk mYys[k bl izdkj fd;k tk ldrk gS%
1.  d{kkvksa dk fu;e % lHkh xzg nh?kZo`Ùkh; d{kkvksa esa xfr
djrs gSa rFkk lw;Z bldh] ,d ukfHk ij fLFkr gksrk gS (fp=k
8-1a)A
;g fu;e dksijfudl osQ ekWMy ls gVdj Fkk ftlosQ
vuqlkj xzg osQoy o`Ùkh; d{kkvksa esa gh xfr dj ldrs gSaA
nh?kZo`Ùk] ftldk o`Ùk ,d fof'k"V izdj.k gksrk gS] ,d cUn
oØ gksrk gS] ftls cgqr ljyrk ls bl izdkj [khapk tk
ldrk gS %
fp=k  8.1(b) ,d nh?kZo`r [khapukA ,d Mksjh osQ nks fljs F
1
 rFkk F
2
fLFkj gSaA isafly dh uksad Mksjh dks ruh j[krs gq, bu
fljksa osQ ifjr% pyk;h tkrh gSA
nks fcUnqvksa F
1
 rFkk F
2
 dk p;u dhft,A ,d Mksjh ysdj
blosQ fljksa dks F
1
 rFkk F
2
 ij fiuksa }kjk tfM+,A isafly dh
uksad ls Mksjh dks rkfu, vkSj fiQj Mksjh dks ruh gqbZ j[krs gq,
isafly dks pykrs gq, cUn oØ [khafp, (fp=k 8-1 (b)) bl
izdkj izkIr cUn oØ dks nh?kZo`Ùk dgrs gSaA Li"V gS fd nh?kZo`Ùk
osQ fdlh Hkh fcUnq T ij F
1
 rFkk F
2
 ls nwfj;ksa dk ;ksx
vifjofrZr (fu;r) gSA fcUnq F
1
 rFkk F
2
 nh?kZo`Ùk dh ukfHk
dgykrh gSA fcUnq F
1
 rFkk F
2
 dks feykb, vkSj bl js[kk
dks vkxs c<+kb, ftlls ;g nh?kZo`Ùk dks fp=k 8.1 (b) esa
n'kkZ, vuqlkj fcUnqvksa P rFkk A ij izfrPNsn djrh gSA js[kk
PA dk eè;fcUnq nh?kZo`Ùk dk osQUnz gS rFkk yEckbZ
PO = AO nh?kZo`Ùk dk v/Z nh?kZ v{k dgykrh gSA fdlh
o`Ùk osQ fy, nksuksa ukfHk;k¡ ,d nwljs esa foyhu gksdj ,d
gks tkrh gSa rFkk vèkZ nh?kZ v{k o`Ùk dh f=kT;k cu
tkrh gSA
2. {ks=kiQyksa dk fu;e % lw;Z ls fdlh xzg dks feykus okyh
js[kk leku le; varjkyksa esa leku {ks=kiQy izliZ djrh gS
(fp=k 8-2)A ;g fu;e bl izs{k.k ls izdV gksrk gS fd xzg
ml le; /heh xfr djrs izrhr gksrs gSa tc os lw;Z ls vfèkd
nwjh ij gksrs gSaA lw;Z osQ fudV gksus ij xzgksa dh xfr vis{kkÑr
rhoz gksrh gSA
fp=k 8.1(a) lw;Z osQ ifjr% fdlh xzg }kjk vuqjsf[kr nh?kZo`ÙkA lw;Z
dk fudVre fcUnq P rFkk nwjLFk fcUnq A gSA P dks
milkSj rFkk A dks vilkSj dgrs gSaA v/Z nh?kZ v{k
nwjh AP dk vk/k gSA
B
A
C
P
S
S'
2b
2a
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