NCERT Textbook - तरलों के यांत्रिकी गुण Notes | EduRev

NCERT Hindi Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - तरलों के यांत्रिकी गुण Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


vè;k; 10
rjyksa osQ ;kaf=kdh xq.k
10.1 Hkwfedk
bl vè;k; esa ge nzoksa rFkk xSlksa osQ oqQN lkekU; HkkSfrd xq.kksa dk vè;;u
djsaxsA nzo rFkk xSl izokfgr gksrh gSa vr% rjy dgykrh gSA ewy :i esa bl
xq.k osQ vk/kj ij ge nzoksa ,oa xSlksa dk Bkslksa ls foHksn djrs gSaA
gekjs pkjksa vksj gj LFkku ij rjy gSaA i`Foh osQ Åij ok;q dk vkoj.k gS
vkSj blosQ i`"B dk nks&frgkbZ Hkkx ty ls vkPNkfnr gSA ty osQoy gekjs
thou osQ vfLrRo osQ fy, gh vko';d ugha gS oju~ lHkh Lruik;h tarqvksa
osQ 'kjhj dk vf/dka'k Hkkx ty gSA ikS/ksa lfgr lHkh lthoksa esa gksus okyh
leLr izfØ;kvksa esa rjyksa dh ijks{k Hkwfedk gksrh gSA vr% rjyksa osQ O;ogkj
o xq.kksa dks le>uk cgqr egÙoiw.kZ gSA
rjy Bkslksa ls oSQls fHkUu gSa\ nzoksa rFkk xSlksa esa D;k&D;k lekurk gS\ Bkslksa
osQ foijhr rjy dh viuh dksbZ fuf'pr vkÑfr ugha gksrhA Bkslksa ,oa nzoksa dk
fuf'pr vk;ru gksrk gS tcfd xSl ik=k osQ oqQy vk;ru dks Hkj nsrh gSA
fiNys vè;k; esa geus i<+k gS fd izfrcy }kjk Bkslksa osQ vk;ru esa ifjorZu
fd;k tk ldrk gSA Bksl] nzo vFkok xSl dk vk;ru bl ij yxus okys
izfrcy vFkok nkc ij fuHkZj gSA tc ge Bksl ;k nzo osQ fuf'pr vk;ru dh
ckr djrs gSa] rc gekjk rkRi;Z ok;qeaMyh; nkc osQ v/hu vk;ru ls gksrk gSA
xSlksa dh rqyuk esa cká nkckarj ls Bksl ;k nzo osQ vk;ru esa ifjorZu cgqr
de gksrk gSA nwljs 'kCnksa esa xSlksa dh vis{kk Bksl ,oa nzoksa dh laihM~;rk dkiQh
de gksrh gSA
vi:i.k (fo:i.k) izfrcy Bksl osQ vk;ru esa ifjorZu fd, fcuk
mldh vkÑfr cny ldrk gSA rjyksa dk ewy xq.k ;g gS fd og fo:i.k
izfrcy dk cgqr gh U;wu izfrjks/ djrs gSaA iQyr% FkksM+s ls fo:i.k izfrcy
yxkus ls Hkh mudh vkÑfr cny tkrh gSA Bkslksa dh vis{kk rjyksa dk vi:id
izfrcy yxHkx nl yk[kok¡ de gksrk gSA
10.2  nkc
tc ,d uqdhyh lqbZ gekjh Ropk esa nkc yxkdj j[kh tkrh gS] rks og Ropk
dks cs/ nsrh gSA ijUrq fdlh vf/d laioZQ {ks=k dh oLrq (tSls pEep dk
10.1 Hkwfedk
10.2 nkc
10.3 /kjkjs[kh izokg
10.4 cuZwyh dk fl¼kar
10.5 ';kurk
10.6 jsuYM~l la[;k
10.7 i`"B ruko
lkjka'k
fopkj.kh; fo"k;
vH;kl
Page 2


vè;k; 10
rjyksa osQ ;kaf=kdh xq.k
10.1 Hkwfedk
bl vè;k; esa ge nzoksa rFkk xSlksa osQ oqQN lkekU; HkkSfrd xq.kksa dk vè;;u
djsaxsA nzo rFkk xSl izokfgr gksrh gSa vr% rjy dgykrh gSA ewy :i esa bl
xq.k osQ vk/kj ij ge nzoksa ,oa xSlksa dk Bkslksa ls foHksn djrs gSaA
gekjs pkjksa vksj gj LFkku ij rjy gSaA i`Foh osQ Åij ok;q dk vkoj.k gS
