NCERT Textbook Chapter 1 - Electric Charges and Fields Class 12 Notes | EduRev

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Class 12 : NCERT Textbook Chapter 1 - Electric Charges and Fields Class 12 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Chapter One
ELECTRIC CHARGES
AND FIELDS
1.1  INTRODUCTION
All of us have the experience of seeing a spark or hearing a crackle when
we take off our synthetic clothes or sweater, particularly in dry weather.
This is almost inevitable with ladies garments like a polyester saree. Have
you ever tried to find any explanation for this phenomenon? Another
common example of electric discharge is the lightning that we see in the
sky during thunderstorms. We also experience a sensation of an electric
shock either while opening the door of a car or holding the iron bar of a
bus after sliding from our seat. The reason for these experiences is
discharge of electric charges through our body, which were accumulated
due to rubbing of insulating surfaces. You might have also heard that
this is due to generation of static electricity. This is precisely the topic we
are going to discuss in this and the next chapter. Static means anything
that does not move or change with time. Electrostatics deals with the
study of forces, fields and potentials arising from static charges.
1.2  ELECTRIC CHARGE
Historically the credit of discovery of the fact that amber rubbed with
wool or silk cloth attracts light objects goes to Thales of Miletus, Greece,
around 600 BC. The name electricity is coined from the Greek word
elektron meaning amber. Many such pairs of materials were known which
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 2


Chapter One
ELECTRIC CHARGES
AND FIELDS
1.1  INTRODUCTION
All of us have the experience of seeing a spark or hearing a crackle when
we take off our synthetic clothes or sweater, particularly in dry weather.
This is almost inevitable with ladies garments like a polyester saree. Have
you ever tried to find any explanation for this phenomenon? Another
common example of electric discharge is the lightning that we see in the
sky during thunderstorms. We also experience a sensation of an electric
shock either while opening the door of a car or holding the iron bar of a
bus after sliding from our seat. The reason for these experiences is
discharge of electric charges through our body, which were accumulated
due to rubbing of insulating surfaces. You might have also heard that
this is due to generation of static electricity. This is precisely the topic we
are going to discuss in this and the next chapter. Static means anything
that does not move or change with time. Electrostatics deals with the
study of forces, fields and potentials arising from static charges.
1.2  ELECTRIC CHARGE
Historically the credit of discovery of the fact that amber rubbed with
wool or silk cloth attracts light objects goes to Thales of Miletus, Greece,
around 600 BC. The name electricity is coined from the Greek word
elektron meaning amber. Many such pairs of materials were known which
2015-16(20/01/2015)
2
Physics
on rubbing could attract light objects
like straw, pith balls and bits of papers.
You can perform the following activity
at home to experience such an effect.
Cut out long thin strips of white paper
and lightly iron them. Take them near a
TV screen or computer monitor. You will
see that the strips get attracted to the
screen. In fact they remain stuck to the
screen for a while.
It was observed that if two glass rods
rubbed with wool or silk cloth are
brought close to each other, they repel
each other [Fig. 1.1(a)]. The two strands
of wool or two pieces of silk cloth, with
which the rods were rubbed, also repel
each other. However, the glass rod and
wool attracted each other. Similarly, two plastic rods rubbed with cat’s
fur repelled each other [Fig. 1.1(b)] but attracted the fur. On the other
hand, the plastic rod attracts the glass rod [Fig. 1.1(c)] and repel the silk
or wool with which the glass rod is rubbed. The glass rod repels the fur.
If a plastic rod rubbed with fur is made to touch two small pith balls
(now-a-days we can use polystyrene balls) suspended by silk or nylon
thread, then the balls repel each other [Fig. 1.1(d)] and are also repelled
by the rod. A similar effect is found if the pith balls are touched with a
glass rod rubbed with silk [Fig. 1.1(e)]. A dramatic observation is that a
pith ball touched with glass rod attracts another pith ball touched with
plastic rod [Fig. 1.1(f )].
