NCERT Textbook - बल तथा दाब Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - बल तथा दाब Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


cy rFkk nkc
cy rFkk nkc
{kk VII esa vki lh[k pqosQ gSa fd oLrq,¡ xfr
oSQls djrh gSaA D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd ge
;g oSQls fuf'pr djrs gSa fd dksbZ oLrq nwljh
oLrq ls vfèkd rs”kh ls xfr'khy gS\ fdlh oLrq }kjk
,dkad le; esa pyh xbZ nwjh D;k lwfpr djrh gS\
vki ;g Hkh tkurs gSa fd ”kehu ij yq<+drh gqbZ xsan
tSlh dksbZ xfr'khy oLrq èkheh gks tkrh gSA dHkh&dHkh
;g viuh xfr dh fn'kk Hkh cny ldrh gSA ;g Hkh
laHko gS fd xsan èkheh gks tk, rFkk viuh fn'kk Hkh
cny ysA D;k vkius dHkh lkspk gS fd xfr'khy oLrq
èkheh ;k rs”k oSQls gks tkrh gS] vFkok viuh xfr dh
fn'kk oSQls cny ysrh gS\
vkb, vius izfrfnu osQ oqQN vuqHkoksa dks Lej.k
djsaA fdlh iqQVcky dks xfr'khy djus osQ fy, D;k
djrs gSa\ fdlh xfr'khy xsan dks] vkSj vfèkd rs”kh
ls pykus osQ fy, vki D;k djrs gSa\ ,d xksyh
(xksyj{kd) xsan dks fdl izdkj jksdrk gS\ {ks=k
j{kd] cYysckt }kjk fgV dh xbZ xsan dks oSQls
jksdrs gSa\ gkWdh dk f[kykM+h gkWdh ls izgkj djosQ
fdlh xfr'khy xsan dh fn'kk cny nsrk gS (fp=k
11-1)A bu lHkh fLFkfr;ksa esa xsan dh xfr dks rs”k
;k èkhek dj fn;k tkrk gS vFkok bldh xfr dh
fn'kk dks cny fn;k tkrk gSA
ge izk;% dgrs gSa fd tc fdlh xsan dks èkDdk
nsrs gSa] isaQdrs gSa] Bksdj ekjrs gSa ;k izgkj djrs gSa
rks ml ij cy yxk;k tkrk gSA cy D;k gS\ ftu
oLrqvksa ij ;g yxk;k tkrk gS mu ij ;g D;k
izHkko Mkyrk gS\ bl vè;k; esa ge ,sls gh iz'uksa
osQ mÙkj [kkstsaxsA
11-1 cyµvid"kZ.k ;k vfHkd"kZ.k
mBkuk] [kksyuk] can djuk] Bksdj ekjuk] fgV djuk]
izgkj djuk] èkDdk nsuk] [khapuk vkfn ,slh fØ;k,¡ gSa
tks izk;% oqQN dk;ks± dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, iz;ksx dh
tkrh gSaA buesa ls izR;sd dk;Z izk;% oLrq dh xfr esa
fdlh izdkj dk ifjorZu ykus dk iz;kl djrk gSA D;k
bu 'kCnksa dh txg ,d ;k vfèkd vU; 'kCnksa dk
iz;ksx dj ldrs gSa\ vkb, Kkr djsaA
(a) (b) (c)
fp=k 11-1 % (a) xksyh] xksy dks cpkrs gq, (b) gkWdh dk f[kykM+h xsan ij izgkj djrs gq, (c) {ks=kj{kd xsan dks jksdrs gq,A
d
Page 2


cy rFkk nkc
cy rFkk nkc
{kk VII esa vki lh[k pqosQ gSa fd oLrq,¡ xfr
oSQls djrh gSaA D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd ge
;g oSQls fuf'pr djrs gSa fd dksbZ oLrq nwljh
oLrq ls vfèkd rs”kh ls xfr'khy gS\ fdlh oLrq }kjk
,dkad le; esa pyh xbZ nwjh D;k lwfpr djrh gS\
vki ;g Hkh tkurs gSa fd ”kehu ij yq<+drh gqbZ xsan
tSlh dksbZ xfr'khy oLrq èkheh gks tkrh gSA dHkh&dHkh
;g viuh xfr dh fn'kk Hkh cny ldrh gSA ;g Hkh
laHko gS fd xsan èkheh gks tk, rFkk viuh fn'kk Hkh
cny ysA D;k vkius dHkh lkspk gS fd xfr'khy oLrq
èkheh ;k rs”k oSQls gks tkrh gS] vFkok viuh xfr dh
fn'kk oSQls cny ysrh gS\
vkb, vius izfrfnu osQ oqQN vuqHkoksa dks Lej.k
djsaA fdlh iqQVcky dks xfr'khy djus osQ fy, D;k
djrs gSa\ fdlh xfr'khy xsan dks] vkSj vfèkd rs”kh
ls pykus osQ fy, vki D;k djrs gSa\ ,d xksyh
(xksyj{kd) xsan dks fdl izdkj jksdrk gS\ {ks=k
j{kd] cYysckt }kjk fgV dh xbZ xsan dks oSQls
jksdrs gSa\ gkWdh dk f[kykM+h gkWdh ls izgkj djosQ
fdlh xfr'khy xsan dh fn'kk cny nsrk gS (fp=k
11-1)A bu lHkh fLFkfr;ksa esa xsan dh xfr dks rs”k
;k èkhek dj fn;k tkrk gS vFkok bldh xfr dh
fn'kk dks cny fn;k tkrk gSA
ge izk;% dgrs gSa fd tc fdlh xsan dks èkDdk
nsrs gSa] isaQdrs gSa] Bksdj ekjrs gSa ;k izgkj djrs gSa
rks ml ij cy yxk;k tkrk gSA cy D;k gS\ ftu
oLrqvksa ij ;g yxk;k tkrk gS mu ij ;g D;k
izHkko Mkyrk gS\ bl vè;k; esa ge ,sls gh iz'uksa
osQ mÙkj [kkstsaxsA
