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Change and 
Development in 
Industrial Society
5
Chapter 5.indd   59 14 September 2022   12:04:14
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2


Change and 
Development in 
Industrial Society
5
Chapter 5.indd   59 14 September 2022   12:04:14
Rationalised 2023-24
Social Change and Development in India
60
Bollywood in Mumbai, Maharashtra may be a place of dreams for you and 
me, but for many, it is their place of work. Like any industry, the workers there 
are part of unions. For instance, the dancers, stunt artists and the extras are 
all part of a junior artists association, whose demands include 8 hours shifts, 
proper wages and safe working conditions. The products of this industry are 
advertised and marketed through film distributors and cinema hall owners or 
through shops in the form of music cassettes and videos. And the people who 
work in this industry, as in any other, live in the same city, but depending on 
who they are and how much they earn, they do very different things in that 
city. Film stars and textile mill owners live in places like Juhu, while extras and 
textile workers may live in places like Girangaon. Some go to five star hotels 
and eat Japanese sushi and some eat vada pav from the local handcart. The 
residents of Mumbai are divided by where they live, what they eat and how much 
their clothes cost. But they are also united by certain common things that a city 
provides – they watch the same films and cricket matches, they suffer from the 
same air pollution and they all have aspirations for their children to do well. 
How and where people work and what kind of jobs they have is an important 
part of who they are. In this chapter, we will see how changes in technology or 
the kind of work that is available has changed social relations in India. On the 
other hand, social institutions like caste, kinship networks, gender and region 
also influence the way that work is organised or the way in which products are 
marketed. This is a major area of research for sociologists. 
For instance, why do we find more women in certain jobs like nursing or 
teaching than in other sectors like engineering? Is this just a coincidence or 
is it because society thinks that women are suited for caring and nurturing 
work as against jobs which are seen as ‘tough’ and masculine? Yet nursing is 
physically much harder work than designing a bridge. If more women move 
into engineering, how will that affect the profession? Ask yourself why some 
coffee advertisements in India display two cups on the package whereas in 
America they show one cup? The answer is that for many Indians drinking 
coffee is not an individual wake up activity, but an occasion to socialise with 
others. Sociologists are interested in the questions of who produces what, who 
works where, who sells to whom and how. These are not individual choices, but 
outcomes of social patterns. In turn, the choices that people make influences 
how society works. 
5.1 Images of IndustrIal s ocIety Many of the great works of sociology were written at a time when industrialisation 
was new and machinery was assuming great importance. Thinkers like Karl 
Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of social features 
with industry, such as urbanisation, the loss of face-to-face relationships 
that were found in rural areas where people worked on their own farms or 
Chapter 5.indd   60 14 September 2022   12:04:15
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3


Change and 
Development in 
Industrial Society
5
Chapter 5.indd   59 14 September 2022   12:04:14
Rationalised 2023-24
Social Change and Development in India
60
Bollywood in Mumbai, Maharashtra may be a place of dreams for you and 
me, but for many, it is their place of work. Like any industry, the workers there 
are part of unions. For instance, the dancers, stunt artists and the extras are 
all part of a junior artists association, whose demands include 8 hours shifts, 
proper wages and safe working conditions. The products of this industry are 
advertised and marketed through film distributors and cinema hall owners or 
through shops in the form of music cassettes and videos. And the people who 
work in this industry, as in any other, live in the same city, but depending on 
who they are and how much they earn, they do very different things in that 
city. Film stars and textile mill owners live in places like Juhu, while extras and 
textile workers may live in places like Girangaon. Some go to five star hotels 
and eat Japanese sushi and some eat vada pav from the local handcart. The 
residents of Mumbai are divided by where they live, what they eat and how much 
their clothes cost. But they are also united by certain common things that a city 
provides – they watch the same films and cricket matches, they suffer from the 
same air pollution and they all have aspirations for their children to do well. 
