NCERT Textbook - चुंबकत्व एवं द्रव्य Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - चुंबकत्व एवं द्रव्य Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


5.1 Hkwfedk
pqacdh; ifj?kVuk çÑfr esa lkoZHkkSfed gSA fo'kky nwjLFk xSysfDl;k¡] vfrlw{e vn`'; ijek.kq]
vkneh vkSj tkuoj] lcesa Hkk¡fr&Hkk¡fr osQ Ïksrksa ls mRiUu Hkk¡fr&Hkk¡fr osQ pqacdh; {ks=k O;kIr gSaA
Hkw&pqacdRo] ekuoh; fodkl ls Hkh iwoZ ls vfLrRo esa gSA ^pqacd* 'kCn ;wuku osQ ,d }hi
eSXusf'k;k osQ uke ls O;qRiUu gS] tgk¡ cgqr igys 600 bZlk iwoZ pqacdh; v;Ldksa osQ HkaMkj feys
FksA bl }hi osQ xM+fj;ksa us f'kdk;r dh fd muosQ ydM+h osQ twrs (ftuesa dhysa yxh gqbZ Fkha)]
dbZ ckj tehu ls fpid tkrs FksA yksgs dh Vksih p<+h mudh ykBh Hkh blh çdkj çHkkfor gksrh
FkhA pqacdksa osQ bl vkdf"kZr djus okys xq.k us mudk ?kweuk&fiQjuk nwHkj cuk
fn;k FkkA
pqacdksa dk nSf'kd xq.k Hkh çkphu dky ls Kkr FkkA pqacd dk ,d iryk yack VqdM+k]
Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk, tkus ij] ges'kk mÙkj&nf{k.k fn'kk osQ vuqfn'k Bgjrk FkkA ,slk gh O;ogkj
rc Hkh ns[kus esa vkrk Fkk tc bldks ,d dkWoZQ osQ Åij j[k dj] mldks Bgjs gq, ikuh esa rSjk;k
tkrk FkkA izko`Qfrd :i ls ik, tkus okys yksgs osQ ,d v;Ld eSXusVkbV dk ,d uke yksMLVksu
gS] ftldk vFkZ gS yhfMax LVksu vFkkZr ekxZn'kZd iRFkjA bl xq.k osQ rduhdh mi;ksx dk Js;
vkerkSj ij phfu;ksa dks fn;k tkrk gSA 400 bZlk iwoZ dh phuh ikB~;iqLrdksa esa ukSdk;u esa fn'kk
Kku osQ fy, pqacdh; lqb;ksa osQ mi;ksx dk f”kØ gSA xksch jsfxLrku dks ikj djus okys dkfI
+
kQys
Hkh pqacdh; lqb;ksa dk mi;ksx djrs FksA
,d phuh vk[;ku esa] yxHkx 4000 o"kZ iqjkuh] lezkV àsax&rh dh fot; xkFkk gS] ftlesa
mldks vius f'kYidkjksa (ftUgsa vkt dh Hkk"kk esa vki bathfu;j dgrs gSa) osQ dkj.k fot; çkIr
vè;k; 5
pqacdRo ,oa nzO;
Chapter 5(Hindi).PMD 5/24/2007, 5:13 AM 173
Page 2


5.1 Hkwfedk
pqacdh; ifj?kVuk çÑfr esa lkoZHkkSfed gSA fo'kky nwjLFk xSysfDl;k¡] vfrlw{e vn`'; ijek.kq]
vkneh vkSj tkuoj] lcesa Hkk¡fr&Hkk¡fr osQ Ïksrksa ls mRiUu Hkk¡fr&Hkk¡fr osQ pqacdh; {ks=k O;kIr gSaA
Hkw&pqacdRo] ekuoh; fodkl ls Hkh iwoZ ls vfLrRo esa gSA ^pqacd* 'kCn ;wuku osQ ,d }hi
eSXusf'k;k osQ uke ls O;qRiUu gS] tgk¡ cgqr igys 600 bZlk iwoZ pqacdh; v;Ldksa osQ HkaMkj feys
FksA bl }hi osQ xM+fj;ksa us f'kdk;r dh fd muosQ ydM+h osQ twrs (ftuesa dhysa yxh gqbZ Fkha)]
dbZ ckj tehu ls fpid tkrs FksA yksgs dh Vksih p<+h mudh ykBh Hkh blh çdkj çHkkfor gksrh
FkhA pqacdksa osQ bl vkdf"kZr djus okys xq.k us mudk ?kweuk&fiQjuk nwHkj cuk
fn;k FkkA
pqacdksa dk nSf'kd xq.k Hkh çkphu dky ls Kkr FkkA pqacd dk ,d iryk yack VqdM+k]
Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk, tkus ij] ges'kk mÙkj&nf{k.k fn'kk osQ vuqfn'k Bgjrk FkkA ,slk gh O;ogkj
rc Hkh ns[kus esa vkrk Fkk tc bldks ,d dkWoZQ osQ Åij j[k dj] mldks Bgjs gq, ikuh esa rSjk;k
tkrk FkkA izko`Qfrd :i ls ik, tkus okys yksgs osQ ,d v;Ld eSXusVkbV dk ,d uke yksMLVksu
gS] ftldk vFkZ gS yhfMax LVksu vFkkZr ekxZn'kZd iRFkjA bl xq.k osQ rduhdh mi;ksx dk Js;
vkerkSj ij phfu;ksa dks fn;k tkrk gSA 400 bZlk iwoZ dh phuh ikB~;iqLrdksa esa ukSdk;u esa fn'kk
Kku osQ fy, pqacdh; lqb;ksa osQ mi;ksx dk f”kØ gSA xksch jsfxLrku dks ikj djus okys dkfI
+
kQys
Hkh pqacdh; lqb;ksa dk mi;ksx djrs FksA
,d phuh vk[;ku esa] yxHkx 4000 o"kZ iqjkuh] lezkV àsax&rh dh fot; xkFkk gS] ftlesa
mldks vius f'kYidkjksa (ftUgsa vkt dh Hkk"kk esa vki bathfu;j dgrs gSa) osQ dkj.k fot; çkIr
vè;k; 5
pqacdRo ,oa nzO;
Chapter 5(Hindi).PMD 5/24/2007, 5:13 AM 173
174
HkkSfrdh
gqbZ FkhA bu ^bathfu;jksa* us ,d jFk cuk;k ftl ij mUgksaus pqacd dh cuh
gqbZ ,d çfrek yxkbZ] ftldk ,d gkFk ckgj iSQyk gqvk FkkA fp=k 5.1
esa bl jFk dk ,d fp=kdkj }kjk fn;k x;k fooj.k gSA jFk ij yxh gqbZ
çfrek bl rjg ?kwe tkrh Fkh fd mldh v¡xqyh ges'kk nf{k.k dh vksj
laosQr djsA bl jFk osQ lgkjs] ?kus dksgjs esa àsax&rh dh I+kQkStsa nq'eu osQ
ihNs igq¡p xb± vkSj vkØe.k dj mUgsa gjk fn;kA
fiNys vè;k; esa geus lh[kk fd xfr'khy vkos'k ;k fo|qr èkkjk
pqacdh; {ks=k mRiUu djrh gSA ;g [kkst tks mUuhloha 'krkCnh osQ
iwokZ¼Z esa dh xbZ Fkh] bldk Js; vkWLVsZM] ,sfEi;j] ck;ks ,oa lkoVZ rFkk
vU; oqQN yksxksa dks fn;k tkrk gSA
çLrqr vè;k; esa ge pqacdRo ij ,d Lora=k fo"k; osQ :i esa n`f"V
MkysaxsA
pqacdRo lacaèkh oqQN vke fopkj bl çdkj gSaµ
(i) i`Foh ,d pqacd dh Hkk¡fr O;ogkj djrh gS ftldk pqacdh; {ks=k
yxHkx HkkSxksfyd nf{k.k ls mÙkj dh vksj laosQr djrk gSA
(ii) tc ,d NM+ pqacd dks Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk;k ;k 'kkar ikuh ij
rSjk;k tkrk gS rks ;g mÙkj&nf{k.k fn'kk esa Bgjrk gSA bldk og fljk tks HkkSxksfyd mÙkj dh