11-1 cyµvid"kZ.k ;k vfHkd"kZ.k
mBkuk] [kksyuk] can djuk] Bksdj ekjuk] fgV djuk]
izgkj djuk] èkDdk nsuk] [khapuk vkfn ,slh fØ;k,¡ gSa
tks izk;% oqQN dk;ks± dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, iz;ksx dh
tkrh gSaA buesa ls izR;sd dk;Z izk;% oLrq dh xfr esa
fdlh izdkj dk ifjorZu ykus dk iz;kl djrk gSA D;k
bu 'kCnksa dh txg ,d ;k vfèkd vU; 'kCnksa dk
iz;ksx dj ldrs gSa\ vkb, Kkr djsaA
(a) (b) (c)
fp=k 11-1 % (a) xksyh] xksy dks cpkrs gq, (b) gkWdh dk f[kykM+h xsan ij izgkj djrs gq, (c) {ks=kj{kd xsan dks jksdrs gq,A
d
foKku 128
fØ;kdyki 11-1
lkj.kh 11-1 esa oLrqvksa dh xfr dh lqifjfpr fLFkfr;ksa osQ oqQN mnkgj.k fn;s x, gSaA vki buesa oqQN ,slh
gh vkSj vfèkd fLFkfr;ksa dks tksM+ ldrs gSa vFkok bu mnkgj.kksa esa ls oqQN dks cny ldrs gSaA izR;sd n'kk
esa dk;Z dks èkDdk nsuk vFkok@;k [khapuk osQ :i esa igpkfu, rFkk lkj.kh esa fyf[k;sA vkidh lgk;rk osQ
fy, ,d mnkgj.k fn;k x;k gSA
lkj.kh 11-1 oqQN dk;ks± dks vid"kZ.k rFkk vfHkd"kZ.k osQ :i esa igpkuuk
eSaus d{kk VI esa i<+k gS fd pqEcd ,d
yksgs osQ VqdM+s dks viuh vksj vkdf"kZr
djrk gSA D;k vkd"kZ.k Hkh ,d f[kapko
(vfHkd"kZ.k) gS\ fdlh pqEcd osQ nks leku
/zqoksa osQ chp izfrd"kZ.k osQ ckjs esa vki D;k
lksprs gSa\ ;g f[kapko (vfHkd"kZ.k) gS ;k
èkDdk (vid"kZ.k)\
Ø-la- fLFkfr dk o.kZu dk;Z % (/Ddk nsuk@p;u djuk@[khapuk@Bksdj
ekjuk@mBkuk@>qdkuk@mM+kuk@isaQduk@can djuk@
izgkj djuk@Åij mBkuk)
vid"kZ.k vfHkd"kZ.k
1- es”k ij j[kh iqLrd dks
xfr'khy cukuk
2- njok”ks dks [kksyuk ;k can
djuk
3- oqQ,¡ ls ikuh dh ckYVh
dks [khapuk
4- iqQVcky osQ f[kykM+h dk
isuYVh fdd ysuk
5- ,d cYysckt }kjk fØosQV
dh xsan ij izgkj djuk
6- ynh gqbZ cSyxkM+h dks
pykuk
7- fdlh es”k dh njkt dks
[kksyuk
/Ddk nsuk [khapuk mBkuk µ gk¡ gk¡
dk;Z dks O;Dr dj
ldrs gSa
D;k vkius è;ku fn;k fd buesa ls izR;sd dk;Z
dks vfHkd"kZ.k ([khapuk) ;k vid"kZ.k (èkDdk nsuk)
vFkok nksuksa osQ :i esa O;Dr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
D;k ge blls ;g fu"d"kZ fudky ldrs gSa fd
fdlh oLrq dks xfr esa ykus osQ fy,] mls èkDdk
nsuk (vidf"kZr djuk) ;k [khapuk (vfHkdf"kZr djuk)
iM+rk gS\
foKku esa fdlh oLrq ij yxus okys èkDosQ
(vfHkd"kZ.k) ;k f[kapko (vid"kZ.k) dks cy dgrs
gSaA vr% ge dg ldrs gSa fd oLrqvksa dks nh xbZ xfr
cy yxus osQ dkj.k gksrh gSA oLrq ij cy dc yxrk
gS\ vkb, Kkr djsaA
Page 3


cy rFkk nkc
cy rFkk nkc
{kk VII esa vki lh[k pqosQ gSa fd oLrq,¡ xfr
oSQls djrh gSaA D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd ge
;g oSQls fuf'pr djrs gSa fd dksbZ oLrq nwljh
oLrq ls vfèkd rs”kh ls xfr'khy gS\ fdlh oLrq }kjk
,dkad le; esa pyh xbZ nwjh D;k lwfpr djrh gS\
vki ;g Hkh tkurs gSa fd ”kehu ij yq<+drh gqbZ xsan
tSlh dksbZ xfr'khy oLrq èkheh gks tkrh gSA dHkh&dHkh
;g viuh xfr dh fn'kk Hkh cny ldrh gSA ;g Hkh
laHko gS fd xsan èkheh gks tk, rFkk viuh fn'kk Hkh
cny ysA D;k vkius dHkh lkspk gS fd xfr'khy oLrq
èkheh ;k rs”k oSQls gks tkrh gS] vFkok viuh xfr dh
fn'kk oSQls cny ysrh gS\
vkb, vius izfrfnu osQ oqQN vuqHkoksa dks Lej.k
djsaA fdlh iqQVcky dks xfr'khy djus osQ fy, D;k
djrs gSa\ fdlh xfr'khy xsan dks] vkSj vfèkd rs”kh
ls pykus osQ fy, vki D;k djrs gSa\ ,d xksyh
(xksyj{kd) xsan dks fdl izdkj jksdrk gS\ {ks=k
j{kd] cYysckt }kjk fgV dh xbZ xsan dks oSQls
jksdrs gSa\ gkWdh dk f[kykM+h gkWdh ls izgkj djosQ
fdlh xfr'khy xsan dh fn'kk cny nsrk gS (fp=k
11-1)A bu lHkh fLFkfr;ksa esa xsan dh xfr dks rs”k
;k èkhek dj fn;k tkrk gS vFkok bldh xfr dh
fn'kk dks cny fn;k tkrk gSA
ge izk;% dgrs gSa fd tc fdlh xsan dks èkDdk