How and where people work and what kind of jobs they have is an important 
part of who they are. In this chapter, we will see how changes in technology or 
the kind of work that is available has changed social relations in India. On the 
other hand, social institutions like caste, kinship networks, gender and region 
also influence the way that work is organised or the way in which products are 
marketed. This is a major area of research for sociologists. 
For instance, why do we find more women in certain jobs like nursing or 
teaching than in other sectors like engineering? Is this just a coincidence or 
is it because society thinks that women are suited for caring and nurturing 
work as against jobs which are seen as ‘tough’ and masculine? Yet nursing is 
physically much harder work than designing a bridge. If more women move 
into engineering, how will that affect the profession? Ask yourself why some 
coffee advertisements in India display two cups on the package whereas in 
America they show one cup? The answer is that for many Indians drinking 
coffee is not an individual wake up activity, but an occasion to socialise with 
others. Sociologists are interested in the questions of who produces what, who 
works where, who sells to whom and how. These are not individual choices, but 
outcomes of social patterns. In turn, the choices that people make influences 
how society works. 
5.1 Images of IndustrIal s ocIety Many of the great works of sociology were written at a time when industrialisation 
was new and machinery was assuming great importance. Thinkers like Karl 
Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of social features 
with industry, such as urbanisation, the loss of face-to-face relationships 
that were found in rural areas where people worked on their own farms or 
Chapter 5.indd   60 14 September 2022   12:04:15
Rationalised 2023-24
Change and Development in Industrial Society
61
for a landlord they knew, and their substitution by 
anonymous professional relationships in modern 
factories and workplaces. Industrialisation involves a 
detailed division of labour. People often do not see the 
end result of their work because they are producing 
only one small part of a product. The work is often 
repetitive and exhausting. Yet, even this is better 
than having no work at all, i.e., being unemployed. 
Marx called this situation alienation, when people 
do not enjoy work, and see it as something they have 
to do only in order to survive, and even that survival 
depends on whether the technology has room for any 
human labour. 
Industrialisation leads to greater equality, at least 
in some spheres. For example, caste distinctions do 
not matter any more on trains, buses or in cyber cafes. 
On the other hand, older forms of discrimination may 
persist even in new factory or workplace settings. 
And even as social inequalities are reducing, economic or income inequality 
is growing in the world. Often social inequality and income inequality overlap, 
for example, in the domination of upper caste men in well-paying professions 
like medicine, law or journalism. Women often get paid less than men for  
similar work. 
5.2 IndustrIalIsatIon In IndIa The SpecificiTy of i ndian i nduSTrialiSaTion The experience of industrialisation in India is in many ways similar to the western 
model and in many ways different. Comparative analysis of different countries 
suggests that there is no standard model of industrial capitalism. Let us start 
with one point of difference, relating to what kind of work people are doing. In 
developed countries, the majority of people are in the services sector, followed 
by industry and less than 10% are in agriculture (ILO figures). In India, in  
2018–19, nearly 43% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and 
mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and 
utilities), and 32% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services, etc.) 
However, if we look at the contribution of these sectors to economic growth, the 
share of agriculture has declined sharply, and services contribute approximately 
more than half. This is a very serious situation because it means that the 
sector where the maximum people are employed is not able to generate much 
income for them. In India, in 2018–19 the share of employment in agriculture 
was 42.5%, in mining and quarrying 0.4%, in manufacturing it was 12.1%, in 
trade, hotel and restaurant it was 12.6%, in transport, storage, communication 
it was 5.9%, in community, social and personal services it was 13.8%.
According to the convergence thesis 
put forward by modernisation theorist 
Clark Kerr, an industrialised India of 
the 21st century shares more features 
with China or the United States in the 
21st century than it shares with 19th 
century India. Do you think this is true? 