vksj laosQr djrk gS] mÙkjh èkqzo vkSj tks HkkSxksfyd nf{k.k dh vksj laosQr djrk gS] pqacd dk
nf{k.kh èkqzo dgykrk gSA
(iii) nks i`Fkd&i`Fkd pqacdksa osQ nks mÙkjh èkqzo (;k nks nf{k.kh èkzqo) tc ikl&ikl yk, tkrs gSa
rks os ,d&nwljs dks fod£"kr djrs gSaA blosQ foijhr] ,d pqacd osQ mÙkj vkSj nwljs osQ
nf{k.k èkqzo ,d&nwljs dks vkd£"kr djrs gSaA
(iv) fdlh pqacd osQ mÙkj vkSj nf{k.k èkqzoksa dks vyx&vyx ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ;fn fdlh
NM+ pqacd dks nks Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk, rks gesa nks NksVs vyx&vyx NM+ pqacd fey
tk,¡xs] ftudk pqacdRo {kh.k gksxkA oS|qr vkos'kksa dh rjg] foyfxr pqacdh; mÙkjh rFkk
nf{k.kh /zqoksa ftUgsa pqacdh; ,dèkqzo dgrs gSa] dk vfLrRo ugha gSA
(v) ykSg vkSj bldh feJ&èkkrqvksa ls pqacd cukus laHko gSaA
bl vè;k; esa ge ,d NM+ pqacd vkSj ,d cká pqacdh; {ks=k esa blosQ O;ogkj osQ o.kZu
ls çkjaHk djsaxsA ge pqacdRo lacaèkh xkml dk fu;e crk,¡xsA blosQ ckn i`Foh osQ pqacdh; {ks=k
dk fooj.k nsaxsA mlosQ ckn ;g crk,¡xs fd pqacdh; xq.kksa osQ vkèkkj ij inkFkks± dk oxhZdj.k oSQls
fd;k tkrk gS vkSj fiQj vuqpqacdRo] çfrpqacdRo rFkk ykSg&pqacdRo dk o.kZu djsaxs vkSj var
esa oS|qr&pqacd ,oa LFkk;h pqacdksa ij ,d vuqHkkx osQ lkFk bldk lekiu djsaxsA
5.2 NM+ pqacd
çfl¼ HkkSfrd foKkuh vYcVZ vkbalVhu osQ vfr çkjafHkd cpiu dh Le`fr;ksa esa ls ,d ml
pqacd ls tqM+h Fkh] tks mUgsa muosQ ,d lacaèkh us HksaV fd;k FkkA vkbalVhu mlls peRÑr gks x,
Fks vkSj mlls [ksyrs gq, dHkh Fkdrs ugha FksA mudks vk'p;Z gksrk Fkk fd oSQls ,d pqacd mu
dhyksa vkSj fiuksa dks viuh vksj [khap ysrh Fkh] tks mlls nwj j[ks Fks vkSj fdlh ¯Lçx ;k èkkxs
}kjk mlls tqM+s Hkh ugha FksA
fp=k 5.1 jFk ij LFkkfir çfrek dk gkFk ges'kk
nf{k.k dh vksj laosQr djrk gSA ;g ,d dykdkj
}kjk cuk;k x;k vkjs[k gS] ftlesa ,d çkphure
Kkr daikl fn[kk;k x;k gS] tks gtkjksa lky iqjkuk gSA
Chapter 5(Hindi).PMD 5/24/2007, 5:13 AM 174
Page 3


5.1 Hkwfedk
pqacdh; ifj?kVuk çÑfr esa lkoZHkkSfed gSA fo'kky nwjLFk xSysfDl;k¡] vfrlw{e vn`'; ijek.kq]
vkneh vkSj tkuoj] lcesa Hkk¡fr&Hkk¡fr osQ Ïksrksa ls mRiUu Hkk¡fr&Hkk¡fr osQ pqacdh; {ks=k O;kIr gSaA
Hkw&pqacdRo] ekuoh; fodkl ls Hkh iwoZ ls vfLrRo esa gSA ^pqacd* 'kCn ;wuku osQ ,d }hi
eSXusf'k;k osQ uke ls O;qRiUu gS] tgk¡ cgqr igys 600 bZlk iwoZ pqacdh; v;Ldksa osQ HkaMkj feys
FksA bl }hi osQ xM+fj;ksa us f'kdk;r dh fd muosQ ydM+h osQ twrs (ftuesa dhysa yxh gqbZ Fkha)]
dbZ ckj tehu ls fpid tkrs FksA yksgs dh Vksih p<+h mudh ykBh Hkh blh çdkj çHkkfor gksrh
FkhA pqacdksa osQ bl vkdf"kZr djus okys xq.k us mudk ?kweuk&fiQjuk nwHkj cuk
fn;k FkkA
pqacdksa dk nSf'kd xq.k Hkh çkphu dky ls Kkr FkkA pqacd dk ,d iryk yack VqdM+k]
Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk, tkus ij] ges'kk mÙkj&nf{k.k fn'kk osQ vuqfn'k Bgjrk FkkA ,slk gh O;ogkj
rc Hkh ns[kus esa vkrk Fkk tc bldks ,d dkWoZQ osQ Åij j[k dj] mldks Bgjs gq, ikuh esa rSjk;k
tkrk FkkA izko`Qfrd :i ls ik, tkus okys yksgs osQ ,d v;Ld eSXusVkbV dk ,d uke yksMLVksu
gS] ftldk vFkZ gS yhfMax LVksu vFkkZr ekxZn'kZd iRFkjA bl xq.k osQ rduhdh mi;ksx dk Js;
vkerkSj ij phfu;ksa dks fn;k tkrk gSA 400 bZlk iwoZ dh phuh ikB~;iqLrdksa esa ukSdk;u esa fn'kk
Kku osQ fy, pqacdh; lqb;ksa osQ mi;ksx dk f”kØ gSA xksch jsfxLrku dks ikj djus okys dkfI
+
kQys
Hkh pqacdh; lqb;ksa dk mi;ksx djrs FksA
,d phuh vk[;ku esa] yxHkx 4000 o"kZ iqjkuh] lezkV àsax&rh dh fot; xkFkk gS] ftlesa
mldks vius f'kYidkjksa (ftUgsa vkt dh Hkk"kk esa vki bathfu;j dgrs gSa) osQ dkj.k fot; çkIr
vè;k; 5
pqacdRo ,oa nzO;
Chapter 5(Hindi).PMD 5/24/2007, 5:13 AM 173
174
HkkSfrdh
gqbZ FkhA bu ^bathfu;jksa* us ,d jFk cuk;k ftl ij mUgksaus pqacd dh cuh
gqbZ ,d çfrek yxkbZ] ftldk ,d gkFk ckgj iSQyk gqvk FkkA fp=k 5.1
esa bl jFk dk ,d fp=kdkj }kjk fn;k x;k fooj.k gSA jFk ij yxh gqbZ
çfrek bl rjg ?kwe tkrh Fkh fd mldh v¡xqyh ges'kk nf{k.k dh vksj
laosQr djsA bl jFk osQ lgkjs] ?kus dksgjs esa àsax&rh dh I+kQkStsa nq'eu osQ
ihNs igq¡p xb± vkSj vkØe.k dj mUgsa gjk fn;kA
fiNys vè;k; esa geus lh[kk fd xfr'khy vkos'k ;k fo|qr èkkjk
pqacdh; {ks=k mRiUu djrh gSA ;g [kkst tks mUuhloha 'krkCnh osQ
iwokZ¼Z esa dh xbZ Fkh] bldk Js; vkWLVsZM] ,sfEi;j] ck;ks ,oa lkoVZ rFkk
vU; oqQN yksxksa dks fn;k tkrk gSA
çLrqr vè;k; esa ge pqacdRo ij ,d Lora=k fo"k; osQ :i esa n`f"V
MkysaxsA
pqacdRo lacaèkh oqQN vke fopkj bl çdkj gSaµ
(i) i`Foh ,d pqacd dh Hkk¡fr O;ogkj djrh gS ftldk pqacdh; {ks=k
yxHkx HkkSxksfyd nf{k.k ls mÙkj dh vksj laosQr djrk gSA
(ii) tc ,d NM+ pqacd dks Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk;k ;k 'kkar ikuh ij