vkSj blosQ i`"B dk nks&frgkbZ Hkkx ty ls vkPNkfnr gSA ty osQoy gekjs
thou osQ vfLrRo osQ fy, gh vko';d ugha gS oju~ lHkh Lruik;h tarqvksa
osQ 'kjhj dk vf/dka'k Hkkx ty gSA ikS/ksa lfgr lHkh lthoksa esa gksus okyh
leLr izfØ;kvksa esa rjyksa dh ijks{k Hkwfedk gksrh gSA vr% rjyksa osQ O;ogkj
o xq.kksa dks le>uk cgqr egÙoiw.kZ gSA
rjy Bkslksa ls oSQls fHkUu gSa\ nzoksa rFkk xSlksa esa D;k&D;k lekurk gS\ Bkslksa
osQ foijhr rjy dh viuh dksbZ fuf'pr vkÑfr ugha gksrhA Bkslksa ,oa nzoksa dk
fuf'pr vk;ru gksrk gS tcfd xSl ik=k osQ oqQy vk;ru dks Hkj nsrh gSA
fiNys vè;k; esa geus i<+k gS fd izfrcy }kjk Bkslksa osQ vk;ru esa ifjorZu
fd;k tk ldrk gSA Bksl] nzo vFkok xSl dk vk;ru bl ij yxus okys
izfrcy vFkok nkc ij fuHkZj gSA tc ge Bksl ;k nzo osQ fuf'pr vk;ru dh
ckr djrs gSa] rc gekjk rkRi;Z ok;qeaMyh; nkc osQ v/hu vk;ru ls gksrk gSA
xSlksa dh rqyuk esa cká nkckarj ls Bksl ;k nzo osQ vk;ru esa ifjorZu cgqr
de gksrk gSA nwljs 'kCnksa esa xSlksa dh vis{kk Bksl ,oa nzoksa dh laihM~;rk dkiQh
de gksrh gSA
vi:i.k (fo:i.k) izfrcy Bksl osQ vk;ru esa ifjorZu fd, fcuk
mldh vkÑfr cny ldrk gSA rjyksa dk ewy xq.k ;g gS fd og fo:i.k
izfrcy dk cgqr gh U;wu izfrjks/ djrs gSaA iQyr% FkksM+s ls fo:i.k izfrcy
yxkus ls Hkh mudh vkÑfr cny tkrh gSA Bkslksa dh vis{kk rjyksa dk vi:id
izfrcy yxHkx nl yk[kok¡ de gksrk gSA
10.2  nkc
tc ,d uqdhyh lqbZ gekjh Ropk esa nkc yxkdj j[kh tkrh gS] rks og Ropk
dks cs/ nsrh gSA ijUrq fdlh vf/d laioZQ {ks=k dh oLrq (tSls pEep dk
10.1 Hkwfedk
10.2 nkc
10.3 /kjkjs[kh izokg
10.4 cuZwyh dk fl¼kar
10.5 ';kurk
10.6 jsuYM~l la[;k
10.7 i`"B ruko
lkjka'k
fopkj.kh; fo"k;
vH;kl
254 HkkSfrdh
fiNyk Hkkx) dks mrus gh cy ls nck,¡ rks gekjh Ropk
vifjo£rr jgrh gSA ;fn fdlh O;fDr dh Nkrh ij dksbZ
gkFkh viuk iSj j[k ns rks mldh ilfy;k¡ VwV tk,¡xhA loZQl
esa ;g djrc fn[kkus okys dh Nkrh ij etcwr ydM+h dk
r[rk j[kk tkrk gS vr% og bl nq?kZVuk ls cp tkrk gSA nSfud
thou osQ bl izdkj osQ vuqHkoksa ls gesa fo'okl gks tkrk gS
fd cy osQ lkFk&lkFk ftl {ks=k ij og cy vkjksfir fd;k
tkrk gS mldk {ks=kiQy Hkh egÙoiw.kZ gksrk gSA og {ks=k ftl
ij cy dk;Z dj jgk gS ftruk NksVk gksxk mldk izfr?kkr
mruk gh vf/d gksxkA ;g ladYiuk ^nkc* dgykrh gSA
tc dksbZ fi.M fdlh 'kkar rjy esa Mwck gqvk gS] rks rjy
ml fi.M ij cy vkjksfir djrk gSA ;g cy lnSo fi.M osQ
i`"Bksa osQ vfHkyacor~ gksrk gSA ,slk blfy, gS fd] ;fn cy
dk vo;o fi.M osQ i`"B osQ lekarj gksrk gS rks U;wVu osQ
r`rh; fu;ekuqlkj] fi.M Hkh vius lrg osQ lekarj rjy ij
cy vkjksfir djrk gSA ;g cy rjy dks i`"B osQ lekarj cgus
