NCERT Textbook - Change and Development in industrial Society Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Sociology Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Change and Development in industrial Society Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Change and
Development in
Industrial Society
5
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 2


Change and
Development in
Industrial Society
5
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
74
W hich was the last film you saw? We are sure you can tell us the name of the
hero and heroine but can you remember the name of the sound and light
technicians, the make up artists or the dance choreographers? Some people like
the carpenters who make the sets are not even mentioned in the credits. Yet,
without all these people, the film could not be made. Bollywood may be a place of
dreams for you and me, but for many, it is their place of work. Like any industry,
the workers there are part of unions. For instance, the dancers, stunt artists and
the extras are all part of a junior artists association, whose demands include 8
hours shifts, proper wages and safe working conditions. The products of this
industry are advertised and marketed through film distributors and cinema hall
owners or through shops in the form of music cassettes and videos. And the
people who work in this industry, as in any other, live in the same city, but
depending on who they are and how much they earn, they do very different things
in that city. Film stars and textile mill owners live in places like Juhu, while extras
and textile workers may live in places like Girangaon. Some go to five star hotels
and eat Japanese sushi and some eat vada pav from the local handcart. The
residents of Bombay are divided by where they live, what they eat and how much
their clothes cost. But they are also united by certain common things that a city
provides – they watch the same films and cricket matches, they suffer from the
same air pollution and they all have aspirations for their children to do well.
How and where people work and what kind of jobs they have is an important
part of who they are. In this chapter, we will see how changes in technology or
the kind of work that is available has changed social relations in India. On the
other hand, social institutions like caste, kinship networks, gender and region
also influence the way that work is organised or the way in which products are
marketed. This is a major area of research for sociologists.
For instance, why do we find more women in certain jobs like nursing or
teaching than in other sectors like engineering? Is this just a coincidence or is
it because society thinks that women are suited for caring and nurturing work
as against jobs which are seen as ‘tough’ and masculine? Yet nursing is physically
much harder work than designing a bridge. If more women move into engineering,
how will that affect the profession? Ask yourself why some coffee advertisements
in India display two cups on the package whereas in America they show one
cup? The answer is that for many Indians drinking coffee is not an individual
wake up activity, but an occasion to socialise with others. Sociologists are
interested in the questions of who produces what, who works where, who sells
to whom and how. These are not individual choices, but outcomes of social
patterns. In turn, the choices that people make influences how society works.
5.1 IMAGES OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY
Many of the great works of sociology were written at a time when industrialisation
was new and machinery was assuming great importance. Thinkers like Karl
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 3