These seemingly simple facts were established from years of efforts
and careful experiments and their analyses. It was concluded, after many
careful studies by different scientists, that there were only two kinds of
an entity which is called the electric charge. We say that the bodies like
glass or plastic rods, silk, fur and pith balls are electrified. They acquire
an electric charge on rubbing. The experiments on pith balls suggested
that there are two kinds of electrification and we find  that (i) like charges
repel and (ii) unlike charges attract each other. The experiments also
demonstrated that the charges are transferred from the rods to the pith
balls on  contact. It is said that the pith balls are electrified or are charged
by  contact. The property which differentiates the two kinds of charges is
called the polarity of charge.
When a glass rod is rubbed with silk, the rod acquires one kind of
charge and the silk acquires the second kind of charge. This is true for
any pair of objects that are rubbed to be electrified. Now if the electrified
glass rod is brought in contact with silk, with which it was rubbed, they
no longer attract each other. They also do not attract or repel other light
objects as they did on being electrified.
Thus, the charges acquired after rubbing are lost when the charged
bodies are brought in contact. What can you conclude from these
observations? It just tells us that unlike charges acquired by the objects
FIGURE 1.1 Rods and pith balls: like charges repel and
unlike charges attract each other.
Interactive animation on simple electrostatic experiments:
http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/travoltage/HTML/staticElectricity.htm
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 3


Chapter One
ELECTRIC CHARGES
AND FIELDS
1.1  INTRODUCTION
All of us have the experience of seeing a spark or hearing a crackle when
we take off our synthetic clothes or sweater, particularly in dry weather.
This is almost inevitable with ladies garments like a polyester saree. Have
you ever tried to find any explanation for this phenomenon? Another
common example of electric discharge is the lightning that we see in the
sky during thunderstorms. We also experience a sensation of an electric
shock either while opening the door of a car or holding the iron bar of a
bus after sliding from our seat. The reason for these experiences is
discharge of electric charges through our body, which were accumulated
due to rubbing of insulating surfaces. You might have also heard that
this is due to generation of static electricity. This is precisely the topic we
are going to discuss in this and the next chapter. Static means anything
that does not move or change with time. Electrostatics deals with the
study of forces, fields and potentials arising from static charges.
1.2  ELECTRIC CHARGE
Historically the credit of discovery of the fact that amber rubbed with
wool or silk cloth attracts light objects goes to Thales of Miletus, Greece,
around 600 BC. The name electricity is coined from the Greek word
elektron meaning amber. Many such pairs of materials were known which
2015-16(20/01/2015)
2
Physics
on rubbing could attract light objects
like straw, pith balls and bits of papers.
You can perform the following activity
at home to experience such an effect.
Cut out long thin strips of white paper
and lightly iron them. Take them near a
TV screen or computer monitor. You will
see that the strips get attracted to the
screen. In fact they remain stuck to the
screen for a while.
It was observed that if two glass rods
rubbed with wool or silk cloth are
brought close to each other, they repel
each other [Fig. 1.1(a)]. The two strands
of wool or two pieces of silk cloth, with
which the rods were rubbed, also repel
each other. However, the glass rod and
wool attracted each other. Similarly, two plastic rods rubbed with cat’s
fur repelled each other [Fig. 1.1(b)] but attracted the fur. On the other
hand, the plastic rod attracts the glass rod [Fig. 1.1(c)] and repel the silk
or wool with which the glass rod is rubbed. The glass rod repels the fur.
If a plastic rod rubbed with fur is made to touch two small pith balls
(now-a-days we can use polystyrene balls) suspended by silk or nylon
thread, then the balls repel each other [Fig. 1.1(d)] and are also repelled
by the rod. A similar effect is found if the pith balls are touched with a
glass rod rubbed with silk [Fig. 1.1(e)]. A dramatic observation is that a
pith ball touched with glass rod attracts another pith ball touched with
plastic rod [Fig. 1.1(f )].