nsrs gSa] isaQdrs gSa] Bksdj ekjrs gSa ;k izgkj djrs gSa
rks ml ij cy yxk;k tkrk gSA cy D;k gS\ ftu
oLrqvksa ij ;g yxk;k tkrk gS mu ij ;g D;k
izHkko Mkyrk gS\ bl vè;k; esa ge ,sls gh iz'uksa
osQ mÙkj [kkstsaxsA
11-1 cyµvid"kZ.k ;k vfHkd"kZ.k
mBkuk] [kksyuk] can djuk] Bksdj ekjuk] fgV djuk]
izgkj djuk] èkDdk nsuk] [khapuk vkfn ,slh fØ;k,¡ gSa
tks izk;% oqQN dk;ks± dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, iz;ksx dh
tkrh gSaA buesa ls izR;sd dk;Z izk;% oLrq dh xfr esa
fdlh izdkj dk ifjorZu ykus dk iz;kl djrk gSA D;k
bu 'kCnksa dh txg ,d ;k vfèkd vU; 'kCnksa dk
iz;ksx dj ldrs gSa\ vkb, Kkr djsaA
(a) (b) (c)
fp=k 11-1 % (a) xksyh] xksy dks cpkrs gq, (b) gkWdh dk f[kykM+h xsan ij izgkj djrs gq, (c) {ks=kj{kd xsan dks jksdrs gq,A
d
foKku 128
fØ;kdyki 11-1
lkj.kh 11-1 esa oLrqvksa dh xfr dh lqifjfpr fLFkfr;ksa osQ oqQN mnkgj.k fn;s x, gSaA vki buesa oqQN ,slh
gh vkSj vfèkd fLFkfr;ksa dks tksM+ ldrs gSa vFkok bu mnkgj.kksa esa ls oqQN dks cny ldrs gSaA izR;sd n'kk
esa dk;Z dks èkDdk nsuk vFkok@;k [khapuk osQ :i esa igpkfu, rFkk lkj.kh esa fyf[k;sA vkidh lgk;rk osQ
fy, ,d mnkgj.k fn;k x;k gSA
lkj.kh 11-1 oqQN dk;ks± dks vid"kZ.k rFkk vfHkd"kZ.k osQ :i esa igpkuuk
eSaus d{kk VI esa i<+k gS fd pqEcd ,d
yksgs osQ VqdM+s dks viuh vksj vkdf"kZr
djrk gSA D;k vkd"kZ.k Hkh ,d f[kapko
(vfHkd"kZ.k) gS\ fdlh pqEcd osQ nks leku
/zqoksa osQ chp izfrd"kZ.k osQ ckjs esa vki D;k
lksprs gSa\ ;g f[kapko (vfHkd"kZ.k) gS ;k
èkDdk (vid"kZ.k)\
Ø-la- fLFkfr dk o.kZu dk;Z % (/Ddk nsuk@p;u djuk@[khapuk@Bksdj
ekjuk@mBkuk@>qdkuk@mM+kuk@isaQduk@can djuk@
izgkj djuk@Åij mBkuk)
vid"kZ.k vfHkd"kZ.k
1- es”k ij j[kh iqLrd dks
xfr'khy cukuk
2- njok”ks dks [kksyuk ;k can
djuk
3- oqQ,¡ ls ikuh dh ckYVh
dks [khapuk
4- iqQVcky osQ f[kykM+h dk
isuYVh fdd ysuk
5- ,d cYysckt }kjk fØosQV
dh xsan ij izgkj djuk
6- ynh gqbZ cSyxkM+h dks
pykuk
7- fdlh es”k dh njkt dks
[kksyuk
/Ddk nsuk [khapuk mBkuk µ gk¡ gk¡
dk;Z dks O;Dr dj
ldrs gSa
D;k vkius è;ku fn;k fd buesa ls izR;sd dk;Z
dks vfHkd"kZ.k ([khapuk) ;k vid"kZ.k (èkDdk nsuk)
vFkok nksuksa osQ :i esa O;Dr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
D;k ge blls ;g fu"d"kZ fudky ldrs gSa fd
fdlh oLrq dks xfr esa ykus osQ fy,] mls èkDdk
nsuk (vidf"kZr djuk) ;k [khapuk (vfHkdf"kZr djuk)
iM+rk gS\
foKku esa fdlh oLrq ij yxus okys èkDosQ
(vfHkd"kZ.k) ;k f[kapko (vid"kZ.k) dks cy dgrs
gSaA vr% ge dg ldrs gSa fd oLrqvksa dks nh xbZ xfr
cy yxus osQ dkj.k gksrh gSA oLrq ij cy dc yxrk
gS\ vkb, Kkr djsaA
cy rFkk nkc 129
fp=k 11-3(b) % dkSu fdls [khap jgk gS\
11-2 cy vU;ksU;fØ;k osQ dkj.k yxrs gSa
eku yhft, dksbZ vkneh fLFkj dkj osQ ihNs [kM+k gS
[fp=k 11-2(a)]A D;k mldh mifLFkfr osQ dkj.k dkj
xfr esa vk,xh\ eku yhft, vc vkneh dkj dks
èkDdk yxkuk izkjEHk djrk gS [fp=k 11-2(b)]] vFkkZr]
og bl ij cy yxkrk gSA dkj yxk, x, cy dh
fn'kk esa xfr djuk izkjEHk dj ldrh gSA è;ku nhft,
fp=k 11-2(a) % dkj osQ ihNs [kM+k ,d vknehA
fp=k 11-3(c) % dkSu fdls [khap jgk gS\
fp=k 11-3(a) % dkSu fdls /osQy jgk gS\
 fp=k 11-2(b) % ,d vkneh }kjk dkj dks /Ddk yxkukA
fd dkj dks xfr nsus osQ fy, vkneh dks bls èkDdk
yxkrs jguk gksxkA
fp=k 11-3 rhu fLFkfr;k¡ n'kkZrk gS ftuls laHkor%
vki ifjfpr gksaxsA D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd bu
fLFkfr;ksa esa dkSu [khap jgk gS vkSj dkSu èkDdk ns jgk
gS\ fp=k 11-3(a) esa nksuksa yM+fd;k¡ ,d&nwljs dks
èkDdk nsrh gqbZ izrhr gksrh gSa tcfd fp=k 11-3(b) esa
yM+fd;ksa dk ;qXe ,d nwljs dks [khapus dk iz;Ru