rSjk;k tkrk gS rks ;g mÙkj&nf{k.k fn'kk esa Bgjrk gSA bldk og fljk tks HkkSxksfyd mÙkj dh
vksj laosQr djrk gS] mÙkjh èkqzo vkSj tks HkkSxksfyd nf{k.k dh vksj laosQr djrk gS] pqacd dk
nf{k.kh èkqzo dgykrk gSA
(iii) nks i`Fkd&i`Fkd pqacdksa osQ nks mÙkjh èkqzo (;k nks nf{k.kh èkzqo) tc ikl&ikl yk, tkrs gSa
rks os ,d&nwljs dks fod£"kr djrs gSaA blosQ foijhr] ,d pqacd osQ mÙkj vkSj nwljs osQ
nf{k.k èkqzo ,d&nwljs dks vkd£"kr djrs gSaA
(iv) fdlh pqacd osQ mÙkj vkSj nf{k.k èkqzoksa dks vyx&vyx ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ;fn fdlh
NM+ pqacd dks nks Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk, rks gesa nks NksVs vyx&vyx NM+ pqacd fey
tk,¡xs] ftudk pqacdRo {kh.k gksxkA oS|qr vkos'kksa dh rjg] foyfxr pqacdh; mÙkjh rFkk
nf{k.kh /zqoksa ftUgsa pqacdh; ,dèkqzo dgrs gSa] dk vfLrRo ugha gSA
(v) ykSg vkSj bldh feJ&èkkrqvksa ls pqacd cukus laHko gSaA
bl vè;k; esa ge ,d NM+ pqacd vkSj ,d cká pqacdh; {ks=k esa blosQ O;ogkj osQ o.kZu
ls çkjaHk djsaxsA ge pqacdRo lacaèkh xkml dk fu;e crk,¡xsA blosQ ckn i`Foh osQ pqacdh; {ks=k
dk fooj.k nsaxsA mlosQ ckn ;g crk,¡xs fd pqacdh; xq.kksa osQ vkèkkj ij inkFkks± dk oxhZdj.k oSQls
fd;k tkrk gS vkSj fiQj vuqpqacdRo] çfrpqacdRo rFkk ykSg&pqacdRo dk o.kZu djsaxs vkSj var
esa oS|qr&pqacd ,oa LFkk;h pqacdksa ij ,d vuqHkkx osQ lkFk bldk lekiu djsaxsA
5.2 NM+ pqacd
çfl¼ HkkSfrd foKkuh vYcVZ vkbalVhu osQ vfr çkjafHkd cpiu dh Le`fr;ksa esa ls ,d ml
pqacd ls tqM+h Fkh] tks mUgsa muosQ ,d lacaèkh us HksaV fd;k FkkA vkbalVhu mlls peRÑr gks x,
Fks vkSj mlls [ksyrs gq, dHkh Fkdrs ugha FksA mudks vk'p;Z gksrk Fkk fd oSQls ,d pqacd mu
dhyksa vkSj fiuksa dks viuh vksj [khap ysrh Fkh] tks mlls nwj j[ks Fks vkSj fdlh ¯Lçx ;k èkkxs
}kjk mlls tqM+s Hkh ugha FksA
fp=k 5.1 jFk ij LFkkfir çfrek dk gkFk ges'kk
nf{k.k dh vksj laosQr djrk gSA ;g ,d dykdkj
}kjk cuk;k x;k vkjs[k gS] ftlesa ,d çkphure
Kkr daikl fn[kk;k x;k gS] tks gtkjksa lky iqjkuk gSA
Chapter 5(Hindi).PMD 5/24/2007, 5:13 AM 174
175
pqacdRo ,oa nzO;
ge vius vè;;u dh 'kq#vkr ykSg jsru ls djrs gSa tks ,d NksVs NM+ pqacd osQ Åij j[kh
xbZ dk¡p dh 'khV ij fNM+dk x;k gSA ykSg jsru dh ;g O;oLFkk fp=k 5.2 esa n'kkZ;h xbZ gSA
ykSg jsru osQ iSVuZ ;g bafxr djrs gSa fd pqacd osQ nks èkqzo gksrs gSa] oSls gh tSls oS|qr f}èkzqo
osQ èkukRed ,oa ½.kkRed vkos'kA tSlk fd igys Hkwfedk esa crk;k tk pqdk gS] ,d èkzqo dks
mÙkj vkSj nwljs dks nf{k.k èkqzo dgrs gSaA tc NM+ pqacd dks Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk;k tkrk gS rks
;s èkqzo Øe'k% yxHkx HkkSxksfyd mÙkjh ,oa nf{k.kh èkqzoksa dh vksj laosQr djrs gSaA ykSg jsru dk
blh ls feyrk&tqyrk iSVuZ ,d èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk osQ bnZ&fxnZ Hkh curk gSA
5.2.1 pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡
ykSg jsru osQ cus iSVuks± osQ vkèkkj ij ge pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡* [khap ldrs gSaA fp=k 5.3 esa ;g
NM+ pqacd vkSj èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk] nksuksa osQ fy, n'kkZ;k x;k gSA rqyuk osQ fy, vè;k; ,d
fp=k 1.17(d) nsf[k,A fo|qr f}/qzo dh oS|qr cy js[kk,¡ fp=k 5.3(c) esa Hkh  n'kkZ;h xbZ gSaA
pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡] pqacdh; {ks=k dk n`'; vkSj varnZ`f"Vijd çLrqrhdj.k gaSA buosQ xq.k gSa%
(i) fdlh pqacd (;k /kjkokgh ifjukfydk) dh pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡ larr can ywi cukrh gSaA
;g oS|qr&f}èkqzo osQ tSlh ugha gS] tgk¡ ;s js[kk,¡ èkukos'k ls 'kq: gksdj ½.kkos'k ij [kRe
gks tkrh gSa [fp=k 5.3(c) nsf[k,] ;k fiQj vuar dh vksj pyh tkrh gSaA
(ii) {ks=k js[kk osQ fdlh ¯cnq ij [khaph xbZ Li'kZ js[kk ml ¯cnq ij ifj.kkeh pqacdh; {ks=k B
dh fn'kk crkrh gSA
fp=k 5.2 ,d NM+ pqacd osQ
bnZ&fxnZ ykSg jsru dh
O;oLFkkA  ;g iSVuZ pqacdh;
{ks=k js[kkvksa dh vuqÑfr gSA
;s bafxr djrs gSa fd NM+
pqacd ,d pqacdh; f}èkqzo gSA
* oqQN ikB~;iqLrdksa esa pqacdh; {ks=k js[kkvksa dks pqacdh; cy js[kk,¡ dgk x;k gSA bl ukekoyh ls cpuk
mfpr gksxk D;ksafd ;g Hkzked gSA fLFkjoS|qr ds foijhr pqacdRo esa {ks=k js[kk,¡ (xfreku) vkos'k ij
cy dh fn'kk dh lwpd ugha gSaA
fp=k 5.3 {ks=k js[kk,¡ (a) ,d NM+ pqacd dh (b) ,d lhfer vkdkj okyh èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk dh] vkSj (c) ,d oS|qr f}èkqzo dhA
cgqr vfèkd nwjh ij rhuksa js[kk leqPp; ,d ls gSaA  i ,oa  ii  vafdr oØ] can xkmlh; i`"B gSaA
Chapter 5(Hindi).PMD 5/24/2007, 5:13 AM 175
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5.1 Hkwfedk
pqacdh; ifj?kVuk çÑfr esa lkoZHkkSfed gSA fo'kky nwjLFk xSysfDl;k¡] vfrlw{e vn`'; ijek.kq]