These seemingly simple facts were established from years of efforts
and careful experiments and their analyses. It was concluded, after many
careful studies by different scientists, that there were only two kinds of
an entity which is called the electric charge. We say that the bodies like
glass or plastic rods, silk, fur and pith balls are electrified. They acquire
an electric charge on rubbing. The experiments on pith balls suggested
that there are two kinds of electrification and we find  that (i) like charges
repel and (ii) unlike charges attract each other. The experiments also
demonstrated that the charges are transferred from the rods to the pith
balls on  contact. It is said that the pith balls are electrified or are charged
by  contact. The property which differentiates the two kinds of charges is
called the polarity of charge.
When a glass rod is rubbed with silk, the rod acquires one kind of
charge and the silk acquires the second kind of charge. This is true for
any pair of objects that are rubbed to be electrified. Now if the electrified
glass rod is brought in contact with silk, with which it was rubbed, they
no longer attract each other. They also do not attract or repel other light
objects as they did on being electrified.
Thus, the charges acquired after rubbing are lost when the charged
bodies are brought in contact. What can you conclude from these
observations? It just tells us that unlike charges acquired by the objects
FIGURE 1.1 Rods and pith balls: like charges repel and
unlike charges attract each other.
Interactive animation on simple electrostatic experiments:
http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/travoltage/HTML/staticElectricity.htm
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Electric Charges
and Fields
3
neutralise or nullify each other’s effect. Therefore the charges were named
as positive and negative by the American scientist Benjamin Franklin.
We know that when we add a positive number to a negative number of
the same magnitude, the sum is zero. This might have been the
philosophy in naming the charges as positive and negative. By convention,
the charge on glass rod or cat’s fur is called positive and that on plastic
rod or silk is termed negative. If an object possesses an electric charge, it
is said to be electrified or charged. When it has no charge it is said to be
neutral.
UNIFICATION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
In olden days, electricity and magnetism were treated as separate subjects. Electricity
dealt with charges on glass rods, cat’s fur, batteries, lightning, etc., while magnetism
described interactions of magnets, iron filings, compass needles, etc. In 1820 Danish
scientist Oersted found that a compass needle is deflected by passing an electric current
through a wire placed near the needle. Ampere and Faraday supported this observation
by saying that electric charges in motion produce magnetic fields and moving magnets
generate electricity. The unification was achieved when the Scottish physicist Maxwell
and the Dutch physicist Lorentz put forward a theory where they showed the
interdependence of these two subjects. This field is called electromagnetism. Most of the
phenomena occurring around us can be described under electromagnetism. Virtually
every force that we can think of like friction, chemical force between atoms holding the
matter together, and even the forces describing processes occurring in cells of living
organisms, have its origin in electromagnetic force. Electromagnetic force is one of the
fundamental forces of nature.
Maxwell put forth four equations that play the same role in classical electromagnetism
as Newton’s equations of motion and gravitation law play in mechanics. He also argued
that light is electromagnetic in nature and its speed can be found by making purely
electric and magnetic measurements. He claimed that the science of optics is intimately
related to that of electricity and magnetism.
The science of electricity and magnetism is the foundation for the modern technological
civilisation. Electric power, telecommunication, radio and television, and a wide variety
of the practical appliances used in daily life are based on the principles of this science.
Although charged particles in motion exert both electric and magnetic forces, in the
frame of reference where all the charges are at rest, the forces are purely electrical. You
know that gravitational force is a long-range force. Its effect is felt even when the distance
between the interacting particles is very large because the force decreases inversely as
the square of the distance between the interacting bodies. We will learn in this chapter
that electric force is also as pervasive and is in fact stronger than the gravitational force
by several orders of magnitude (refer to Chapter 1 of Class XI Physics Textbook).