dj jgk gSA blh izdkj fp=k 11-3(c) esa xk; rFkk
vkneh nksuksa ,d nwljs dks [khaprs izrhr gksrs gSaA ;gk¡
ij n'kkZ;h xbZ nksuksa fLFkfr;ksa esa yM+fd;k¡ ,d&nwljs
ij cy yxk jgh gSaA D;k ;g ckr vkneh rFkk xk;
ij Hkh ykxw gksrh gS\
bu mnkgj.kksa ls ge fu"d"kZ fudky ldrs gSa
fd cy yxus osQ fy, de ls de nks oLrqvksa esa
vU;ksU;fØ;k gksuh vko';d gSA bl izdkj nks oLrqvksa
osQ chp vU;ksU;fØ;k osQ dkj.k muosQ chp cy
yxrk gSA
Page 4


cy rFkk nkc
cy rFkk nkc
{kk VII esa vki lh[k pqosQ gSa fd oLrq,¡ xfr
oSQls djrh gSaA D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd ge
;g oSQls fuf'pr djrs gSa fd dksbZ oLrq nwljh
oLrq ls vfèkd rs”kh ls xfr'khy gS\ fdlh oLrq }kjk
,dkad le; esa pyh xbZ nwjh D;k lwfpr djrh gS\
vki ;g Hkh tkurs gSa fd ”kehu ij yq<+drh gqbZ xsan
tSlh dksbZ xfr'khy oLrq èkheh gks tkrh gSA dHkh&dHkh
;g viuh xfr dh fn'kk Hkh cny ldrh gSA ;g Hkh
laHko gS fd xsan èkheh gks tk, rFkk viuh fn'kk Hkh
cny ysA D;k vkius dHkh lkspk gS fd xfr'khy oLrq
èkheh ;k rs”k oSQls gks tkrh gS] vFkok viuh xfr dh
fn'kk oSQls cny ysrh gS\
vkb, vius izfrfnu osQ oqQN vuqHkoksa dks Lej.k
djsaA fdlh iqQVcky dks xfr'khy djus osQ fy, D;k
djrs gSa\ fdlh xfr'khy xsan dks] vkSj vfèkd rs”kh
ls pykus osQ fy, vki D;k djrs gSa\ ,d xksyh
(xksyj{kd) xsan dks fdl izdkj jksdrk gS\ {ks=k
j{kd] cYysckt }kjk fgV dh xbZ xsan dks oSQls
jksdrs gSa\ gkWdh dk f[kykM+h gkWdh ls izgkj djosQ
fdlh xfr'khy xsan dh fn'kk cny nsrk gS (fp=k
11-1)A bu lHkh fLFkfr;ksa esa xsan dh xfr dks rs”k
;k èkhek dj fn;k tkrk gS vFkok bldh xfr dh
fn'kk dks cny fn;k tkrk gSA
ge izk;% dgrs gSa fd tc fdlh xsan dks èkDdk
nsrs gSa] isaQdrs gSa] Bksdj ekjrs gSa ;k izgkj djrs gSa
rks ml ij cy yxk;k tkrk gSA cy D;k gS\ ftu
oLrqvksa ij ;g yxk;k tkrk gS mu ij ;g D;k
izHkko Mkyrk gS\ bl vè;k; esa ge ,sls gh iz'uksa
osQ mÙkj [kkstsaxsA
11-1 cyµvid"kZ.k ;k vfHkd"kZ.k
mBkuk] [kksyuk] can djuk] Bksdj ekjuk] fgV djuk]
izgkj djuk] èkDdk nsuk] [khapuk vkfn ,slh fØ;k,¡ gSa
tks izk;% oqQN dk;ks± dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, iz;ksx dh
tkrh gSaA buesa ls izR;sd dk;Z izk;% oLrq dh xfr esa
fdlh izdkj dk ifjorZu ykus dk iz;kl djrk gSA D;k
bu 'kCnksa dh txg ,d ;k vfèkd vU; 'kCnksa dk
iz;ksx dj ldrs gSa\ vkb, Kkr djsaA
(a) (b) (c)
fp=k 11-1 % (a) xksyh] xksy dks cpkrs gq, (b) gkWdh dk f[kykM+h xsan ij izgkj djrs gq, (c) {ks=kj{kd xsan dks jksdrs gq,A
d
foKku 128
fØ;kdyki 11-1
lkj.kh 11-1 esa oLrqvksa dh xfr dh lqifjfpr fLFkfr;ksa osQ oqQN mnkgj.k fn;s x, gSaA vki buesa oqQN ,slh
gh vkSj vfèkd fLFkfr;ksa dks tksM+ ldrs gSa vFkok bu mnkgj.kksa esa ls oqQN dks cny ldrs gSaA izR;sd n'kk
esa dk;Z dks èkDdk nsuk vFkok@;k [khapuk osQ :i esa igpkfu, rFkk lkj.kh esa fyf[k;sA vkidh lgk;rk osQ
fy, ,d mnkgj.k fn;k x;k gSA
lkj.kh 11-1 oqQN dk;ks± dks vid"kZ.k rFkk vfHkd"kZ.k osQ :i esa igpkuuk
eSaus d{kk VI esa i<+k gS fd pqEcd ,d
yksgs osQ VqdM+s dks viuh vksj vkdf"kZr
djrk gSA D;k vkd"kZ.k Hkh ,d f[kapko
(vfHkd"kZ.k) gS\ fdlh pqEcd osQ nks leku
/zqoksa osQ chp izfrd"kZ.k osQ ckjs esa vki D;k
lksprs gSa\ ;g f[kapko (vfHkd"kZ.k) gS ;k
èkDdk (vid"kZ.k)\
Ø-la- fLFkfr dk o.kZu dk;Z % (/Ddk nsuk@p;u djuk@[khapuk@Bksdj
ekjuk@mBkuk@>qdkuk@mM+kuk@isaQduk@can djuk@
izgkj djuk@Åij mBkuk)
vid"kZ.k vfHkd"kZ.k
1- es”k ij j[kh iqLrd dks
xfr'khy cukuk
2- njok”ks dks [kksyuk ;k can
djuk
3- oqQ,¡ ls ikuh dh ckYVh
dks [khapuk
4- iqQVcky osQ f[kykM+h dk
isuYVh fdd ysuk
5- ,d cYysckt }kjk fØosQV
dh xsan ij izgkj djuk
6- ynh gqbZ cSyxkM+h dks
pykuk