Do culture, language and tradition 
disappear with new technology or does 
culture influence the way people adapt 
to new products? Write a page of your 
own reflections on these issues, giving 
examples. 
a cTiviTy 5.1
Chapter 5.indd   61 14 September 2022   12:04:15
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4


Change and 
Development in 
Industrial Society
5
Chapter 5.indd   59 14 September 2022   12:04:14
Rationalised 2023-24
Social Change and Development in India
60
Bollywood in Mumbai, Maharashtra may be a place of dreams for you and 
me, but for many, it is their place of work. Like any industry, the workers there 
are part of unions. For instance, the dancers, stunt artists and the extras are 
all part of a junior artists association, whose demands include 8 hours shifts, 
proper wages and safe working conditions. The products of this industry are 
advertised and marketed through film distributors and cinema hall owners or 
through shops in the form of music cassettes and videos. And the people who 
work in this industry, as in any other, live in the same city, but depending on 
who they are and how much they earn, they do very different things in that 
city. Film stars and textile mill owners live in places like Juhu, while extras and 
textile workers may live in places like Girangaon. Some go to five star hotels 
and eat Japanese sushi and some eat vada pav from the local handcart. The 
residents of Mumbai are divided by where they live, what they eat and how much 
their clothes cost. But they are also united by certain common things that a city 
provides – they watch the same films and cricket matches, they suffer from the 
same air pollution and they all have aspirations for their children to do well. 
How and where people work and what kind of jobs they have is an important 
part of who they are. In this chapter, we will see how changes in technology or 
the kind of work that is available has changed social relations in India. On the 
other hand, social institutions like caste, kinship networks, gender and region 
also influence the way that work is organised or the way in which products are 
marketed. This is a major area of research for sociologists. 
For instance, why do we find more women in certain jobs like nursing or 
teaching than in other sectors like engineering? Is this just a coincidence or 
is it because society thinks that women are suited for caring and nurturing 
work as against jobs which are seen as ‘tough’ and masculine? Yet nursing is 
physically much harder work than designing a bridge. If more women move 
into engineering, how will that affect the profession? Ask yourself why some 
coffee advertisements in India display two cups on the package whereas in 
America they show one cup? The answer is that for many Indians drinking 
coffee is not an individual wake up activity, but an occasion to socialise with 
others. Sociologists are interested in the questions of who produces what, who 
works where, who sells to whom and how. These are not individual choices, but 
outcomes of social patterns. In turn, the choices that people make influences 
how society works. 
5.1 Images of IndustrIal s ocIety Many of the great works of sociology were written at a time when industrialisation 
was new and machinery was assuming great importance. Thinkers like Karl 
Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of social features 
with industry, such as urbanisation, the loss of face-to-face relationships 
that were found in rural areas where people worked on their own farms or 
Chapter 5.indd   60 14 September 2022   12:04:15
Rationalised 2023-24
Change and Development in Industrial Society
61
for a landlord they knew, and their substitution by 
anonymous professional relationships in modern 
factories and workplaces. Industrialisation involves a 
detailed division of labour. People often do not see the 
end result of their work because they are producing 
only one small part of a product. The work is often 
repetitive and exhausting. Yet, even this is better 
than having no work at all, i.e., being unemployed. 
Marx called this situation alienation, when people 
do not enjoy work, and see it as something they have 
to do only in order to survive, and even that survival 
depends on whether the technology has room for any 
human labour. 
Industrialisation leads to greater equality, at least 
in some spheres. For example, caste distinctions do 
not matter any more on trains, buses or in cyber cafes. 
On the other hand, older forms of discrimination may 
persist even in new factory or workplace settings. 
And even as social inequalities are reducing, economic or income inequality 
is growing in the world. Often social inequality and income inequality overlap, 
for example, in the domination of upper caste men in well-paying professions 
like medicine, law or journalism. Women often get paid less than men for  
similar work. 
5.2 IndustrIalIsatIon In IndIa The SpecificiTy of i ndian i nduSTrialiSaTion The experience of industrialisation in India is in many ways similar to the western 
model and in many ways different. Comparative analysis of different countries 
suggests that there is no standard model of industrial capitalism. Let us start 
with one point of difference, relating to what kind of work people are doing. In 
developed countries, the majority of people are in the services sector, followed 
by industry and less than 10% are in agriculture (ILO figures). In India, in  
2018–19, nearly 43% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and 
mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and 
utilities), and 32% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services, etc.) 