A simple apparatus to detect charge on a body is the gold-leaf
electroscope [Fig. 1.2(a)]. It consists of a vertical metal rod housed in a
box, with two thin gold leaves attached to its bottom end. When a charged
object touches the metal knob at the top of the rod, charge flows on to
the leaves and they diverge. The degree of divergance is an indicator of
the amount of charge.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 4


Chapter One
ELECTRIC CHARGES
AND FIELDS
1.1  INTRODUCTION
All of us have the experience of seeing a spark or hearing a crackle when
we take off our synthetic clothes or sweater, particularly in dry weather.
This is almost inevitable with ladies garments like a polyester saree. Have
you ever tried to find any explanation for this phenomenon? Another
common example of electric discharge is the lightning that we see in the
sky during thunderstorms. We also experience a sensation of an electric
shock either while opening the door of a car or holding the iron bar of a
bus after sliding from our seat. The reason for these experiences is
discharge of electric charges through our body, which were accumulated
due to rubbing of insulating surfaces. You might have also heard that
this is due to generation of static electricity. This is precisely the topic we
are going to discuss in this and the next chapter. Static means anything
that does not move or change with time. Electrostatics deals with the
study of forces, fields and potentials arising from static charges.
1.2  ELECTRIC CHARGE
Historically the credit of discovery of the fact that amber rubbed with
wool or silk cloth attracts light objects goes to Thales of Miletus, Greece,
around 600 BC. The name electricity is coined from the Greek word
elektron meaning amber. Many such pairs of materials were known which
2015-16(20/01/2015)
2
Physics
on rubbing could attract light objects
like straw, pith balls and bits of papers.
You can perform the following activity
at home to experience such an effect.
Cut out long thin strips of white paper
and lightly iron them. Take them near a
TV screen or computer monitor. You will
see that the strips get attracted to the
screen. In fact they remain stuck to the
screen for a while.
It was observed that if two glass rods
rubbed with wool or silk cloth are
brought close to each other, they repel
each other [Fig. 1.1(a)]. The two strands
of wool or two pieces of silk cloth, with
which the rods were rubbed, also repel
each other. However, the glass rod and
wool attracted each other. Similarly, two plastic rods rubbed with cat’s
fur repelled each other [Fig. 1.1(b)] but attracted the fur. On the other
hand, the plastic rod attracts the glass rod [Fig. 1.1(c)] and repel the silk
or wool with which the glass rod is rubbed. The glass rod repels the fur.
If a plastic rod rubbed with fur is made to touch two small pith balls
(now-a-days we can use polystyrene balls) suspended by silk or nylon
thread, then the balls repel each other [Fig. 1.1(d)] and are also repelled
by the rod. A similar effect is found if the pith balls are touched with a
glass rod rubbed with silk [Fig. 1.1(e)]. A dramatic observation is that a
pith ball touched with glass rod attracts another pith ball touched with
plastic rod [Fig. 1.1(f )].
These seemingly simple facts were established from years of efforts
and careful experiments and their analyses. It was concluded, after many
careful studies by different scientists, that there were only two kinds of
an entity which is called the electric charge. We say that the bodies like
glass or plastic rods, silk, fur and pith balls are electrified. They acquire
an electric charge on rubbing. The experiments on pith balls suggested
that there are two kinds of electrification and we find  that (i) like charges
repel and (ii) unlike charges attract each other. The experiments also
demonstrated that the charges are transferred from the rods to the pith
balls on  contact. It is said that the pith balls are electrified or are charged
by  contact. The property which differentiates the two kinds of charges is
called the polarity of charge.
When a glass rod is rubbed with silk, the rod acquires one kind of
charge and the silk acquires the second kind of charge. This is true for
any pair of objects that are rubbed to be electrified. Now if the electrified
glass rod is brought in contact with silk, with which it was rubbed, they
no longer attract each other. They also do not attract or repel other light
objects as they did on being electrified.
Thus, the charges acquired after rubbing are lost when the charged
bodies are brought in contact. What can you conclude from these
observations? It just tells us that unlike charges acquired by the objects
FIGURE 1.1 Rods and pith balls: like charges repel and
unlike charges attract each other.