vkneh vkSj tkuoj] lcesa Hkk¡fr&Hkk¡fr osQ Ïksrksa ls mRiUu Hkk¡fr&Hkk¡fr osQ pqacdh; {ks=k O;kIr gSaA
Hkw&pqacdRo] ekuoh; fodkl ls Hkh iwoZ ls vfLrRo esa gSA ^pqacd* 'kCn ;wuku osQ ,d }hi
eSXusf'k;k osQ uke ls O;qRiUu gS] tgk¡ cgqr igys 600 bZlk iwoZ pqacdh; v;Ldksa osQ HkaMkj feys
FksA bl }hi osQ xM+fj;ksa us f'kdk;r dh fd muosQ ydM+h osQ twrs (ftuesa dhysa yxh gqbZ Fkha)]
dbZ ckj tehu ls fpid tkrs FksA yksgs dh Vksih p<+h mudh ykBh Hkh blh çdkj çHkkfor gksrh
FkhA pqacdksa osQ bl vkdf"kZr djus okys xq.k us mudk ?kweuk&fiQjuk nwHkj cuk
fn;k FkkA
pqacdksa dk nSf'kd xq.k Hkh çkphu dky ls Kkr FkkA pqacd dk ,d iryk yack VqdM+k]
Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk, tkus ij] ges'kk mÙkj&nf{k.k fn'kk osQ vuqfn'k Bgjrk FkkA ,slk gh O;ogkj
rc Hkh ns[kus esa vkrk Fkk tc bldks ,d dkWoZQ osQ Åij j[k dj] mldks Bgjs gq, ikuh esa rSjk;k
tkrk FkkA izko`Qfrd :i ls ik, tkus okys yksgs osQ ,d v;Ld eSXusVkbV dk ,d uke yksMLVksu
gS] ftldk vFkZ gS yhfMax LVksu vFkkZr ekxZn'kZd iRFkjA bl xq.k osQ rduhdh mi;ksx dk Js;
vkerkSj ij phfu;ksa dks fn;k tkrk gSA 400 bZlk iwoZ dh phuh ikB~;iqLrdksa esa ukSdk;u esa fn'kk
Kku osQ fy, pqacdh; lqb;ksa osQ mi;ksx dk f”kØ gSA xksch jsfxLrku dks ikj djus okys dkfI
+
kQys
Hkh pqacdh; lqb;ksa dk mi;ksx djrs FksA
,d phuh vk[;ku esa] yxHkx 4000 o"kZ iqjkuh] lezkV àsax&rh dh fot; xkFkk gS] ftlesa
mldks vius f'kYidkjksa (ftUgsa vkt dh Hkk"kk esa vki bathfu;j dgrs gSa) osQ dkj.k fot; çkIr
vè;k; 5
pqacdRo ,oa nzO;
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HkkSfrdh
gqbZ FkhA bu ^bathfu;jksa* us ,d jFk cuk;k ftl ij mUgksaus pqacd dh cuh
gqbZ ,d çfrek yxkbZ] ftldk ,d gkFk ckgj iSQyk gqvk FkkA fp=k 5.1
esa bl jFk dk ,d fp=kdkj }kjk fn;k x;k fooj.k gSA jFk ij yxh gqbZ
çfrek bl rjg ?kwe tkrh Fkh fd mldh v¡xqyh ges'kk nf{k.k dh vksj
laosQr djsA bl jFk osQ lgkjs] ?kus dksgjs esa àsax&rh dh I+kQkStsa nq'eu osQ
ihNs igq¡p xb± vkSj vkØe.k dj mUgsa gjk fn;kA
fiNys vè;k; esa geus lh[kk fd xfr'khy vkos'k ;k fo|qr èkkjk
pqacdh; {ks=k mRiUu djrh gSA ;g [kkst tks mUuhloha 'krkCnh osQ
iwokZ¼Z esa dh xbZ Fkh] bldk Js; vkWLVsZM] ,sfEi;j] ck;ks ,oa lkoVZ rFkk
vU; oqQN yksxksa dks fn;k tkrk gSA
çLrqr vè;k; esa ge pqacdRo ij ,d Lora=k fo"k; osQ :i esa n`f"V
MkysaxsA
pqacdRo lacaèkh oqQN vke fopkj bl çdkj gSaµ
(i) i`Foh ,d pqacd dh Hkk¡fr O;ogkj djrh gS ftldk pqacdh; {ks=k
yxHkx HkkSxksfyd nf{k.k ls mÙkj dh vksj laosQr djrk gSA
(ii) tc ,d NM+ pqacd dks Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk;k ;k 'kkar ikuh ij
rSjk;k tkrk gS rks ;g mÙkj&nf{k.k fn'kk esa Bgjrk gSA bldk og fljk tks HkkSxksfyd mÙkj dh
vksj laosQr djrk gS] mÙkjh èkqzo vkSj tks HkkSxksfyd nf{k.k dh vksj laosQr djrk gS] pqacd dk
nf{k.kh èkqzo dgykrk gSA
(iii) nks i`Fkd&i`Fkd pqacdksa osQ nks mÙkjh èkqzo (;k nks nf{k.kh èkzqo) tc ikl&ikl yk, tkrs gSa
rks os ,d&nwljs dks fod£"kr djrs gSaA blosQ foijhr] ,d pqacd osQ mÙkj vkSj nwljs osQ
nf{k.k èkqzo ,d&nwljs dks vkd£"kr djrs gSaA
(iv) fdlh pqacd osQ mÙkj vkSj nf{k.k èkqzoksa dks vyx&vyx ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ;fn fdlh
NM+ pqacd dks nks Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk, rks gesa nks NksVs vyx&vyx NM+ pqacd fey
tk,¡xs] ftudk pqacdRo {kh.k gksxkA oS|qr vkos'kksa dh rjg] foyfxr pqacdh; mÙkjh rFkk
nf{k.kh /zqoksa ftUgsa pqacdh; ,dèkqzo dgrs gSa] dk vfLrRo ugha gSA
(v) ykSg vkSj bldh feJ&èkkrqvksa ls pqacd cukus laHko gSaA
bl vè;k; esa ge ,d NM+ pqacd vkSj ,d cká pqacdh; {ks=k esa blosQ O;ogkj osQ o.kZu
ls çkjaHk djsaxsA ge pqacdRo lacaèkh xkml dk fu;e crk,¡xsA blosQ ckn i`Foh osQ pqacdh; {ks=k
dk fooj.k nsaxsA mlosQ ckn ;g crk,¡xs fd pqacdh; xq.kksa osQ vkèkkj ij inkFkks± dk oxhZdj.k oSQls
fd;k tkrk gS vkSj fiQj vuqpqacdRo] çfrpqacdRo rFkk ykSg&pqacdRo dk o.kZu djsaxs vkSj var
esa oS|qr&pqacd ,oa LFkk;h pqacdksa ij ,d vuqHkkx osQ lkFk bldk lekiu djsaxsA
5.2 NM+ pqacd
çfl¼ HkkSfrd foKkuh vYcVZ vkbalVhu osQ vfr çkjafHkd cpiu dh Le`fr;ksa esa ls ,d ml
pqacd ls tqM+h Fkh] tks mUgsa muosQ ,d lacaèkh us HksaV fd;k FkkA vkbalVhu mlls peRÑr gks x,
Fks vkSj mlls [ksyrs gq, dHkh Fkdrs ugha FksA mudks vk'p;Z gksrk Fkk fd oSQls ,d pqacd mu
dhyksa vkSj fiuksa dks viuh vksj [khap ysrh Fkh] tks mlls nwj j[ks Fks vkSj fdlh ¯Lçx ;k èkkxs
}kjk mlls tqM+s Hkh ugha FksA
fp=k 5.1 jFk ij LFkkfir çfrek dk gkFk ges'kk
nf{k.k dh vksj laosQr djrk gSA ;g ,d dykdkj
}kjk cuk;k x;k vkjs[k gS] ftlesa ,d çkphure
Kkr daikl fn[kk;k x;k gS] tks gtkjksa lky iqjkuk gSA
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pqacdRo ,oa nzO;