Change and
Development in
Industrial Society
5
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
74
W hich was the last film you saw? We are sure you can tell us the name of the
hero and heroine but can you remember the name of the sound and light
technicians, the make up artists or the dance choreographers? Some people like
the carpenters who make the sets are not even mentioned in the credits. Yet,
without all these people, the film could not be made. Bollywood may be a place of
dreams for you and me, but for many, it is their place of work. Like any industry,
the workers there are part of unions. For instance, the dancers, stunt artists and
the extras are all part of a junior artists association, whose demands include 8
hours shifts, proper wages and safe working conditions. The products of this
industry are advertised and marketed through film distributors and cinema hall
owners or through shops in the form of music cassettes and videos. And the
people who work in this industry, as in any other, live in the same city, but
depending on who they are and how much they earn, they do very different things
in that city. Film stars and textile mill owners live in places like Juhu, while extras
and textile workers may live in places like Girangaon. Some go to five star hotels
and eat Japanese sushi and some eat vada pav from the local handcart. The
residents of Bombay are divided by where they live, what they eat and how much
their clothes cost. But they are also united by certain common things that a city
provides – they watch the same films and cricket matches, they suffer from the
same air pollution and they all have aspirations for their children to do well.
How and where people work and what kind of jobs they have is an important
part of who they are. In this chapter, we will see how changes in technology or
the kind of work that is available has changed social relations in India. On the
other hand, social institutions like caste, kinship networks, gender and region
also influence the way that work is organised or the way in which products are
marketed. This is a major area of research for sociologists.
For instance, why do we find more women in certain jobs like nursing or
teaching than in other sectors like engineering? Is this just a coincidence or is
it because society thinks that women are suited for caring and nurturing work
as against jobs which are seen as ‘tough’ and masculine? Yet nursing is physically
much harder work than designing a bridge. If more women move into engineering,
how will that affect the profession? Ask yourself why some coffee advertisements
in India display two cups on the package whereas in America they show one
cup? The answer is that for many Indians drinking coffee is not an individual
wake up activity, but an occasion to socialise with others. Sociologists are
interested in the questions of who produces what, who works where, who sells
to whom and how. These are not individual choices, but outcomes of social
patterns. In turn, the choices that people make influences how society works.
5.1 IMAGES OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY
Many of the great works of sociology were written at a time when industrialisation
was new and machinery was assuming great importance. Thinkers like Karl
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Change and Development in Industrial Society
75
Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of social features
with industry, such as urbanisation, the loss of face-to-face relationships that
were found in rural areas where people worked on their own farms or for a
landlord they knew, and their substitution by anonymous professional
relationships in modern factories and workplaces. Industrialisation involves a
detailed division of labour. People often do not see the end result of their work
because they are producing only one small part of a product. The work is often
repetitive and exhausting. Yet, even this is better than having no work at all,
i.e., being unemployed. Marx called this situation alienation, when people do
not enjoy work, and see it as something they have to do only in order to survive,
and even that survival depends on whether the technology has room for any
human labour.
Industrialisation leads to greater equality, at least in some spheres. For
example, caste distinctions do not matter any more on trains, buses or in cyber
cafes. On the other hand, older forms of discrimination may persist even in
new factory or workplace settings. And even as social inequalities are reducing,
economic or income inequality is growing in the
world. Often social inequality and income
inequality overlap, for example, in the domination
of upper caste men in well-paying professions like
medicine, law or journalism.  Women often get
paid less than men for similar work.
While the early sociologists saw
industrialisation as both positive and negative,
by the mid 20
th
 century, under the influence of
modernisation theory, industrialisation came
to be seen as inevitable and positive.
Modernisation theory argues that societies are
at different stages on the road to modernisation,
but they are all heading in the same direction.
Modern society, for these theorists, is
represented by the West.
5.2  INDUSTRIALISATION IN INDIA
THE SPECIFICITY OF INDIAN INDUSTRIALISATION
The experience of industrialisation in India is in many ways similar to the western
model and in many ways different. Comparative analysis of different countries
suggests that there is no standard model of industrial capitalism. Let us start
with one point of difference, relating to what kind of work people are doing. In
developed countries, the majority of people are in the services sector, followed by
industry and less than 10% are in agriculture (ILO figures). In India, in
According to the convergence thesis put
forward by modernisation theorist Clark Kerr,
an industrialised India of the 21
st
 century
shares more features with China or the United
States in the 21
st
 century than it shares with
19
th
 century India. Do you think this is true?
Do culture, language and tradition disappear
with new technology or does culture influence
the way people adapt to new products? Write
a page of your own reflections on these
issues, giving examples.
ACTIVITY 5.1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 4