7- fdlh es”k dh njkt dks
[kksyuk
/Ddk nsuk [khapuk mBkuk µ gk¡ gk¡
dk;Z dks O;Dr dj
ldrs gSa
D;k vkius è;ku fn;k fd buesa ls izR;sd dk;Z
dks vfHkd"kZ.k ([khapuk) ;k vid"kZ.k (èkDdk nsuk)
vFkok nksuksa osQ :i esa O;Dr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
D;k ge blls ;g fu"d"kZ fudky ldrs gSa fd
fdlh oLrq dks xfr esa ykus osQ fy,] mls èkDdk
nsuk (vidf"kZr djuk) ;k [khapuk (vfHkdf"kZr djuk)
iM+rk gS\
foKku esa fdlh oLrq ij yxus okys èkDosQ
(vfHkd"kZ.k) ;k f[kapko (vid"kZ.k) dks cy dgrs
gSaA vr% ge dg ldrs gSa fd oLrqvksa dks nh xbZ xfr
cy yxus osQ dkj.k gksrh gSA oLrq ij cy dc yxrk
gS\ vkb, Kkr djsaA
cy rFkk nkc 129
fp=k 11-3(b) % dkSu fdls [khap jgk gS\
11-2 cy vU;ksU;fØ;k osQ dkj.k yxrs gSa
eku yhft, dksbZ vkneh fLFkj dkj osQ ihNs [kM+k gS
[fp=k 11-2(a)]A D;k mldh mifLFkfr osQ dkj.k dkj
xfr esa vk,xh\ eku yhft, vc vkneh dkj dks
èkDdk yxkuk izkjEHk djrk gS [fp=k 11-2(b)]] vFkkZr]
og bl ij cy yxkrk gSA dkj yxk, x, cy dh
fn'kk esa xfr djuk izkjEHk dj ldrh gSA è;ku nhft,
fp=k 11-2(a) % dkj osQ ihNs [kM+k ,d vknehA
fp=k 11-3(c) % dkSu fdls [khap jgk gS\
fp=k 11-3(a) % dkSu fdls /osQy jgk gS\
 fp=k 11-2(b) % ,d vkneh }kjk dkj dks /Ddk yxkukA
fd dkj dks xfr nsus osQ fy, vkneh dks bls èkDdk
yxkrs jguk gksxkA
fp=k 11-3 rhu fLFkfr;k¡ n'kkZrk gS ftuls laHkor%
vki ifjfpr gksaxsA D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd bu
fLFkfr;ksa esa dkSu [khap jgk gS vkSj dkSu èkDdk ns jgk
gS\ fp=k 11-3(a) esa nksuksa yM+fd;k¡ ,d&nwljs dks
èkDdk nsrh gqbZ izrhr gksrh gSa tcfd fp=k 11-3(b) esa
yM+fd;ksa dk ;qXe ,d nwljs dks [khapus dk iz;Ru
dj jgk gSA blh izdkj fp=k 11-3(c) esa xk; rFkk
vkneh nksuksa ,d nwljs dks [khaprs izrhr gksrs gSaA ;gk¡
ij n'kkZ;h xbZ nksuksa fLFkfr;ksa esa yM+fd;k¡ ,d&nwljs
ij cy yxk jgh gSaA D;k ;g ckr vkneh rFkk xk;
ij Hkh ykxw gksrh gS\
bu mnkgj.kksa ls ge fu"d"kZ fudky ldrs gSa
fd cy yxus osQ fy, de ls de nks oLrqvksa esa
vU;ksU;fØ;k gksuh vko';d gSA bl izdkj nks oLrqvksa
osQ chp vU;ksU;fØ;k osQ dkj.k muosQ chp cy
yxrk gSA
foKku 130
D;k bldk vFkZ ;g gS fd ;fn fdlh oLrq
ij foijhr fn'kkvksa esa yxus okys cy cjkcj
gSa rks ml ij yxus okyk usV cy 'kwU; gksxk\
11-3 cyksa dh [kkstchu
vkb, cyksa osQ ckjs esa oqQN vfèkd lh[kus dk iz;Ru djsaA
fØ;kdyki 11-2
dksbZ Hkkjh oLrq tSls es”k ;k lanwd yhft, ftls
vki tksj ls èkosQyus ij gh xfr esa yk losaQA bls
vosQys èkosQyus dk iz;Ru dhft,A D;k vki bls
f[kldk ikrs gSa\ vc vius fdlh fe=k ls dfg,
fd cDls dks mlh fn'kk esa èkosQyus esa vkidh
lgk;rk djs [fp=k 11-4(a)]A D;k vc bldks
f[kldkuk vklku gS\ D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd
,slk D;ksa gqvk\
vc mlh oLrq dks fiQj ls èkosQfy, ysfdu bl
ckj vius fe=k ls dfg, fd og bls foijhr
fn'kk ls èkosQys [fp=k 11-4(b)]A D;k oLrq xfreku
gksrh gS\ ;fn ;g xfr esa vkrh gS rks bldh xfr
dh fn'kk dks uksV dhft,A D;k vki vuqeku yxk
ldrs gSa fd vki esa ls dkSu vfèkd cy yxk
jgk gS\
fp=k 11-4 % nks fe=k ,d Hkkjh oLrq dks èkDdk nsrs gq,
(a) ,d gh fn'kk esa (b) foijhr fn'kk esaA
(a)
(b)
fp=k 11-5 % ;fn nksuksa Vksfy;k¡ jLls dks leku cy ls [khaprh
gSa rks jLlk f[kldrk ughaA
D;k vkius dHkh jLlkd'h dk [ksy ns[kk gS\ bl
[ksy esa nks Vksfy;k¡ ,d jLls dks foijhr fn'kk esa
[khaprh gSa (fp=k 11-5)A nksuksa Vksfy;ksa osQ lnL; jLls
dks viuh fn'kk esa [khapus dk iz;Ru djrs gSaA dHkh&dHkh
jLlk fcyoqQy ugha f[kldrkA D;k ;g fp=k 11-3(b)
esa n'kkZ;h xbZ fLFkfr osQ leku ugha gS\ tks Vksyh vfèkd
tksj ls [khaprh gS] vFkkZr vfèkd cy yxkrh gS] var