ge vius vè;;u dh 'kq#vkr ykSg jsru ls djrs gSa tks ,d NksVs NM+ pqacd osQ Åij j[kh
xbZ dk¡p dh 'khV ij fNM+dk x;k gSA ykSg jsru dh ;g O;oLFkk fp=k 5.2 esa n'kkZ;h xbZ gSA
ykSg jsru osQ iSVuZ ;g bafxr djrs gSa fd pqacd osQ nks èkqzo gksrs gSa] oSls gh tSls oS|qr f}èkzqo
osQ èkukRed ,oa ½.kkRed vkos'kA tSlk fd igys Hkwfedk esa crk;k tk pqdk gS] ,d èkzqo dks
mÙkj vkSj nwljs dks nf{k.k èkqzo dgrs gSaA tc NM+ pqacd dks Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk;k tkrk gS rks
;s èkqzo Øe'k% yxHkx HkkSxksfyd mÙkjh ,oa nf{k.kh èkqzoksa dh vksj laosQr djrs gSaA ykSg jsru dk
blh ls feyrk&tqyrk iSVuZ ,d èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk osQ bnZ&fxnZ Hkh curk gSA
5.2.1 pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡
ykSg jsru osQ cus iSVuks± osQ vkèkkj ij ge pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡* [khap ldrs gSaA fp=k 5.3 esa ;g
NM+ pqacd vkSj èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk] nksuksa osQ fy, n'kkZ;k x;k gSA rqyuk osQ fy, vè;k; ,d
fp=k 1.17(d) nsf[k,A fo|qr f}/qzo dh oS|qr cy js[kk,¡ fp=k 5.3(c) esa Hkh  n'kkZ;h xbZ gSaA
pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡] pqacdh; {ks=k dk n`'; vkSj varnZ`f"Vijd çLrqrhdj.k gaSA buosQ xq.k gSa%
(i) fdlh pqacd (;k /kjkokgh ifjukfydk) dh pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡ larr can ywi cukrh gSaA
;g oS|qr&f}èkqzo osQ tSlh ugha gS] tgk¡ ;s js[kk,¡ èkukos'k ls 'kq: gksdj ½.kkos'k ij [kRe
gks tkrh gSa [fp=k 5.3(c) nsf[k,] ;k fiQj vuar dh vksj pyh tkrh gSaA
(ii) {ks=k js[kk osQ fdlh ¯cnq ij [khaph xbZ Li'kZ js[kk ml ¯cnq ij ifj.kkeh pqacdh; {ks=k B
dh fn'kk crkrh gSA
fp=k 5.2 ,d NM+ pqacd osQ
bnZ&fxnZ ykSg jsru dh
O;oLFkkA  ;g iSVuZ pqacdh;
{ks=k js[kkvksa dh vuqÑfr gSA
;s bafxr djrs gSa fd NM+
pqacd ,d pqacdh; f}èkqzo gSA
* oqQN ikB~;iqLrdksa esa pqacdh; {ks=k js[kkvksa dks pqacdh; cy js[kk,¡ dgk x;k gSA bl ukekoyh ls cpuk
mfpr gksxk D;ksafd ;g Hkzked gSA fLFkjoS|qr ds foijhr pqacdRo esa {ks=k js[kk,¡ (xfreku) vkos'k ij
cy dh fn'kk dh lwpd ugha gSaA
fp=k 5.3 {ks=k js[kk,¡ (a) ,d NM+ pqacd dh (b) ,d lhfer vkdkj okyh èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk dh] vkSj (c) ,d oS|qr f}èkqzo dhA
cgqr vfèkd nwjh ij rhuksa js[kk leqPp; ,d ls gSaA  i ,oa  ii  vafdr oØ] can xkmlh; i`"B gSaA
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HkkSfrdh
(iii) {ks=k osQ yacor j[ks x, ry osQ çfr bdkbZ {ks=kiQy ls ftruh vfèkd {ks=k js[kk,¡ xqtjrh
gSa] mruk gh vfèkd ml LFkku ij pqacdh; {ks=k B dk ifjek.k gksrk gSA fp=k 5.3 (a) esa]
{ks=k   ii  osQ vklikl B dk ifjek.k {ks=k  i  dh rqyuk esa vfèkd gSA
(iv) pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡ ,d&nwljs dks dkVrh ugha gSaA ,slk blfy, gS D;ksafd bl fLFkfr esa
dVku ¯cnq ij pqacdh; {ks=k dh fn'kk ,d gh ugha jg tkrhA
vki pkgsa rks dbZ rjg ls pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡ vkysf[kr dj ldrs gSaA ,d rjhdk ;g gS
fd fHkUu&fHkUu txgksa ij ,d NksVh pqacdh; daikl lqbZ jf[k, vkSj blosQ fno~QfoU;kl dks
vafdr dhft,A bl rjg vki pqacd osQ vkl&ikl fofHkUu ¯cnqvksa ij pqacdh; {ks=k dh fn'kk
tku losaQxsA
5.2.2 NM+ paqcd dk ,d /kjkokgh ifjukfydk dh rjg O;ogkj
fiNys vè;k; esa geus ;g le>k;k gS fd fdl çdkj ,d èkkjk ywi ,d pqacdh; f}èkqzo dh
rjg O;ogkj djrk gS (vuqHkkx 4.10 nsf[k,)A geus ,sfEi;j dh bl ifjdYiuk dk ftØ Hkh
fd;k Fkk fd lHkh pqacdh; ifj?kVukvksa dks ifjokgh
èkkjkvksa osQ çHkkoksa osQ :i esa le>k;k tk ldrk gSA ;kn
dhft, fd fdlh èkkjkokgh ywi ls tqM+s pqacdh; f}èkqzo
vk?kw.kZ m dh ifjHkk"kk m = NIA ls nh tkrh gS] tgk¡ N
ywi esa isQjksa dh la[;k] I èkkjk ,oa A {ks=kiQy&lfn'k gS
¹lehdj.k (4.30) nsf[k,ºA
,d NM+ pqacd dh pqacdh; {ks=k js[kkvksa dh] ,d
èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk dh pqacdh; {ks=k js[kkvksa ls lkE;rk
;g lq>krh gS fd tSls ifjukfydk cgqr&lh ifjokgh
èkkjkvksa dk ;ksx gS oSls gh NM+ pqacd Hkh cgqr&lh
ifjlapkjh èkkjkvksa dk ;ksx gks ldrk gSA ,d NM+ pqacd
osQ nks cjkcj VqdM+s djuk oSlk gh gS tSls ,d ifjukfydk
dks dkVukA ftlls gesa nks NksVh ifjukfydk,¡ fey tkrh
gSa ftuosQ pqacdh; {ks=k vis{kkÑr {kh.k gksrs gSaA {ks=k js[kk,¡
larr cuh jgrh gSa] ,d fljs ls ckgj fudyrh gSa vkSj
nwljs fljs ls vanj ços'k djrh gSaA ,d NksVh pqacdh;
oaQikl lqbZ dks ,d NM+ pqacd ,oa ,d èkkjkokgh lhfer
ifjukfydk osQ ikl ,d txg ls nwljh txg ys tkdj
;g ns[kk tk ldrk gS fd nksuksa osQ fy, pqacdh; lqbZ esa
fo{ksi.k ,d tSlk gS vkSj bl rjg bl lkE;rk dk ijh{k.k
vklkuh ls fd;k tk ldrk gSA
bl lkE;rk dks vkSj vfèkd lqn`<+ djus osQ fy,