Change and
Development in
Industrial Society
5
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
74
W hich was the last film you saw? We are sure you can tell us the name of the
hero and heroine but can you remember the name of the sound and light
technicians, the make up artists or the dance choreographers? Some people like
the carpenters who make the sets are not even mentioned in the credits. Yet,
without all these people, the film could not be made. Bollywood may be a place of
dreams for you and me, but for many, it is their place of work. Like any industry,
the workers there are part of unions. For instance, the dancers, stunt artists and
the extras are all part of a junior artists association, whose demands include 8
hours shifts, proper wages and safe working conditions. The products of this
industry are advertised and marketed through film distributors and cinema hall
owners or through shops in the form of music cassettes and videos. And the
people who work in this industry, as in any other, live in the same city, but
depending on who they are and how much they earn, they do very different things
in that city. Film stars and textile mill owners live in places like Juhu, while extras
and textile workers may live in places like Girangaon. Some go to five star hotels
and eat Japanese sushi and some eat vada pav from the local handcart. The
residents of Bombay are divided by where they live, what they eat and how much
their clothes cost. But they are also united by certain common things that a city
provides – they watch the same films and cricket matches, they suffer from the
same air pollution and they all have aspirations for their children to do well.
How and where people work and what kind of jobs they have is an important
part of who they are. In this chapter, we will see how changes in technology or
the kind of work that is available has changed social relations in India. On the
other hand, social institutions like caste, kinship networks, gender and region
also influence the way that work is organised or the way in which products are
marketed. This is a major area of research for sociologists.
For instance, why do we find more women in certain jobs like nursing or
teaching than in other sectors like engineering? Is this just a coincidence or is
it because society thinks that women are suited for caring and nurturing work
as against jobs which are seen as ‘tough’ and masculine? Yet nursing is physically
much harder work than designing a bridge. If more women move into engineering,
how will that affect the profession? Ask yourself why some coffee advertisements
in India display two cups on the package whereas in America they show one
cup? The answer is that for many Indians drinking coffee is not an individual
wake up activity, but an occasion to socialise with others. Sociologists are
interested in the questions of who produces what, who works where, who sells
to whom and how. These are not individual choices, but outcomes of social
patterns. In turn, the choices that people make influences how society works.
5.1 IMAGES OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY
Many of the great works of sociology were written at a time when industrialisation
was new and machinery was assuming great importance. Thinkers like Karl
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Change and Development in Industrial Society
75
Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of social features
with industry, such as urbanisation, the loss of face-to-face relationships that
were found in rural areas where people worked on their own farms or for a
landlord they knew, and their substitution by anonymous professional
relationships in modern factories and workplaces. Industrialisation involves a
detailed division of labour. People often do not see the end result of their work
because they are producing only one small part of a product. The work is often
repetitive and exhausting. Yet, even this is better than having no work at all,
i.e., being unemployed. Marx called this situation alienation, when people do
not enjoy work, and see it as something they have to do only in order to survive,
and even that survival depends on whether the technology has room for any
human labour.
Industrialisation leads to greater equality, at least in some spheres. For
example, caste distinctions do not matter any more on trains, buses or in cyber
cafes. On the other hand, older forms of discrimination may persist even in
new factory or workplace settings. And even as social inequalities are reducing,
economic or income inequality is growing in the
world. Often social inequality and income
inequality overlap, for example, in the domination
of upper caste men in well-paying professions like
medicine, law or journalism.  Women often get