However, if we look at the contribution of these sectors to economic growth, the 
share of agriculture has declined sharply, and services contribute approximately 
more than half. This is a very serious situation because it means that the 
sector where the maximum people are employed is not able to generate much 
income for them. In India, in 2018–19 the share of employment in agriculture 
was 42.5%, in mining and quarrying 0.4%, in manufacturing it was 12.1%, in 
trade, hotel and restaurant it was 12.6%, in transport, storage, communication 
it was 5.9%, in community, social and personal services it was 13.8%.
According to the convergence thesis 
put forward by modernisation theorist 
Clark Kerr, an industrialised India of 
the 21st century shares more features 
with China or the United States in the 
21st century than it shares with 19th 
century India. Do you think this is true? 
Do culture, language and tradition 
disappear with new technology or does 
culture influence the way people adapt 
to new products? Write a page of your 
own reflections on these issues, giving 
examples. 
a cTiviTy 5.1
Chapter 5.indd   61 14 September 2022   12:04:15
Rationalised 2023-24
Social Change and Development in India
62
Another major difference 
between developing and 
developed countries is the 
number of people in regular 
salaried employment. In 
developed countries, the majority 
are formally employed. In India, 
over 52% of the workers are self-
employed, only about 24% are 
in regular salaried employment, 
while approximately 24% are 
in casual labour. The adjacent 
chart shows the changes between 
1972–73 and 2018–2019. 
Economists and others often 
make a distinction between the organised or formal and unorganised or informal 
sector. There is a debate over how to define these sectors. According to one 
definition, the organised sector consists of all units employing ten or more people 
throughout the year. These have to be registered with the government to ensure 
that their employees get proper salaries or wages, pension and other benefits. 
In India, over 90% of the work, whether it is in agriculture, industry or services 
is in the unorganised or informal sector. What are the social implications of 
this small size of the organised sector? 
First, it means that very few people have the experience of employment in 
large firms where they get to meet people from other regions and backgrounds. 
Urban settings do provide some corrective to this – your neighbours in a city 
may be from a different place – but by and large, work for most Indians is still 
in smallscale workplaces. Here personal relationships determine many aspects 
of work. If the employer likes you, you may get a salary raise, and if you have 
a fight with him or her, you may lose your job. This is different from a large 
organisation with well-defined rules, where recruitment is more transparent 
and there are mechanisms for complaints and redressal if you disagree with 
your immediate superior. Second, very few Indians have access to secure jobs 
with benefits. Of those who do, two-thirds work for the government. This is why  
people strive hard to get into government jobs. The rest are forced to depend on 
their children in their old age. Government employment in India has played a 
major role in overcoming boundaries of caste, religion and region. One sociologist 
has argued that the reason why there have never been communal riots in a 
place like Bhilai is because the public sector Bhilai Steel Plant employs people 
from all over India who work together. Others may question this. Third, since 
very few people are members of unions, a feature of the organised sector, the 
unorganised or informal sector workers do not have the experience of collectively 
fighting for proper wages and safe working conditions. The government has 
laws to monitor conditions in the unorganised sector, but in practice they are 
left to the whims and fancies of the employer or contractor.