esa ogh [ksy esa fot;h gksrh gSA
;s mnkgj.k cy osQ ckjs esa D;k lq>krs gSa\
fdlh oLrq ij ,d gh fn'kk esa yxk, x, cy tqM+
tkrs gSaA vc Lej.k dhft, fd fØ;kdyki 11-2 esa tc
vki rFkk vkiosQ fe=k us Hkkjh lanwd dks ,d gh fn'kk esa
èkosQyk Fkk rks D;k gqvk FkkA
;fn fdlh oLrq ij nks cy foijhr fn'kk esa dk;Z
djrs gSa rks bl ij yxus okyk oqQy (usV) cy nksuksa
cyksa osQ varj osQ cjkcj gksrk gSA fØ;kdyki
11-2 esa tc vki nksuksa Hkkjh lanwd dks foijhr fn'kk
esa èkosQy jgs Fks rks vkius D;k ns[kk Fkk\
Lej.k dhft, fd jLlkd'kh osQ [ksy esa tc nksuksa
Vksfy;k¡ jLls ij cjkcj cy yxk dj [khaprh gSa rks
jLlk fdlh Hkh fn'kk esa ugha tkrkA
bl izdkj geus lh[kk fd ,d cy nwljs ls cM+k
;k NksVk gks ldrk gSA cy dh izcyrk izk;% blosQ
ifjek.k ls ekih tkrh gSA cy osQ ckjs esa crkrs le;
gesa ml fn'kk dk mYys[k djuk Hkh vko';d gS
ftlesa cy dk;Z djrk gSA ;g Hkh ;kn jf[k,] ;fn
yxk, x, cy dh fn'kk ;k ifjek.k esa ifjorZu gks tk,
rks bldk izHkko Hkh cny tkrk gSA
Page 5


cy rFkk nkc
cy rFkk nkc
{kk VII esa vki lh[k pqosQ gSa fd oLrq,¡ xfr
oSQls djrh gSaA D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd ge
;g oSQls fuf'pr djrs gSa fd dksbZ oLrq nwljh
oLrq ls vfèkd rs”kh ls xfr'khy gS\ fdlh oLrq }kjk
,dkad le; esa pyh xbZ nwjh D;k lwfpr djrh gS\
vki ;g Hkh tkurs gSa fd ”kehu ij yq<+drh gqbZ xsan
tSlh dksbZ xfr'khy oLrq èkheh gks tkrh gSA dHkh&dHkh
;g viuh xfr dh fn'kk Hkh cny ldrh gSA ;g Hkh
laHko gS fd xsan èkheh gks tk, rFkk viuh fn'kk Hkh
cny ysA D;k vkius dHkh lkspk gS fd xfr'khy oLrq
èkheh ;k rs”k oSQls gks tkrh gS] vFkok viuh xfr dh
fn'kk oSQls cny ysrh gS\
vkb, vius izfrfnu osQ oqQN vuqHkoksa dks Lej.k
djsaA fdlh iqQVcky dks xfr'khy djus osQ fy, D;k
djrs gSa\ fdlh xfr'khy xsan dks] vkSj vfèkd rs”kh
ls pykus osQ fy, vki D;k djrs gSa\ ,d xksyh
(xksyj{kd) xsan dks fdl izdkj jksdrk gS\ {ks=k
j{kd] cYysckt }kjk fgV dh xbZ xsan dks oSQls
jksdrs gSa\ gkWdh dk f[kykM+h gkWdh ls izgkj djosQ
fdlh xfr'khy xsan dh fn'kk cny nsrk gS (fp=k
11-1)A bu lHkh fLFkfr;ksa esa xsan dh xfr dks rs”k
;k èkhek dj fn;k tkrk gS vFkok bldh xfr dh
fn'kk dks cny fn;k tkrk gSA
ge izk;% dgrs gSa fd tc fdlh xsan dks èkDdk
nsrs gSa] isaQdrs gSa] Bksdj ekjrs gSa ;k izgkj djrs gSa
rks ml ij cy yxk;k tkrk gSA cy D;k gS\ ftu
oLrqvksa ij ;g yxk;k tkrk gS mu ij ;g D;k
izHkko Mkyrk gS\ bl vè;k; esa ge ,sls gh iz'uksa
osQ mÙkj [kkstsaxsA
11-1 cyµvid"kZ.k ;k vfHkd"kZ.k
mBkuk] [kksyuk] can djuk] Bksdj ekjuk] fgV djuk]
izgkj djuk] èkDdk nsuk] [khapuk vkfn ,slh fØ;k,¡ gSa
tks izk;% oqQN dk;ks± dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, iz;ksx dh
tkrh gSaA buesa ls izR;sd dk;Z izk;% oLrq dh xfr esa
fdlh izdkj dk ifjorZu ykus dk iz;kl djrk gSA D;k
bu 'kCnksa dh txg ,d ;k vfèkd vU; 'kCnksa dk
iz;ksx dj ldrs gSa\ vkb, Kkr djsaA
(a) (b) (c)
fp=k 11-1 % (a) xksyh] xksy dks cpkrs gq, (b) gkWdh dk f[kykM+h xsan ij izgkj djrs gq, (c) {ks=kj{kd xsan dks jksdrs gq,A
d
foKku 128
fØ;kdyki 11-1
lkj.kh 11-1 esa oLrqvksa dh xfr dh lqifjfpr fLFkfr;ksa osQ oqQN mnkgj.k fn;s x, gSaA vki buesa oqQN ,slh
gh vkSj vfèkd fLFkfr;ksa dks tksM+ ldrs gSa vFkok bu mnkgj.kksa esa ls oqQN dks cny ldrs gSaA izR;sd n'kk
esa dk;Z dks èkDdk nsuk vFkok@;k [khapuk osQ :i esa igpkfu, rFkk lkj.kh esa fyf[k;sA vkidh lgk;rk osQ
fy, ,d mnkgj.k fn;k x;k gSA
lkj.kh 11-1 oqQN dk;ks± dks vid"kZ.k rFkk vfHkd"kZ.k osQ :i esa igpkuuk
eSaus d{kk VI esa i<+k gS fd pqEcd ,d
yksgs osQ VqdM+s dks viuh vksj vkdf"kZr
djrk gSA D;k vkd"kZ.k Hkh ,d f[kapko
(vfHkd"kZ.k) gS\ fdlh pqEcd osQ nks leku