Interactive animation on simple electrostatic experiments:
http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/travoltage/HTML/staticElectricity.htm
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Electric Charges
and Fields
3
neutralise or nullify each other’s effect. Therefore the charges were named
as positive and negative by the American scientist Benjamin Franklin.
We know that when we add a positive number to a negative number of
the same magnitude, the sum is zero. This might have been the
philosophy in naming the charges as positive and negative. By convention,
the charge on glass rod or cat’s fur is called positive and that on plastic
rod or silk is termed negative. If an object possesses an electric charge, it
is said to be electrified or charged. When it has no charge it is said to be
neutral.
UNIFICATION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
In olden days, electricity and magnetism were treated as separate subjects. Electricity
dealt with charges on glass rods, cat’s fur, batteries, lightning, etc., while magnetism
described interactions of magnets, iron filings, compass needles, etc. In 1820 Danish
scientist Oersted found that a compass needle is deflected by passing an electric current
through a wire placed near the needle. Ampere and Faraday supported this observation
by saying that electric charges in motion produce magnetic fields and moving magnets
generate electricity. The unification was achieved when the Scottish physicist Maxwell
and the Dutch physicist Lorentz put forward a theory where they showed the
interdependence of these two subjects. This field is called electromagnetism. Most of the
phenomena occurring around us can be described under electromagnetism. Virtually
every force that we can think of like friction, chemical force between atoms holding the
matter together, and even the forces describing processes occurring in cells of living
organisms, have its origin in electromagnetic force. Electromagnetic force is one of the
fundamental forces of nature.
Maxwell put forth four equations that play the same role in classical electromagnetism
as Newton’s equations of motion and gravitation law play in mechanics. He also argued
that light is electromagnetic in nature and its speed can be found by making purely
electric and magnetic measurements. He claimed that the science of optics is intimately
related to that of electricity and magnetism.
The science of electricity and magnetism is the foundation for the modern technological
civilisation. Electric power, telecommunication, radio and television, and a wide variety
of the practical appliances used in daily life are based on the principles of this science.
Although charged particles in motion exert both electric and magnetic forces, in the
frame of reference where all the charges are at rest, the forces are purely electrical. You
know that gravitational force is a long-range force. Its effect is felt even when the distance
between the interacting particles is very large because the force decreases inversely as
the square of the distance between the interacting bodies. We will learn in this chapter
that electric force is also as pervasive and is in fact stronger than the gravitational force
by several orders of magnitude (refer to Chapter 1 of Class XI Physics Textbook).
A simple apparatus to detect charge on a body is the gold-leaf
electroscope [Fig. 1.2(a)]. It consists of a vertical metal rod housed in a
box, with two thin gold leaves attached to its bottom end. When a charged
object touches the metal knob at the top of the rod, charge flows on to
the leaves and they diverge. The degree of divergance is an indicator of
the amount of charge.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
4
Physics
Students can make a simple electroscope as
follows [Fig. 1.2(b)]: Take a thin aluminium curtain
rod with ball ends fitted for hanging the curtain. Cut
out a piece of length about 20 cm with the ball at
one end and flatten the cut end. Take a large bottle
that can hold this rod and a cork which will fit in the
opening of the bottle. Make a hole in the cork
sufficient to hold the curtain rod snugly. Slide the
rod through the hole in the cork with the cut end on
the lower side and ball end projecting above the cork.
Fold a small, thin aluminium foil (about 6 cm in
length) in the middle and attach it to the flattened
end of the rod by cellulose tape. This forms the leaves
of your electroscope. Fit the cork in the bottle with
about 5 cm of the ball end projecting above the cork.
A paper scale may be put inside the bottle in advance
to measure the separation of leaves. The separation
is a rough measure of the amount of charge on the
electroscope.