ge fp=k 5.4 (a) esa n'kkZ;h xbZ lhfer ifjukfydk osQ
v{kh; {ks=k dh x.kuk djrs gSaA ge ;g çn£'kr djsaxs fd cgqr vfèkd nwjh ij ;g v{kh;
{ks=k NM+ pqacd osQ v{kh; {ks=k tSlk gh gSA
ekuk fd fp=k 5.4 (a) esa n'kkZ;h xbZ èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk dh çfr bdkbZ yackbZ esa n iQsjs
gSa vkSj bldh f=kT;k ‘a’ gSA ekuk bldh yackbZ 2l gSA ifjukfydk osQ osaQæ ls r nwjh ij (¯cnq
P) ge v{kh; {ks=k Kkr dj ldrs gSaA ;g djus osQ fy,] ifjukfydk dk ,d NksVk o`Ùkkdkj
va'k dx eksVkbZ dk ysrs gSa tks blosQ osaQæ ls x nwjh ij gSA blesa n dx isQjs gSaA ekuk fd ifjukfydk
esa I èkkjk çokfgr gks jgh gSA fiNys vè;k; osQ vuqHkkx 4.6 esa geus ,d o`Ùkkdkj ywi osQ v{k
fp=k 5.4 (a) ,d lhfer ifjukfydk osQ v{kh; {ks=k dk ifjdyu]
rkfd bldh NM+ pqacd ls lkE;rk izn£'kr dh tk losQA (b) ,d
leku pqacdh; {ks=k B esa j[kh gqbZ pqacdh; lqbZA ;g izca/ pqacdh;
{ks=k B vFkok pqacdh; vk?kw.kZ m dk vkdyu djus esa lgk;d gSA
Chapter 5(Hindi).PMD 5/24/2007, 5:13 AM 176
Page 5


5.1 Hkwfedk
pqacdh; ifj?kVuk çÑfr esa lkoZHkkSfed gSA fo'kky nwjLFk xSysfDl;k¡] vfrlw{e vn`'; ijek.kq]
vkneh vkSj tkuoj] lcesa Hkk¡fr&Hkk¡fr osQ Ïksrksa ls mRiUu Hkk¡fr&Hkk¡fr osQ pqacdh; {ks=k O;kIr gSaA
Hkw&pqacdRo] ekuoh; fodkl ls Hkh iwoZ ls vfLrRo esa gSA ^pqacd* 'kCn ;wuku osQ ,d }hi
eSXusf'k;k osQ uke ls O;qRiUu gS] tgk¡ cgqr igys 600 bZlk iwoZ pqacdh; v;Ldksa osQ HkaMkj feys
FksA bl }hi osQ xM+fj;ksa us f'kdk;r dh fd muosQ ydM+h osQ twrs (ftuesa dhysa yxh gqbZ Fkha)]
dbZ ckj tehu ls fpid tkrs FksA yksgs dh Vksih p<+h mudh ykBh Hkh blh çdkj çHkkfor gksrh
FkhA pqacdksa osQ bl vkdf"kZr djus okys xq.k us mudk ?kweuk&fiQjuk nwHkj cuk
fn;k FkkA
pqacdksa dk nSf'kd xq.k Hkh çkphu dky ls Kkr FkkA pqacd dk ,d iryk yack VqdM+k]
Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk, tkus ij] ges'kk mÙkj&nf{k.k fn'kk osQ vuqfn'k Bgjrk FkkA ,slk gh O;ogkj
rc Hkh ns[kus esa vkrk Fkk tc bldks ,d dkWoZQ osQ Åij j[k dj] mldks Bgjs gq, ikuh esa rSjk;k
tkrk FkkA izko`Qfrd :i ls ik, tkus okys yksgs osQ ,d v;Ld eSXusVkbV dk ,d uke yksMLVksu
gS] ftldk vFkZ gS yhfMax LVksu vFkkZr ekxZn'kZd iRFkjA bl xq.k osQ rduhdh mi;ksx dk Js;
vkerkSj ij phfu;ksa dks fn;k tkrk gSA 400 bZlk iwoZ dh phuh ikB~;iqLrdksa esa ukSdk;u esa fn'kk
Kku osQ fy, pqacdh; lqb;ksa osQ mi;ksx dk f”kØ gSA xksch jsfxLrku dks ikj djus okys dkfI
+
kQys
Hkh pqacdh; lqb;ksa dk mi;ksx djrs FksA
,d phuh vk[;ku esa] yxHkx 4000 o"kZ iqjkuh] lezkV àsax&rh dh fot; xkFkk gS] ftlesa
mldks vius f'kYidkjksa (ftUgsa vkt dh Hkk"kk esa vki bathfu;j dgrs gSa) osQ dkj.k fot; çkIr
vè;k; 5
pqacdRo ,oa nzO;
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HkkSfrdh
gqbZ FkhA bu ^bathfu;jksa* us ,d jFk cuk;k ftl ij mUgksaus pqacd dh cuh
gqbZ ,d çfrek yxkbZ] ftldk ,d gkFk ckgj iSQyk gqvk FkkA fp=k 5.1
esa bl jFk dk ,d fp=kdkj }kjk fn;k x;k fooj.k gSA jFk ij yxh gqbZ
çfrek bl rjg ?kwe tkrh Fkh fd mldh v¡xqyh ges'kk nf{k.k dh vksj
laosQr djsA bl jFk osQ lgkjs] ?kus dksgjs esa àsax&rh dh I+kQkStsa nq'eu osQ
ihNs igq¡p xb± vkSj vkØe.k dj mUgsa gjk fn;kA
fiNys vè;k; esa geus lh[kk fd xfr'khy vkos'k ;k fo|qr èkkjk
pqacdh; {ks=k mRiUu djrh gSA ;g [kkst tks mUuhloha 'krkCnh osQ
iwokZ¼Z esa dh xbZ Fkh] bldk Js; vkWLVsZM] ,sfEi;j] ck;ks ,oa lkoVZ rFkk
vU; oqQN yksxksa dks fn;k tkrk gSA
çLrqr vè;k; esa ge pqacdRo ij ,d Lora=k fo"k; osQ :i esa n`f"V
MkysaxsA
pqacdRo lacaèkh oqQN vke fopkj bl çdkj gSaµ
(i) i`Foh ,d pqacd dh Hkk¡fr O;ogkj djrh gS ftldk pqacdh; {ks=k
yxHkx HkkSxksfyd nf{k.k ls mÙkj dh vksj laosQr djrk gSA
(ii) tc ,d NM+ pqacd dks Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk;k ;k 'kkar ikuh ij
rSjk;k tkrk gS rks ;g mÙkj&nf{k.k fn'kk esa Bgjrk gSA bldk og fljk tks HkkSxksfyd mÙkj dh
vksj laosQr djrk gS] mÙkjh èkqzo vkSj tks HkkSxksfyd nf{k.k dh vksj laosQr djrk gS] pqacd dk
nf{k.kh èkqzo dgykrk gSA
(iii) nks i`Fkd&i`Fkd pqacdksa osQ nks mÙkjh èkqzo (;k nks nf{k.kh èkzqo) tc ikl&ikl yk, tkrs gSa
rks os ,d&nwljs dks fod£"kr djrs gSaA blosQ foijhr] ,d pqacd osQ mÙkj vkSj nwljs osQ
nf{k.k èkqzo ,d&nwljs dks vkd£"kr djrs gSaA
(iv) fdlh pqacd osQ mÙkj vkSj nf{k.k èkqzoksa dks vyx&vyx ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ;fn fdlh
NM+ pqacd dks nks Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk, rks gesa nks NksVs vyx&vyx NM+ pqacd fey
tk,¡xs] ftudk pqacdRo {kh.k gksxkA oS|qr vkos'kksa dh rjg] foyfxr pqacdh; mÙkjh rFkk
nf{k.kh /zqoksa ftUgsa pqacdh; ,dèkqzo dgrs gSa] dk vfLrRo ugha gSA
(v) ykSg vkSj bldh feJ&èkkrqvksa ls pqacd cukus laHko gSaA