/zqoksa osQ chp izfrd"kZ.k osQ ckjs esa vki D;k
lksprs gSa\ ;g f[kapko (vfHkd"kZ.k) gS ;k
èkDdk (vid"kZ.k)\
Ø-la- fLFkfr dk o.kZu dk;Z % (/Ddk nsuk@p;u djuk@[khapuk@Bksdj
ekjuk@mBkuk@>qdkuk@mM+kuk@isaQduk@can djuk@
izgkj djuk@Åij mBkuk)
vid"kZ.k vfHkd"kZ.k
1- es”k ij j[kh iqLrd dks
xfr'khy cukuk
2- njok”ks dks [kksyuk ;k can
djuk
3- oqQ,¡ ls ikuh dh ckYVh
dks [khapuk
4- iqQVcky osQ f[kykM+h dk
isuYVh fdd ysuk
5- ,d cYysckt }kjk fØosQV
dh xsan ij izgkj djuk
6- ynh gqbZ cSyxkM+h dks
pykuk
7- fdlh es”k dh njkt dks
[kksyuk
/Ddk nsuk [khapuk mBkuk µ gk¡ gk¡
dk;Z dks O;Dr dj
ldrs gSa
D;k vkius è;ku fn;k fd buesa ls izR;sd dk;Z
dks vfHkd"kZ.k ([khapuk) ;k vid"kZ.k (èkDdk nsuk)
vFkok nksuksa osQ :i esa O;Dr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
D;k ge blls ;g fu"d"kZ fudky ldrs gSa fd
fdlh oLrq dks xfr esa ykus osQ fy,] mls èkDdk
nsuk (vidf"kZr djuk) ;k [khapuk (vfHkdf"kZr djuk)
iM+rk gS\
foKku esa fdlh oLrq ij yxus okys èkDosQ
(vfHkd"kZ.k) ;k f[kapko (vid"kZ.k) dks cy dgrs
gSaA vr% ge dg ldrs gSa fd oLrqvksa dks nh xbZ xfr
cy yxus osQ dkj.k gksrh gSA oLrq ij cy dc yxrk
gS\ vkb, Kkr djsaA
cy rFkk nkc 129
fp=k 11-3(b) % dkSu fdls [khap jgk gS\
11-2 cy vU;ksU;fØ;k osQ dkj.k yxrs gSa
eku yhft, dksbZ vkneh fLFkj dkj osQ ihNs [kM+k gS
[fp=k 11-2(a)]A D;k mldh mifLFkfr osQ dkj.k dkj
xfr esa vk,xh\ eku yhft, vc vkneh dkj dks
èkDdk yxkuk izkjEHk djrk gS [fp=k 11-2(b)]] vFkkZr]
og bl ij cy yxkrk gSA dkj yxk, x, cy dh
fn'kk esa xfr djuk izkjEHk dj ldrh gSA è;ku nhft,
fp=k 11-2(a) % dkj osQ ihNs [kM+k ,d vknehA
fp=k 11-3(c) % dkSu fdls [khap jgk gS\
fp=k 11-3(a) % dkSu fdls /osQy jgk gS\
 fp=k 11-2(b) % ,d vkneh }kjk dkj dks /Ddk yxkukA
fd dkj dks xfr nsus osQ fy, vkneh dks bls èkDdk
yxkrs jguk gksxkA
fp=k 11-3 rhu fLFkfr;k¡ n'kkZrk gS ftuls laHkor%
vki ifjfpr gksaxsA D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd bu
fLFkfr;ksa esa dkSu [khap jgk gS vkSj dkSu èkDdk ns jgk
gS\ fp=k 11-3(a) esa nksuksa yM+fd;k¡ ,d&nwljs dks
èkDdk nsrh gqbZ izrhr gksrh gSa tcfd fp=k 11-3(b) esa
yM+fd;ksa dk ;qXe ,d nwljs dks [khapus dk iz;Ru
dj jgk gSA blh izdkj fp=k 11-3(c) esa xk; rFkk
vkneh nksuksa ,d nwljs dks [khaprs izrhr gksrs gSaA ;gk¡
ij n'kkZ;h xbZ nksuksa fLFkfr;ksa esa yM+fd;k¡ ,d&nwljs
ij cy yxk jgh gSaA D;k ;g ckr vkneh rFkk xk;
ij Hkh ykxw gksrh gS\
bu mnkgj.kksa ls ge fu"d"kZ fudky ldrs gSa
fd cy yxus osQ fy, de ls de nks oLrqvksa esa
vU;ksU;fØ;k gksuh vko';d gSA bl izdkj nks oLrqvksa
osQ chp vU;ksU;fØ;k osQ dkj.k muosQ chp cy
yxrk gSA
foKku 130
D;k bldk vFkZ ;g gS fd ;fn fdlh oLrq
ij foijhr fn'kkvksa esa yxus okys cy cjkcj
gSa rks ml ij yxus okyk usV cy 'kwU; gksxk\
11-3 cyksa dh [kkstchu
vkb, cyksa osQ ckjs esa oqQN vfèkd lh[kus dk iz;Ru djsaA
fØ;kdyki 11-2
dksbZ Hkkjh oLrq tSls es”k ;k lanwd yhft, ftls
vki tksj ls èkosQyus ij gh xfr esa yk losaQA bls
vosQys èkosQyus dk iz;Ru dhft,A D;k vki bls
f[kldk ikrs gSa\ vc vius fdlh fe=k ls dfg,
fd cDls dks mlh fn'kk esa èkosQyus esa vkidh
lgk;rk djs [fp=k 11-4(a)]A D;k vc bldks
f[kldkuk vklku gS\ D;k vki crk ldrs gSa fd
,slk D;ksa gqvk\
vc mlh oLrq dks fiQj ls èkosQfy, ysfdu bl
ckj vius fe=k ls dfg, fd og bls foijhr
fn'kk ls èkosQys [fp=k 11-4(b)]A D;k oLrq xfreku
gksrh gS\ ;fn ;g xfr esa vkrh gS rks bldh xfr
dh fn'kk dks uksV dhft,A D;k vki vuqeku yxk
ldrs gSa fd vki esa ls dkSu vfèkd cy yxk
jgk gS\
fp=k 11-4 % nks fe=k ,d Hkkjh oLrq dks èkDdk nsrs gq,
(a) ,d gh fn'kk esa (b) foijhr fn'kk esaA