To understand how the electroscope works, use
the white paper strips we used for seeing the
attraction of charged bodies. Fold the strips into half
so that you make a mark of fold. Open the strip and
iron it lightly with the mountain fold up, as shown
in Fig. 1.3. Hold the strip by pinching it at the fold.
You would notice that the two halves move apart.
This shows that the strip has acquired charge on ironing. When you fold
it into half, both the halves have the same charge. Hence they repel each
other. The same effect is seen in the leaf electroscope. On charging the
curtain rod by touching the ball end with an electrified body, charge is
transferred to the curtain rod and the attached aluminium foil. Both the
halves of the foil get similar charge and therefore repel each other. The
divergence in the leaves depends on the amount of charge on them. Let
us first try to understand why material bodies acquire charge.
You know that all matter is made up of atoms and/or molecules.
Although normally the materials are electrically neutral,  they do contain
charges; but their charges are exactly balanced. Forces that hold the
molecules together, forces that hold atoms together in a solid, the adhesive
force of glue, forces associated with surface tension, all are basically
electrical in nature, arising from the forces between charged particles.
Thus the electric force is all pervasive and it encompasses almost each
and every field associated with our life. It is therefore  essential that we
learn more about such a force.
To electrify a neutral body, we need to add or remove one kind of
charge. When we say that a body is charged, we always refer to this
excess charge or deficit of charge. In solids,  some of the electrons, being
less tightly bound in the atom, are the charges which are transferred
from one body to the other.  A body can thus be charged positively by
losing some of its electrons. Similarly, a body can be charged negatively
FIGURE 1.2 Electroscopes: (a) The gold leaf
electroscope, (b) Schematics of a simple
electroscope.
FIGURE 1.3 Paper strip
experiment.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 5


Chapter One
ELECTRIC CHARGES
AND FIELDS
1.1  INTRODUCTION
All of us have the experience of seeing a spark or hearing a crackle when
we take off our synthetic clothes or sweater, particularly in dry weather.
This is almost inevitable with ladies garments like a polyester saree. Have
you ever tried to find any explanation for this phenomenon? Another
common example of electric discharge is the lightning that we see in the
sky during thunderstorms. We also experience a sensation of an electric
shock either while opening the door of a car or holding the iron bar of a
bus after sliding from our seat. The reason for these experiences is
discharge of electric charges through our body, which were accumulated
due to rubbing of insulating surfaces. You might have also heard that
this is due to generation of static electricity. This is precisely the topic we
are going to discuss in this and the next chapter. Static means anything
that does not move or change with time. Electrostatics deals with the
study of forces, fields and potentials arising from static charges.
1.2  ELECTRIC CHARGE
Historically the credit of discovery of the fact that amber rubbed with
wool or silk cloth attracts light objects goes to Thales of Miletus, Greece,
around 600 BC. The name electricity is coined from the Greek word
elektron meaning amber. Many such pairs of materials were known which
2015-16(20/01/2015)
2
Physics
on rubbing could attract light objects
like straw, pith balls and bits of papers.
You can perform the following activity
at home to experience such an effect.
Cut out long thin strips of white paper
and lightly iron them. Take them near a
TV screen or computer monitor. You will
see that the strips get attracted to the
screen. In fact they remain stuck to the
screen for a while.
It was observed that if two glass rods
rubbed with wool or silk cloth are
brought close to each other, they repel
each other [Fig. 1.1(a)]. The two strands
of wool or two pieces of silk cloth, with
which the rods were rubbed, also repel
each other. However, the glass rod and
wool attracted each other. Similarly, two plastic rods rubbed with cat’s
fur repelled each other [Fig. 1.1(b)] but attracted the fur. On the other
hand, the plastic rod attracts the glass rod [Fig. 1.1(c)] and repel the silk
or wool with which the glass rod is rubbed. The glass rod repels the fur.