bl vè;k; esa ge ,d NM+ pqacd vkSj ,d cká pqacdh; {ks=k esa blosQ O;ogkj osQ o.kZu
ls çkjaHk djsaxsA ge pqacdRo lacaèkh xkml dk fu;e crk,¡xsA blosQ ckn i`Foh osQ pqacdh; {ks=k
dk fooj.k nsaxsA mlosQ ckn ;g crk,¡xs fd pqacdh; xq.kksa osQ vkèkkj ij inkFkks± dk oxhZdj.k oSQls
fd;k tkrk gS vkSj fiQj vuqpqacdRo] çfrpqacdRo rFkk ykSg&pqacdRo dk o.kZu djsaxs vkSj var
esa oS|qr&pqacd ,oa LFkk;h pqacdksa ij ,d vuqHkkx osQ lkFk bldk lekiu djsaxsA
5.2 NM+ pqacd
çfl¼ HkkSfrd foKkuh vYcVZ vkbalVhu osQ vfr çkjafHkd cpiu dh Le`fr;ksa esa ls ,d ml
pqacd ls tqM+h Fkh] tks mUgsa muosQ ,d lacaèkh us HksaV fd;k FkkA vkbalVhu mlls peRÑr gks x,
Fks vkSj mlls [ksyrs gq, dHkh Fkdrs ugha FksA mudks vk'p;Z gksrk Fkk fd oSQls ,d pqacd mu
dhyksa vkSj fiuksa dks viuh vksj [khap ysrh Fkh] tks mlls nwj j[ks Fks vkSj fdlh ¯Lçx ;k èkkxs
}kjk mlls tqM+s Hkh ugha FksA
fp=k 5.1 jFk ij LFkkfir çfrek dk gkFk ges'kk
nf{k.k dh vksj laosQr djrk gSA ;g ,d dykdkj
}kjk cuk;k x;k vkjs[k gS] ftlesa ,d çkphure
Kkr daikl fn[kk;k x;k gS] tks gtkjksa lky iqjkuk gSA
Chapter 5(Hindi).PMD 5/24/2007, 5:13 AM 174
175
pqacdRo ,oa nzO;
ge vius vè;;u dh 'kq#vkr ykSg jsru ls djrs gSa tks ,d NksVs NM+ pqacd osQ Åij j[kh
xbZ dk¡p dh 'khV ij fNM+dk x;k gSA ykSg jsru dh ;g O;oLFkk fp=k 5.2 esa n'kkZ;h xbZ gSA
ykSg jsru osQ iSVuZ ;g bafxr djrs gSa fd pqacd osQ nks èkqzo gksrs gSa] oSls gh tSls oS|qr f}èkzqo
osQ èkukRed ,oa ½.kkRed vkos'kA tSlk fd igys Hkwfedk esa crk;k tk pqdk gS] ,d èkzqo dks
mÙkj vkSj nwljs dks nf{k.k èkqzo dgrs gSaA tc NM+ pqacd dks Lora=krkiwoZd yVdk;k tkrk gS rks
;s èkqzo Øe'k% yxHkx HkkSxksfyd mÙkjh ,oa nf{k.kh èkqzoksa dh vksj laosQr djrs gSaA ykSg jsru dk
blh ls feyrk&tqyrk iSVuZ ,d èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk osQ bnZ&fxnZ Hkh curk gSA
5.2.1 pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡
ykSg jsru osQ cus iSVuks± osQ vkèkkj ij ge pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡* [khap ldrs gSaA fp=k 5.3 esa ;g
NM+ pqacd vkSj èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk] nksuksa osQ fy, n'kkZ;k x;k gSA rqyuk osQ fy, vè;k; ,d
fp=k 1.17(d) nsf[k,A fo|qr f}/qzo dh oS|qr cy js[kk,¡ fp=k 5.3(c) esa Hkh  n'kkZ;h xbZ gSaA
pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡] pqacdh; {ks=k dk n`'; vkSj varnZ`f"Vijd çLrqrhdj.k gaSA buosQ xq.k gSa%
(i) fdlh pqacd (;k /kjkokgh ifjukfydk) dh pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡ larr can ywi cukrh gSaA
;g oS|qr&f}èkqzo osQ tSlh ugha gS] tgk¡ ;s js[kk,¡ èkukos'k ls 'kq: gksdj ½.kkos'k ij [kRe
gks tkrh gSa [fp=k 5.3(c) nsf[k,] ;k fiQj vuar dh vksj pyh tkrh gSaA
(ii) {ks=k js[kk osQ fdlh ¯cnq ij [khaph xbZ Li'kZ js[kk ml ¯cnq ij ifj.kkeh pqacdh; {ks=k B
dh fn'kk crkrh gSA
fp=k 5.2 ,d NM+ pqacd osQ
bnZ&fxnZ ykSg jsru dh
O;oLFkkA  ;g iSVuZ pqacdh;
{ks=k js[kkvksa dh vuqÑfr gSA
;s bafxr djrs gSa fd NM+
pqacd ,d pqacdh; f}èkqzo gSA
* oqQN ikB~;iqLrdksa esa pqacdh; {ks=k js[kkvksa dks pqacdh; cy js[kk,¡ dgk x;k gSA bl ukekoyh ls cpuk
mfpr gksxk D;ksafd ;g Hkzked gSA fLFkjoS|qr ds foijhr pqacdRo esa {ks=k js[kk,¡ (xfreku) vkos'k ij
cy dh fn'kk dh lwpd ugha gSaA
fp=k 5.3 {ks=k js[kk,¡ (a) ,d NM+ pqacd dh (b) ,d lhfer vkdkj okyh èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk dh] vkSj (c) ,d oS|qr f}èkqzo dhA
cgqr vfèkd nwjh ij rhuksa js[kk leqPp; ,d ls gSaA  i ,oa  ii  vafdr oØ] can xkmlh; i`"B gSaA
Chapter 5(Hindi).PMD 5/24/2007, 5:13 AM 175
176
HkkSfrdh
(iii) {ks=k osQ yacor j[ks x, ry osQ çfr bdkbZ {ks=kiQy ls ftruh vfèkd {ks=k js[kk,¡ xqtjrh
gSa] mruk gh vfèkd ml LFkku ij pqacdh; {ks=k B dk ifjek.k gksrk gSA fp=k 5.3 (a) esa]
{ks=k   ii  osQ vklikl B dk ifjek.k {ks=k  i  dh rqyuk esa vfèkd gSA
(iv) pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡ ,d&nwljs dks dkVrh ugha gSaA ,slk blfy, gS D;ksafd bl fLFkfr esa
dVku ¯cnq ij pqacdh; {ks=k dh fn'kk ,d gh ugha jg tkrhA
vki pkgsa rks dbZ rjg ls pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡ vkysf[kr dj ldrs gSaA ,d rjhdk ;g gS
fd fHkUu&fHkUu txgksa ij ,d NksVh pqacdh; daikl lqbZ jf[k, vkSj blosQ fno~QfoU;kl dks
vafdr dhft,A bl rjg vki pqacd osQ vkl&ikl fofHkUu ¯cnqvksa ij pqacdh; {ks=k dh fn'kk
tku losaQxsA
5.2.2 NM+ paqcd dk ,d /kjkokgh ifjukfydk dh rjg O;ogkj
fiNys vè;k; esa geus ;g le>k;k gS fd fdl çdkj ,d èkkjk ywi ,d pqacdh; f}èkqzo dh
rjg O;ogkj djrk gS (vuqHkkx 4.10 nsf[k,)A geus ,sfEi;j dh bl ifjdYiuk dk ftØ Hkh
fd;k Fkk fd lHkh pqacdh; ifj?kVukvksa dks ifjokgh
èkkjkvksa osQ çHkkoksa osQ :i esa le>k;k tk ldrk gSA ;kn
dhft, fd fdlh èkkjkokgh ywi ls tqM+s pqacdh; f}èkqzo