paid less than men for similar work.
While the early sociologists saw
industrialisation as both positive and negative,
by the mid 20
th
 century, under the influence of
modernisation theory, industrialisation came
to be seen as inevitable and positive.
Modernisation theory argues that societies are
at different stages on the road to modernisation,
but they are all heading in the same direction.
Modern society, for these theorists, is
represented by the West.
5.2  INDUSTRIALISATION IN INDIA
THE SPECIFICITY OF INDIAN INDUSTRIALISATION
The experience of industrialisation in India is in many ways similar to the western
model and in many ways different. Comparative analysis of different countries
suggests that there is no standard model of industrial capitalism. Let us start
with one point of difference, relating to what kind of work people are doing. In
developed countries, the majority of people are in the services sector, followed by
industry and less than 10% are in agriculture (ILO figures). In India, in
According to the convergence thesis put
forward by modernisation theorist Clark Kerr,
an industrialised India of the 21
st
 century
shares more features with China or the United
States in the 21
st
 century than it shares with
19
th
 century India. Do you think this is true?
Do culture, language and tradition disappear
with new technology or does culture influence
the way people adapt to new products? Write
a page of your own reflections on these
issues, giving examples.
ACTIVITY 5.1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
76
1999-2000, nearly 60% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and
mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and utilities),
and 23% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services etc.) However,
if we look at the contribution of these sectors to economic growth, the share of
agriculture has declined sharply, and services contribute approximately more
than half. This is a very serious situation because it means that the sector where
the maximum people are employed is not able to generate much income for
them. (Government of India, Economic Survey 2001-2002). In India, in 2006-07
the share of employment in agriculture
was 15.19%, in mining and quarriying
0.61%, in production 13.33%, in
manufacturing it was 6.10%, in trade,
hotel and restaurant it was 13.18%, in
transport, storage, communication it was
5.06%, in community, social and
personal services it was 8.97%, in
financial insurance, real state, business
services it was 2.22% and electricity and
water it was 0.33% (Source- Planning
Commission 11th Five Year Plan, 2007-
12, Vol. I, Page 66).
Another major difference between
developing and developed countries is the
number of people in regular salaried
employment. In developed countries, the
majority are formally employed. In India,
over 50% of the population is self-
employed, only about 14% are in regular salaried employment, while approx-
imately 30% are in casual labour (Anant 2005: 239). The adjacent chart shows
the changes between 1977-78 and 1999-2000.
Economists and others often make a distinction between the organised or
formal and unorganised or informal sector. There is a debate over how to define
these sectors. According to one definition, the organised sector consists of all
units employing ten or more people throughout the year. These have to be
registered with the government to ensure that their employees get proper salaries
or wages, pension and other benefits. In India, over 90% of the work, whether it
is in agriculture, industry or services is in the unorganised or informal sector.
What are the social implications of this small size of the organised sector?
First, it means that very few people have the experience of employment in
large firms where they get to meet people from other regions and backgrounds.
Urban settings do provide some corrective to this – your neighbours in a city
may be from a different place – but by and large, work for most Indians is still in
smallscale workplaces. Here personal relationships determine many aspects of
work. If the employer likes you, you may get a salary raise, and if you have a
fight with him or her, you may lose your job. This is different from a large
Percentage Showing Distribution of All Workers by
Status of Employment: Self-employed, Regular,
and Casual Workers in Rural and Urban Areas in
different Years
Years
1993-94 1999-2000 2004-05 2009-10
Rural
Self-employed 58.0 55.8 60.2 54.2
All wage workers* 42.0 44.2 39.9 45.9
Regular 6.5 6.8 7.1 7.3
Casual 35.6 37.4 32.8 38.6
Urban
Self-employed 42.3 42.2 45.4 41.1
All wage workers* 57.7 57.8 54.5 58.9
Regular 39.4 40.0 39.5 41.4
Casual 18.3 17.7 15.0 17.5
Source: Second Annual Report to the people on
Employment, 2011.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 5