If a plastic rod rubbed with fur is made to touch two small pith balls
(now-a-days we can use polystyrene balls) suspended by silk or nylon
thread, then the balls repel each other [Fig. 1.1(d)] and are also repelled
by the rod. A similar effect is found if the pith balls are touched with a
glass rod rubbed with silk [Fig. 1.1(e)]. A dramatic observation is that a
pith ball touched with glass rod attracts another pith ball touched with
plastic rod [Fig. 1.1(f )].
These seemingly simple facts were established from years of efforts
and careful experiments and their analyses. It was concluded, after many
careful studies by different scientists, that there were only two kinds of
an entity which is called the electric charge. We say that the bodies like
glass or plastic rods, silk, fur and pith balls are electrified. They acquire
an electric charge on rubbing. The experiments on pith balls suggested
that there are two kinds of electrification and we find  that (i) like charges
repel and (ii) unlike charges attract each other. The experiments also
demonstrated that the charges are transferred from the rods to the pith
balls on  contact. It is said that the pith balls are electrified or are charged
by  contact. The property which differentiates the two kinds of charges is
called the polarity of charge.
When a glass rod is rubbed with silk, the rod acquires one kind of
charge and the silk acquires the second kind of charge. This is true for
any pair of objects that are rubbed to be electrified. Now if the electrified
glass rod is brought in contact with silk, with which it was rubbed, they
no longer attract each other. They also do not attract or repel other light
objects as they did on being electrified.
Thus, the charges acquired after rubbing are lost when the charged
bodies are brought in contact. What can you conclude from these
observations? It just tells us that unlike charges acquired by the objects
FIGURE 1.1 Rods and pith balls: like charges repel and
unlike charges attract each other.
Interactive animation on simple electrostatic experiments:
http://ephysics.physics.ucla.edu/travoltage/HTML/staticElectricity.htm
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Electric Charges
and Fields
3
neutralise or nullify each other’s effect. Therefore the charges were named
as positive and negative by the American scientist Benjamin Franklin.
We know that when we add a positive number to a negative number of
the same magnitude, the sum is zero. This might have been the
philosophy in naming the charges as positive and negative. By convention,
the charge on glass rod or cat’s fur is called positive and that on plastic
rod or silk is termed negative. If an object possesses an electric charge, it
is said to be electrified or charged. When it has no charge it is said to be
neutral.
UNIFICATION OF ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
In olden days, electricity and magnetism were treated as separate subjects. Electricity
dealt with charges on glass rods, cat’s fur, batteries, lightning, etc., while magnetism
described interactions of magnets, iron filings, compass needles, etc. In 1820 Danish
scientist Oersted found that a compass needle is deflected by passing an electric current
through a wire placed near the needle. Ampere and Faraday supported this observation
by saying that electric charges in motion produce magnetic fields and moving magnets
generate electricity. The unification was achieved when the Scottish physicist Maxwell
and the Dutch physicist Lorentz put forward a theory where they showed the
interdependence of these two subjects. This field is called electromagnetism. Most of the
phenomena occurring around us can be described under electromagnetism. Virtually
every force that we can think of like friction, chemical force between atoms holding the
matter together, and even the forces describing processes occurring in cells of living
organisms, have its origin in electromagnetic force. Electromagnetic force is one of the
fundamental forces of nature.
Maxwell put forth four equations that play the same role in classical electromagnetism
as Newton’s equations of motion and gravitation law play in mechanics. He also argued
that light is electromagnetic in nature and its speed can be found by making purely
electric and magnetic measurements. He claimed that the science of optics is intimately
related to that of electricity and magnetism.
The science of electricity and magnetism is the foundation for the modern technological
civilisation. Electric power, telecommunication, radio and television, and a wide variety
of the practical appliances used in daily life are based on the principles of this science.
Although charged particles in motion exert both electric and magnetic forces, in the
frame of reference where all the charges are at rest, the forces are purely electrical. You
know that gravitational force is a long-range force. Its effect is felt even when the distance
between the interacting particles is very large because the force decreases inversely as
the square of the distance between the interacting bodies. We will learn in this chapter
that electric force is also as pervasive and is in fact stronger than the gravitational force
by several orders of magnitude (refer to Chapter 1 of Class XI Physics Textbook).