Distribution of workers in India by employment status, 1972–2019
Chapter 5.indd   62 14 September 2022   12:04:15
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5


Change and 
Development in 
Industrial Society
5
Chapter 5.indd   59 14 September 2022   12:04:14
Rationalised 2023-24
Social Change and Development in India
60
Bollywood in Mumbai, Maharashtra may be a place of dreams for you and 
me, but for many, it is their place of work. Like any industry, the workers there 
are part of unions. For instance, the dancers, stunt artists and the extras are 
all part of a junior artists association, whose demands include 8 hours shifts, 
proper wages and safe working conditions. The products of this industry are 
advertised and marketed through film distributors and cinema hall owners or 
through shops in the form of music cassettes and videos. And the people who 
work in this industry, as in any other, live in the same city, but depending on 
who they are and how much they earn, they do very different things in that 
city. Film stars and textile mill owners live in places like Juhu, while extras and 
textile workers may live in places like Girangaon. Some go to five star hotels 
and eat Japanese sushi and some eat vada pav from the local handcart. The 
residents of Mumbai are divided by where they live, what they eat and how much 
their clothes cost. But they are also united by certain common things that a city 
provides – they watch the same films and cricket matches, they suffer from the 
same air pollution and they all have aspirations for their children to do well. 
How and where people work and what kind of jobs they have is an important 
part of who they are. In this chapter, we will see how changes in technology or 
the kind of work that is available has changed social relations in India. On the 
other hand, social institutions like caste, kinship networks, gender and region 
also influence the way that work is organised or the way in which products are 
marketed. This is a major area of research for sociologists. 
For instance, why do we find more women in certain jobs like nursing or 
teaching than in other sectors like engineering? Is this just a coincidence or 
is it because society thinks that women are suited for caring and nurturing 
work as against jobs which are seen as ‘tough’ and masculine? Yet nursing is 
physically much harder work than designing a bridge. If more women move 
into engineering, how will that affect the profession? Ask yourself why some 
coffee advertisements in India display two cups on the package whereas in 
America they show one cup? The answer is that for many Indians drinking 
coffee is not an individual wake up activity, but an occasion to socialise with 
others. Sociologists are interested in the questions of who produces what, who 
works where, who sells to whom and how. These are not individual choices, but 
outcomes of social patterns. In turn, the choices that people make influences 
how society works. 
5.1 Images of IndustrIal s ocIety Many of the great works of sociology were written at a time when industrialisation 
was new and machinery was assuming great importance. Thinkers like Karl 
Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim associated a number of social features 
with industry, such as urbanisation, the loss of face-to-face relationships 
that were found in rural areas where people worked on their own farms or 
Chapter 5.indd   60 14 September 2022   12:04:15
Rationalised 2023-24
Change and Development in Industrial Society
61
for a landlord they knew, and their substitution by 
anonymous professional relationships in modern 
factories and workplaces. Industrialisation involves a 
detailed division of labour. People often do not see the 
end result of their work because they are producing 
only one small part of a product. The work is often 
repetitive and exhausting. Yet, even this is better 
than having no work at all, i.e., being unemployed. 
Marx called this situation alienation, when people 
do not enjoy work, and see it as something they have 
to do only in order to survive, and even that survival 
depends on whether the technology has room for any 
human labour. 
Industrialisation leads to greater equality, at least 
in some spheres. For example, caste distinctions do 
not matter any more on trains, buses or in cyber cafes. 
On the other hand, older forms of discrimination may 
persist even in new factory or workplace settings. 
And even as social inequalities are reducing, economic or income inequality 
is growing in the world. Often social inequality and income inequality overlap, 
for example, in the domination of upper caste men in well-paying professions 
like medicine, law or journalism. Women often get paid less than men for  
similar work. 
5.2 IndustrIalIsatIon In IndIa The SpecificiTy of i ndian i nduSTrialiSaTion The experience of industrialisation in India is in many ways similar to the western 
model and in many ways different. Comparative analysis of different countries 
suggests that there is no standard model of industrial capitalism. Let us start 
with one point of difference, relating to what kind of work people are doing. In 
developed countries, the majority of people are in the services sector, followed 
by industry and less than 10% are in agriculture (ILO figures). In India, in  
2018–19, nearly 43% were employed in the primary sector (agriculture and 
mining), 17% in the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction and 
utilities), and 32% in the tertiary sector (trade, transport, financial services, etc.) 