Change and
Development in
Industrial Society
5
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
74
W hich was the last film you saw? We are sure you can tell us the name of the
hero and heroine but can you remember the name of the sound and light
technicians, the make up artists or the dance choreographers? Some people like
the carpenters who make the sets are not even mentioned in the credits. Yet,
without all these people, the film could not be made. Bollywood may be a place of
dreams for you and me, but for many, it is their place of work. Like any industry,
the workers there are part of unions. For instance, the dancers, stunt artists and
the extras are all part of a junior artists association, whose demands include 8
hours shifts, proper wages and safe working conditions. The products of this
industry are advertised and marketed through film distributors and cinema hall
owners or through shops in the form of music cassettes and videos. And the
people who work in this industry, as in any other, live in the same city, but
depending on who they are and how much they earn, they do very different things
in that city. Film stars and textile mill owners live in places like Juhu, while extras
and textile workers may live in places like Girangaon. Some go to five star hotels
and eat Japanese sushi and some eat vada pav from the local handcart. The
residents of Bombay are divided by where they live, what they eat and how much
their clothes cost. But they are also united by certain common things that a city
provides – they watch the same films and cricket matches, they suffer from the
same air pollution and they all have aspirations for their children to do well.
How and where people work and what kind of jobs they have is an important
part of who they are. In this chapter, we will see how changes in technology or
the kind of work that is available has changed social relations in India. On the
other hand, social institutions like caste, kinship networks, gender and region
also influence the way that work is organised or the way in which products are
marketed. This is a major area of research for sociologists.
For instance, why do we find more women in certain jobs like nursing or
teaching than in other sectors like engineering? Is this just a coincidence or is
it because society thinks that women are suited for caring and nurturing work
as against jobs which are seen as ‘tough’ and masculine? Yet nursing is physically
much harder work than designing a bridge. If more women move into engineering,
how will that affect the profession? Ask yourself why some coffee advertisements
in India display two cups on the package whereas in America they show one
cup? The answer is that for many Indians drinking coffee is not an individual
wake up activity, but an occasion to socialise with others. Sociologists are
interested in the questions of who produces what, who works where, who sells
to whom and how. These are not individual choices, but outcomes of social
patterns. In turn, the choices that people make influences how society works.
5.1 IMAGES OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY
Many of the great works of sociology were written at a time when industrialisation
was new and machinery was assuming great importance. Thinkers like Karl
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Change and Development in Industrial Society
75
Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of social features
with industry, such as urbanisation, the loss of face-to-face relationships that
were found in rural areas where people worked on their own farms or for a
landlord they knew, and their substitution by anonymous professional
relationships in modern factories and workplaces. Industrialisation involves a
detailed division of labour. People often do not see the end result of their work
because they are producing only one small part of a product. The work is often
repetitive and exhausting. Yet, even this is better than having no work at all,
i.e., being unemployed. Marx called this situation alienation, when people do
not enjoy work, and see it as something they have to do only in order to survive,
and even that survival depends on whether the technology has room for any
human labour.
Industrialisation leads to greater equality, at least in some spheres. For
example, caste distinctions do not matter any more on trains, buses or in cyber
cafes. On the other hand, older forms of discrimination may persist even in
new factory or workplace settings. And even as social inequalities are reducing,
economic or income inequality is growing in the
world. Often social inequality and income
inequality overlap, for example, in the domination
of upper caste men in well-paying professions like
medicine, law or journalism.  Women often get
paid less than men for similar work.
While the early sociologists saw
industrialisation as both positive and negative,
by the mid 20
th
 century, under the influence of
modernisation theory, industrialisation came
to be seen as inevitable and positive.
Modernisation theory argues that societies are
at different stages on the road to modernisation,
but they are all heading in the same direction.
Modern society, for these theorists, is
represented by the West.
5.2  INDUSTRIALISATION IN INDIA
THE SPECIFICITY OF INDIAN INDUSTRIALISATION
The experience of industrialisation in India is in many ways similar to the western
model and in many ways different. Comparative analysis of different countries
suggests that there is no standard model of industrial capitalism. Let us start
with one point of difference, relating to what kind of work people are doing. In
developed countries, the majority of people are in the services sector, followed by
industry and less than 10% are in agriculture (ILO figures). In India, in
According to the convergence thesis put
forward by modernisation theorist Clark Kerr,
an industrialised India of the 21
st
 century
shares more features with China or the United
States in the 21
st
 century than it shares with
19
th
 century India. Do you think this is true?
Do culture, language and tradition disappear
with new technology or does culture influence
the way people adapt to new products? Write
a page of your own reflections on these
issues, giving examples.
ACTIVITY 5.1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
76
1999-2000, nearly 60% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and
mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and utilities),
and 23% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services etc.) However,
if we look at the contribution of these sectors to economic growth, the share of
agriculture has declined sharply, and services contribute approximately more