vk?kw.kZ m dh ifjHkk"kk m = NIA ls nh tkrh gS] tgk¡ N
ywi esa isQjksa dh la[;k] I èkkjk ,oa A {ks=kiQy&lfn'k gS
¹lehdj.k (4.30) nsf[k,ºA
,d NM+ pqacd dh pqacdh; {ks=k js[kkvksa dh] ,d
èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk dh pqacdh; {ks=k js[kkvksa ls lkE;rk
;g lq>krh gS fd tSls ifjukfydk cgqr&lh ifjokgh
èkkjkvksa dk ;ksx gS oSls gh NM+ pqacd Hkh cgqr&lh
ifjlapkjh èkkjkvksa dk ;ksx gks ldrk gSA ,d NM+ pqacd
osQ nks cjkcj VqdM+s djuk oSlk gh gS tSls ,d ifjukfydk
dks dkVukA ftlls gesa nks NksVh ifjukfydk,¡ fey tkrh
gSa ftuosQ pqacdh; {ks=k vis{kkÑr {kh.k gksrs gSaA {ks=k js[kk,¡
larr cuh jgrh gSa] ,d fljs ls ckgj fudyrh gSa vkSj
nwljs fljs ls vanj ços'k djrh gSaA ,d NksVh pqacdh;
oaQikl lqbZ dks ,d NM+ pqacd ,oa ,d èkkjkokgh lhfer
ifjukfydk osQ ikl ,d txg ls nwljh txg ys tkdj
;g ns[kk tk ldrk gS fd nksuksa osQ fy, pqacdh; lqbZ esa
fo{ksi.k ,d tSlk gS vkSj bl rjg bl lkE;rk dk ijh{k.k
vklkuh ls fd;k tk ldrk gSA
bl lkE;rk dks vkSj vfèkd lqn`<+ djus osQ fy,
ge fp=k 5.4 (a) esa n'kkZ;h xbZ lhfer ifjukfydk osQ
v{kh; {ks=k dh x.kuk djrs gSaA ge ;g çn£'kr djsaxs fd cgqr vfèkd nwjh ij ;g v{kh;
{ks=k NM+ pqacd osQ v{kh; {ks=k tSlk gh gSA
ekuk fd fp=k 5.4 (a) esa n'kkZ;h xbZ èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk dh çfr bdkbZ yackbZ esa n iQsjs
gSa vkSj bldh f=kT;k ‘a’ gSA ekuk bldh yackbZ 2l gSA ifjukfydk osQ osaQæ ls r nwjh ij (¯cnq
P) ge v{kh; {ks=k Kkr dj ldrs gSaA ;g djus osQ fy,] ifjukfydk dk ,d NksVk o`Ùkkdkj
va'k dx eksVkbZ dk ysrs gSa tks blosQ osaQæ ls x nwjh ij gSA blesa n dx isQjs gSaA ekuk fd ifjukfydk
esa I èkkjk çokfgr gks jgh gSA fiNys vè;k; osQ vuqHkkx 4.6 esa geus ,d o`Ùkkdkj ywi osQ v{k
fp=k 5.4 (a) ,d lhfer ifjukfydk osQ v{kh; {ks=k dk ifjdyu]
rkfd bldh NM+ pqacd ls lkE;rk izn£'kr dh tk losQA (b) ,d
leku pqacdh; {ks=k B esa j[kh gqbZ pqacdh; lqbZA ;g izca/ pqacdh;
{ks=k B vFkok pqacdh; vk?kw.kZ m dk vkdyu djus esa lgk;d gSA
Chapter 5(Hindi).PMD 5/24/2007, 5:13 AM 176
177
pqacdRo ,oa nzO;
ij pqacdh; {ks=k dh x.kuk dh FkhA lehdj.k (4.17) osQ vuqlkj] o`Ùkkdkj va'k osQ dkj.k
¯cnq P ij pqacdh; {ks=k dk ifjek.k
2
0
3
22
2
2[( ) ]
ndxIa
dB
rx a
µ
=
-+
oqQy {ks=k dk ifjek.k çkIr djus osQ fy, ,sls lHkh va'kksa osQ ;ksxnku tksM+us gksaxsA nwljs 'kCnksa
esa  x = – l  ls x = + l rd lekdyu djuk gksxkA
2
0
2
nIa
B
µ
=
223/2
[( ) ]
l
l
dx
rx a
-
-+
?
;g lekdyu f=kdks.kferh; çfrLFkkiu }kjk fd;k tk ldrk gSA ¯drq] gekjk mn~ns'; iwjk
djus osQ fy, ,slk djuk vko';d ugha gSA è;ku nsa fd x dk ijkl -l ls +l rd gSA èkkjkokgh
ifjukfydk osQ cgqr nwj fLFkr v{kh; ¯cnq osQ fy, r >> a ,oa  r >> l A rc fHkUu esa gj dk
yxHkx eku gks tk,xk %
3
22 3
2
[( ) ] rx a r -+ ˜
vkSj   
2
0
3
2
l
l
nIa
Bdx
r
µ
-
=
?
      =  
2
0
3
2
2
nI la
r
µ
 (5.1)
è;ku nhft, fd èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk osQ pqacdh; vk?kw.kZ dk ifjek.k m = n (2l) I ( pa
2
)
¹vFkkZr oqQy iQsjksa dh la[;k × èkkjk × vuqçLFk dkV dk {ks=kiQyºA vr%
0
3
2
4
m
B
r
µ
p
=
(5.2)
;gh lehdj.k NM+ pqacd dh v{k ij nwj fLFkr ¯cnq osQ fy, Hkh gS ftls dksbZ Hkh
ç;ksxkRed fofèk ls çkIr dj ldrk gSA bl çdkj] NM+ pqacd vkSj èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk ,d
tSls pqacdh; {ks=k mRiUu djrs gSaA vr% ,d NM+ pqacd dk pqacdh; vk?kw.kZ] mruk gh pqacdh;
{ks=k mRiUu djus okyh lerqY; èkkjkokgh ifjukfydk osQ pqacdh; vk?kw.kZ osQ cjkcj gSA
oqQN ikB~;iqLrosaQ 2l yackbZ ds ,d NM+ pqacd osQ mÙkj èkqzo osQ fy, ,d pqacdh; vkos'k +q
m
,oa nf{k.k (bls /zqo 'kfDr dgrs gSa) èkqzo osQ fy, –q
m
 fu;r djosQ bldk pqacdh; vk?kw.kZ
+q
m
(2l) fu;r djrh gaSA r nwjh ij q
m
 osQ dkj.k {ks=k dh rhozrk µ
0
q
m
/4pr
2
 gksxh vkSj rc
v{kh; ,oa vuqçLFk nksuksa fLFkfr;ksa esa bl NM+ pqacd osQ dkj.k pqacdh; {ks=k mlh çdkj Kkr
fd;k tk ldrk gS tSlk fd oS|qr f}èkqzo osQ fy, fd;k x;k Fkk (nsf[k, vè;k; 1)A ;g
rjhdk ljy Hkh gS vkSj vkd"kZd HkhA ijarq] pqacdh; ,dèkqzoksa dk vfLrRo rks gksrk ugha]
blfy,] geus bl çLrqfr&fofèk dk mi;ksx ugha fd;k gSA
5.2.3 ,dleku pqacdh; {ks=k esa f}/qzo
ykSg jsru (iron filling) ls cus iSVuZ vFkkZr pqacdh; {ks=k js[kk,¡ gesa pqacdh; {ks=k B dk ,d
lfUudV eku crkrs gSaA izk;% gesa B dk lgh&lgh eku tkuus dh vko';drk gksrh gSA blosQ
fy, ge ,d iryh pqacdh; lqbZ dk] ftldk pqacdh; vk?kw.kZ m ,oa tM+Rok?kw.kZ I   I   I   I   I   Kkr gksa]
bl pqacdh; {ks=k esa nksyu djkrs gSaA ;g O;oLFkk fp=k 5.4 (b) esa n'kkZ;h xbZ gSA
pqacdh; lqbZ ij cyvk?kw.kZ ¹lehdj.k (4.29) nsf[k,º
Chapter 5(Hindi).PMD 5/24/2007, 5:13 AM 177
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