However, if we look at the contribution of these sectors to economic growth, the 
share of agriculture has declined sharply, and services contribute approximately 
more than half. This is a very serious situation because it means that the 
sector where the maximum people are employed is not able to generate much 
income for them. In India, in 2018–19 the share of employment in agriculture 
was 42.5%, in mining and quarrying 0.4%, in manufacturing it was 12.1%, in 
trade, hotel and restaurant it was 12.6%, in transport, storage, communication 
it was 5.9%, in community, social and personal services it was 13.8%.
According to the convergence thesis 
put forward by modernisation theorist 
Clark Kerr, an industrialised India of 
the 21st century shares more features 
with China or the United States in the 
21st century than it shares with 19th 
century India. Do you think this is true? 
Do culture, language and tradition 
disappear with new technology or does 
culture influence the way people adapt 
to new products? Write a page of your 
own reflections on these issues, giving 
examples. 
a cTiviTy 5.1
Chapter 5.indd   61 14 September 2022   12:04:15
Rationalised 2023-24
Social Change and Development in India
62
Another major difference 
between developing and 
developed countries is the 
number of people in regular 
salaried employment. In 
developed countries, the majority 
are formally employed. In India, 
over 52% of the workers are self-
employed, only about 24% are 
in regular salaried employment, 
while approximately 24% are 
in casual labour. The adjacent 
chart shows the changes between 
1972–73 and 2018–2019. 
Economists and others often 
make a distinction between the organised or formal and unorganised or informal 
sector. There is a debate over how to define these sectors. According to one 
definition, the organised sector consists of all units employing ten or more people 
throughout the year. These have to be registered with the government to ensure 
that their employees get proper salaries or wages, pension and other benefits. 
In India, over 90% of the work, whether it is in agriculture, industry or services 
is in the unorganised or informal sector. What are the social implications of 
this small size of the organised sector? 
First, it means that very few people have the experience of employment in 
large firms where they get to meet people from other regions and backgrounds. 
Urban settings do provide some corrective to this – your neighbours in a city 
may be from a different place – but by and large, work for most Indians is still 
in smallscale workplaces. Here personal relationships determine many aspects 
of work. If the employer likes you, you may get a salary raise, and if you have 
a fight with him or her, you may lose your job. This is different from a large 
organisation with well-defined rules, where recruitment is more transparent 
and there are mechanisms for complaints and redressal if you disagree with 
your immediate superior. Second, very few Indians have access to secure jobs 
with benefits. Of those who do, two-thirds work for the government. This is why  
people strive hard to get into government jobs. The rest are forced to depend on 
their children in their old age. Government employment in India has played a 
major role in overcoming boundaries of caste, religion and region. One sociologist 
has argued that the reason why there have never been communal riots in a 
place like Bhilai is because the public sector Bhilai Steel Plant employs people 
from all over India who work together. Others may question this. Third, since 
very few people are members of unions, a feature of the organised sector, the 
unorganised or informal sector workers do not have the experience of collectively 
fighting for proper wages and safe working conditions. The government has 
laws to monitor conditions in the unorganised sector, but in practice they are 
left to the whims and fancies of the employer or contractor.
Distribution of workers in India by employment status, 1972–2019
Chapter 5.indd   62 14 September 2022   12:04:15
Rationalised 2023-24
Change and Development in Industrial Society
63
GlobaliSaTion , l iberaliSaTion and ChanGeS in i ndian InduSTry Since the 1990s, the government has followed a policy of liberalisation. Private 
companies, especially foreign firms, are encouraged to invest in sectors earlier 
reserved for the government, including telecom, civil aviation, power, etc. Licenses 
are no longer required to open industries. Foreign products are now easily 
available in Indian shops. As a result of liberalisation, many Indian companies—
small and large, have been bought over by multinationals. At the same time some 
Indian companies are becoming multinational companies. An instance of the 
first is when, Parle drinks was bought by Coca Cola. Parle’s annual turnover was  
` 250 crores, while Coca Cola’s advertising budget alone was ` 400 crores. This 
level of advertising has naturally increased the consumption of coke across 
India replacing many traditional drinks. The next major area of liberalisation is 
in retail. Do you think that Indians will prefer to shop in grocery stores, small 
textile shops in your neighbourhood or in small towns, departmental stores, 
or will they go out of business? 