than half. This is a very serious situation because it means that the sector where
the maximum people are employed is not able to generate much income for
them. (Government of India, Economic Survey 2001-2002). In India, in 2006-07
the share of employment in agriculture
was 15.19%, in mining and quarriying
0.61%, in production 13.33%, in
manufacturing it was 6.10%, in trade,
hotel and restaurant it was 13.18%, in
transport, storage, communication it was
5.06%, in community, social and
personal services it was 8.97%, in
financial insurance, real state, business
services it was 2.22% and electricity and
water it was 0.33% (Source- Planning
Commission 11th Five Year Plan, 2007-
12, Vol. I, Page 66).
Another major difference between
developing and developed countries is the
number of people in regular salaried
employment. In developed countries, the
majority are formally employed. In India,
over 50% of the population is self-
employed, only about 14% are in regular salaried employment, while approx-
imately 30% are in casual labour (Anant 2005: 239). The adjacent chart shows
the changes between 1977-78 and 1999-2000.
Economists and others often make a distinction between the organised or
formal and unorganised or informal sector. There is a debate over how to define
these sectors. According to one definition, the organised sector consists of all
units employing ten or more people throughout the year. These have to be
registered with the government to ensure that their employees get proper salaries
or wages, pension and other benefits. In India, over 90% of the work, whether it
is in agriculture, industry or services is in the unorganised or informal sector.
What are the social implications of this small size of the organised sector?
First, it means that very few people have the experience of employment in
large firms where they get to meet people from other regions and backgrounds.
Urban settings do provide some corrective to this – your neighbours in a city
may be from a different place – but by and large, work for most Indians is still in
smallscale workplaces. Here personal relationships determine many aspects of
work. If the employer likes you, you may get a salary raise, and if you have a
fight with him or her, you may lose your job. This is different from a large
Percentage Showing Distribution of All Workers by
Status of Employment: Self-employed, Regular,
and Casual Workers in Rural and Urban Areas in
different Years
Years
1993-94 1999-2000 2004-05 2009-10
Rural
Self-employed 58.0 55.8 60.2 54.2
All wage workers* 42.0 44.2 39.9 45.9
Regular 6.5 6.8 7.1 7.3
Casual 35.6 37.4 32.8 38.6
Urban
Self-employed 42.3 42.2 45.4 41.1
All wage workers* 57.7 57.8 54.5 58.9
Regular 39.4 40.0 39.5 41.4
Casual 18.3 17.7 15.0 17.5
Source: Second Annual Report to the people on
Employment, 2011.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Change and Development in Industrial Society
77
organisation with well-defined rules, where recruitment is more transparent and
there are mechanisms for complaints and redressal if you disagree with your
immediate superior. Second, very few Indians have access to secure jobs with
benefits. Of those who do, two-thirds work for the government. This is why
government jobs are so popular. The rest are forced to depend on their children
in their old age. Government employment in India has played a major role in
overcoming boundaries of caste, religion and region. One sociologist has argued
that the reason why there have never been communal riots in a place like Bhilai
is because the public sector Bhilai Steel Plant employs people from all over India
who work together. Others may question this. Third, since very few people are
members of unions, a feature of the organised sector, they do not have the experience
of collectively fighting for proper wages and safe working conditions. The government
has laws to monitor conditions in the unorganised sector, but in practice they are
left to the whims and fancies of the employer or contractor.
INDUSTRIALISATION IN THE EARLY YEARS OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE
The first modern industries in India were cotton, jute, coal mines and railways.
After independence, the government took over the ‘commanding heights of the
economy.’ This involved defence, transport and communication, power, mining
and other projects which only government had the power to do, and which was
also necessary for private industry to flourish. In India’s mixed economy policy,
some sectors were reserved for government, while others were open to the private
sector. But within that, the government tried to ensure, through its licensing
policy, that industries were spread over different regions. Before independence,
industries were located mainly in the port cities like Madras, Bombay, Calcutta.
But since then, we see that places like Baroda, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Pune,
Faridabad and Rajkot have become important industrial centres. The government
also tried to encourage the small-scale sector through special incentives and
assistance. Many items like paper and wood products, stationery, glass and
ceramics were reserved for the small-scale sector. In 1991, large-scale industry
employed only 28 per cent of the total workforce engaged in manufacture, while
the small-scale and traditional industry employed 72 per cent (Roy 2001:11).
GLOBALISATION, LIBERALISATION AND CHANGES IN INDIAN INDUSTRY
Since the 1990s, however, the government has followed a policy of liberalisation.
Private companies, especially foreign firms, are encouraged to invest in sectors
earlier reserved for the government, including telecom, civil aviation, power etc.
Licenses are no longer required to open industries. Foreign products are now easily
available in Indian shops. As a result of liberalisation, many Indian companies
have been bought over by multinationals. At the same time some Indian companies
are becoming multinational companies. An instance of the first is when, Parle drinks
was bought by Coca Cola. Parle’s annual turnover was Rs. 250 crores, while
Coca Cola’s advertising budget alone was Rs. 400 crores. This level of advertising
2015-16(21/01/2015)
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,

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,

video lectures

,

MCQs

,

Important questions

,

Exam

,

Viva Questions

,

ppt

,

NCERT Textbook - Change and Development in industrial Society Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

pdf

,

Extra Questions

,

Summary

,

Semester Notes

,

NCERT Textbook - Change and Development in industrial Society Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

mock tests for examination

,

Objective type Questions

,

practice quizzes

;