(a)
(b)
fp=k 11-5 % ;fn nksuksa Vksfy;k¡ jLls dks leku cy ls [khaprh
gSa rks jLlk f[kldrk ughaA
D;k vkius dHkh jLlkd'h dk [ksy ns[kk gS\ bl
[ksy esa nks Vksfy;k¡ ,d jLls dks foijhr fn'kk esa
[khaprh gSa (fp=k 11-5)A nksuksa Vksfy;ksa osQ lnL; jLls
dks viuh fn'kk esa [khapus dk iz;Ru djrs gSaA dHkh&dHkh
jLlk fcyoqQy ugha f[kldrkA D;k ;g fp=k 11-3(b)
esa n'kkZ;h xbZ fLFkfr osQ leku ugha gS\ tks Vksyh vfèkd
tksj ls [khaprh gS] vFkkZr vfèkd cy yxkrh gS] var
esa ogh [ksy esa fot;h gksrh gSA
;s mnkgj.k cy osQ ckjs esa D;k lq>krs gSa\
fdlh oLrq ij ,d gh fn'kk esa yxk, x, cy tqM+
tkrs gSaA vc Lej.k dhft, fd fØ;kdyki 11-2 esa tc
vki rFkk vkiosQ fe=k us Hkkjh lanwd dks ,d gh fn'kk esa
èkosQyk Fkk rks D;k gqvk FkkA
;fn fdlh oLrq ij nks cy foijhr fn'kk esa dk;Z
djrs gSa rks bl ij yxus okyk oqQy (usV) cy nksuksa
cyksa osQ varj osQ cjkcj gksrk gSA fØ;kdyki
11-2 esa tc vki nksuksa Hkkjh lanwd dks foijhr fn'kk
esa èkosQy jgs Fks rks vkius D;k ns[kk Fkk\
Lej.k dhft, fd jLlkd'kh osQ [ksy esa tc nksuksa
Vksfy;k¡ jLls ij cjkcj cy yxk dj [khaprh gSa rks
jLlk fdlh Hkh fn'kk esa ugha tkrkA
bl izdkj geus lh[kk fd ,d cy nwljs ls cM+k
;k NksVk gks ldrk gSA cy dh izcyrk izk;% blosQ
ifjek.k ls ekih tkrh gSA cy osQ ckjs esa crkrs le;
gesa ml fn'kk dk mYys[k djuk Hkh vko';d gS
ftlesa cy dk;Z djrk gSA ;g Hkh ;kn jf[k,] ;fn
yxk, x, cy dh fn'kk ;k ifjek.k esa ifjorZu gks tk,
rks bldk izHkko Hkh cny tkrk gSA
cy rFkk nkc 131
11-4 cy oLrq dh xfr dh voLFkk esa
ifjorZu dj ldrk gS
vkb, vc Kkr djsa fd tc fdlh oLrq ij cy yxrk
gS rks D;k gksrk gSA
fØ;kdyki 11-3
jcM+ dh ,d xsan yhft, rFkk bls fdlh lery
lrg tSls es”k ij ;k oaQdjhV osQ iQ'kZ ij jf[k,A
vc xsan dks èkhjs ls lery lrg ij èkDdk
nhft, (fp=k 11-6)A D;k xsan xfr esa vk tkrh
gS\ xfr'khy xsan dks fiQj ls èkDdk nhft,A D;k
bldh pky esa oqQN ifjorZu gksrk gS\ ;g c<+rh
gS ;k ?kVrh gS\ vc viuh gFksyh dks xfr'khy
xsan osQ lkeus jf[k,A tSls gh xfr'khy xsan bls
Li'kZ djs gFksyh dks gVk yhft,A D;k vkidh
gFksyh xsan ij dksbZ cy yxkrh gS\ xsan dh pky
ij bldk D;k izHkko iM+rk gS\ D;k ;g c<+rh gS
;k ?kVrh gS\ ;fn vki xfr'khy xsan dks viuh
gFksyh ls jksd ysa rks D;k gksxk\
vki blh izdkj dh vU; fLFkfr;ksa ij fopkj
dj ldrs gSaA mnkgj.k osQ fy,] isuYVh fdd ysrs
le; f[kykM+h xsan ij cy yxkrk gSA fdd yxus
ls igys xsan fojke voLFkk esa Fkh] vr% bldh pky
'kwU; FkhA yxk, x, cy us xsan dks xksy dh vksj
xfr iznku dhA eku yhft, xksyh] xksy cpkus osQ
fy, xsan ij >iVrk gS ;k mNyrk gSA bl fØ;k
}kjk xksyh xfr'khy xsan ij cy yxkus dk iz;Ru
djrk gSA mlosQ }kjk yxk;k x;k cy xsan
dks jksd ldrk gS ;k fo{ksfir dj ldrk gS vkSj
xksy gksus ls cpk ldrk gSA ;fn xksyh xsan dks
jksdus esa liQy gks tkrk gS rks bldh pky 'kwU; gks
tkrh gSA
;s izs{k.k lq>krs gSa fd fdlh oLrq ij yxk, x,
cy }kjk mldh pky cnyh tk ldrh gSA ;fn
yxk;k x;k cy xfr dh fn'kk esa gS rks oLrq dh
pky c<+ tkrh gSA ;fn cy oLrq dh xfr dh fn'kk
osQ foijhr fn'kk esa yxk;k tk, rks oLrq dh pky
de gks tkrh gSA
lkekU; :i esas] fdlh oLrq ij ,d ls vfèkd cy yxs
gks ldrs gSaA rFkkfi] oLrq ij budk izHkko usV cy osQ
dkj.k gh gksrk gSA
fp=k 11-6 % fojke voLFkk esa xsan ij cy yxkus ij og
xfr'khy gks tkrh gSA
eSaus cPpksa dks ,d&nwljs ls] jcM+ osQ Vk;j
;k fdlh ?ksjs dks èkosQy dj rs”k pykus
dh gksM+ yxkrs  ns[kk gS (fp=k 11-7)A vc
eSa le> x;k gw¡ fd èkDdk nsus ij Vk;j
dh pky D;ksa c<+ tkrh gSA
fp=k 11-7 % Vk;j dks rs”k xfr ls pykus osQ fy, bls yxkrkj
èkDdk yxkuk iM+rk gSA
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