The government is trying to sell its share in several public sector companies, 
a process which is known as disinvestment. Many government workers are 
scared that after disinvestment, they will lose their jobs. In ‘Modern Foods’, 
which was set up by the government to make healthy bread available at cheap 
prices, and which was the first company to be privatised, 60% of the workers 
were forced to retire in the first five years. 
More and more companies are reducing the number of permanent 
employees and outsourcing their work to smaller companies or even to homes. 
For multinational companies, this outsourcing is done across the globe, 
with developing countries like India providing cheap labour. Because small 
companies have to compete for orders from the big companies, they keep wages 
low, and working conditions are often poor. It is more difficult for trade unions 
to organise in smaller firms. Almost all companies, even government ones, now 
practice some form of outsourcing and contracting. But the trend is especially 
visible in the private sector. 
To summarise, India is still largely an agricultural country. The service 
sector – shops, banks, the IT industry, hotels and other services are employing 
more people and the urban middle class is growing, along with urban middle 
class values like those we see in television serials and films. But we also see 
that very few people in India have access to secure jobs, with even the small 
number in regular salaried employment becoming more insecure due to the 
rise in contract labour. So far, employment by the government was a major 
avenue for increasing the well-being of the population, but now even that is 
coming down. Some economists debate this, but liberalisation and privatisation 
worldwide appear to be associated with rising income inequality. You will be 
reading more about this in the next chapter on globalisation. 
At the same time as secure employment in large industry is declining, 
the government is embarking on a policy of land acquisition for industry. 
Chapter 5.indd   63 14 September 2022   12:04:15
Rationalised 2023-24
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FAQs on NCERT Textbook - Change and Development in industrial Society - Old & New NCERTs for IAS Preparation (Must Read) - UPSC

1. What are the factors that contribute to industrial development?
Ans. Industrial development is influenced by several factors. Some of the main factors include technological advancements, availability of natural resources, skilled labor force, infrastructure, government policies, and market demand. These factors play a significant role in shaping the growth and development of industries in a society.
2. How does industrialization impact the social structure of a society?
Ans. Industrialization brings about significant changes in the social structure of a society. It leads to the emergence of new social classes, such as the working class and the bourgeoisie. The working class, consisting of industrial laborers, faces challenging working conditions and struggles for better wages and rights. On the other hand, the bourgeoisie, comprising industrialists and capitalists, accumulate wealth and influence in society. Industrialization also leads to urbanization, as people migrate from rural areas to cities in search of employment opportunities.
3. What are the positive and negative consequences of industrial development?
Ans. Industrial development has both positive and negative consequences. On the positive side, it brings economic growth, job opportunities, technological advancements, and improved living standards. Industrialization also leads to the development of infrastructure, such as roads, electricity, and communication networks. However, industrial development can also have negative consequences such as environmental pollution, exploitation of workers, widening income inequalities, and the displacement of traditional occupations.
4. How did the Industrial Revolution impact the world economy?
Ans. The Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century, had a profound impact on the world economy. It marked a shift from agrarian-based economies to industrialized economies. The introduction of new machinery and the use of steam power revolutionized production processes, leading to increased productivity and the mass production of goods. This resulted in the growth of trade and globalization, as countries started specializing in the production of certain goods and engaging in international trade. The Industrial Revolution also led to the emergence of capitalism as the dominant economic system.
5. How does industrial development contribute to urbanization?
Ans. Industrial development is closely linked to urbanization. As industries grow and expand, they require a large labor force. People from rural areas migrate to urban centers in search of employment opportunities in industries. This influx of people to cities leads to the growth of urban areas, as new settlements, housing, and infrastructure are developed to accommodate the rising population. Industrialization also attracts other economic activities, such as trade and services, further contributing to urbanization.
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