osQ fy, ckè; djrk gSA ;g laHko ugha gS] D;ksafd rjy
foJkekoLFkk esa gSA vr% fojkekoLFkk esa rjy }kjk yxus okyk
cy fi.M osQ laioZQ i`"B osQ vfHkyac gh vkjksfir gks ldrk
gSA bls fp=k 10.1(a) esa n'kkZ;k x;k gSA
rjy }kjk fdlh ¯cnq ij dk;Zjr bl vfHkyac cy dks
ekik tk ldrk gSA ,slk gh ,d nkc ekid ;qfDr osQ vkn'kZ
:i dks fp=k 10.1(b) esa n'kZ;k x;k gSA bl ;qfDr esa ,d
fuokZfrr pSEcj gksrk gS] ftlls ,d dekuh tqM+h gksrh gSA bl
dekuh dk va'kkadu igys ls gh blosQ fiLVu ij yxs cy dks
ekius osQ fy, dj fy;k tkrk gSA bl ;qfDr dks rjy osQ vanj
osQ fdlh ¯cnq ij j[kk tkrk gSA fiLVu ij rjy }kjk vkjksfir
cy dks dekuh }kjk fiLVu ij vkjksfir cy ls larqfyr
djosQ rjy }kjk fiLVu ij vkjksfir cy dks eki ysrs gSaA ;fn
rjy }kjk A {ks=kiQy osQ fiLVu ij vkjksfir vfHkyac cy dk
ifjek.k F  gS] rks vkSlr nkc P
av
 dks cy rFkk {ks=kiQy osQ
vuqikr osQ :i esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gS
vr%
P
F
A
av
=             (10.1)
lS¼kafrd :i esa fiLVu osQ {ks=kiQy dks euekus <ax ls
NksVk fd;k tk ldrk gSA rc lhfer vFkks± esa nkc dks bl
izdkj ifjHkkf"kr djrs gSa %
P = 
lim
?A0 ?
?
?
F
A
(10.2)
nkc ,d vfn'k jkf'k gSA ;gk¡ ge vkidks ;g ;kn fnykuk
pkgrs gSa fd lehdj.kksa (10.1) rFkk (10.2) osQ va'k esa
n`f"Vxkspj gksus okyh jkf'k lacaf/r {ks=k osQ vfHkyacor~
cy dk vo;o gS u fd (lfn'k) cyA bldh foek,¡
[ML
–1
T
–2
] gSaA nkc dk ek=kd N m
–2 
gSA izQkalhlh oSKkfud
Cysth ikLdy (1623-1662) us rjy nkc {ks=k esa iqjksxkeh
vè;;u fd;kA blfy, muosQ lEeku esa nkc osQ SI ek=kd
dk uke ikLdy (pascal, izrhd Pa) j[kk x;k gSA nkc dk
,d vU; lkekU; ek=kd ok;qe.My (atmosphere, izrhd
atm) vFkkZr~ leqnz ry ij ok;qeaMy }kjk vkjksfir nkc] gS
(1 atm = 1.013 × 10
5
 Pa)A
rjyksa dk o.kZu djus osQ fy, ?kuRo (?) ,d ,slh HkkSfrd
jkf'k gS ftlosQ fo"k; esa ppkZ djuk vfuok;Z gSA V vk;ru
okys m lagfr osQ fdlh rjy dk ?kuRo
? =
m
V
(10.3)
?kuRo dh foek,¡ [ML
–3
] gSaA bldk SI ek=kd kg m
–3 
gSA
;g ,d /ukRed vfn'k jkf'k gSA nzo vlaihM~; gksrs gSa] vr%
fdlh nzo dk ?kuRo lHkh nkcksa ij yxHkx vpj jgrk gSA
blosQ foifjr] xSlsa nkc esa ifjorZu osQ lkFk ?kuRo esa
vR;fèkd ifjorZu n'kkZrh gSaA
 4 
o
C (277 K) ij ty dk ?kuRo 1.0 × 10
3 
kg m
–3
gSA fdlh inkFkZ dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo (fof'k"V xq#Ro) ml
fp=k 10.1 (a) chdj osQ nzo esa Mwcs fi.M vFkok mldh nhokjksa
ij nzo }kjk vkjksfir cy fi.M osQ i`"B osQ gj ¯cnq osQ yacor~
dk;Z djrk gSA (b) nkc ekius osQ fy, ;qfDr dk vkn'kZ :iA
fuokZr
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