A simple apparatus to detect charge on a body is the gold-leaf
electroscope [Fig. 1.2(a)]. It consists of a vertical metal rod housed in a
box, with two thin gold leaves attached to its bottom end. When a charged
object touches the metal knob at the top of the rod, charge flows on to
the leaves and they diverge. The degree of divergance is an indicator of
the amount of charge.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
4
Physics
Students can make a simple electroscope as
follows [Fig. 1.2(b)]: Take a thin aluminium curtain
rod with ball ends fitted for hanging the curtain. Cut
out a piece of length about 20 cm with the ball at
one end and flatten the cut end. Take a large bottle
that can hold this rod and a cork which will fit in the
opening of the bottle. Make a hole in the cork
sufficient to hold the curtain rod snugly. Slide the
rod through the hole in the cork with the cut end on
the lower side and ball end projecting above the cork.
Fold a small, thin aluminium foil (about 6 cm in
length) in the middle and attach it to the flattened
end of the rod by cellulose tape. This forms the leaves
of your electroscope. Fit the cork in the bottle with
about 5 cm of the ball end projecting above the cork.
A paper scale may be put inside the bottle in advance
to measure the separation of leaves. The separation
is a rough measure of the amount of charge on the
electroscope.
To understand how the electroscope works, use
the white paper strips we used for seeing the
attraction of charged bodies. Fold the strips into half
so that you make a mark of fold. Open the strip and
iron it lightly with the mountain fold up, as shown
in Fig. 1.3. Hold the strip by pinching it at the fold.
You would notice that the two halves move apart.
This shows that the strip has acquired charge on ironing. When you fold
it into half, both the halves have the same charge. Hence they repel each
other. The same effect is seen in the leaf electroscope. On charging the
curtain rod by touching the ball end with an electrified body, charge is
transferred to the curtain rod and the attached aluminium foil. Both the
halves of the foil get similar charge and therefore repel each other. The
divergence in the leaves depends on the amount of charge on them. Let
us first try to understand why material bodies acquire charge.
You know that all matter is made up of atoms and/or molecules.
Although normally the materials are electrically neutral,  they do contain
charges; but their charges are exactly balanced. Forces that hold the
molecules together, forces that hold atoms together in a solid, the adhesive
force of glue, forces associated with surface tension, all are basically
electrical in nature, arising from the forces between charged particles.
Thus the electric force is all pervasive and it encompasses almost each
and every field associated with our life. It is therefore  essential that we
learn more about such a force.
To electrify a neutral body, we need to add or remove one kind of
charge. When we say that a body is charged, we always refer to this
excess charge or deficit of charge. In solids,  some of the electrons, being
less tightly bound in the atom, are the charges which are transferred
from one body to the other.  A body can thus be charged positively by
losing some of its electrons. Similarly, a body can be charged negatively
FIGURE 1.2 Electroscopes: (a) The gold leaf
electroscope, (b) Schematics of a simple
electroscope.
FIGURE 1.3 Paper strip
experiment.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Electric Charges
and Fields
5
by gaining electrons. When we rub a glass rod with silk, some of the
electrons from the rod are transferred to the silk cloth. Thus the rod gets
positively charged and the silk gets negatively charged. No new charge is
created in the process of rubbing. Also the number of electrons, that are
transferred, is a very small fraction of the total number of electrons in the
material body. Also only the less tightly bound electrons in a material
body can be transferred from it to another by rubbing. Therefore, when
a body is rubbed with another, the bodies get charged and that is why
we have to stick to certain pairs of materials to notice charging on rubbing
the bodies.
1.3  CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS
A metal rod held in hand and rubbed with wool will not show any sign of
being charged. However, if a metal rod with a wooden or plastic handle is
rubbed without touching its metal part, it shows signs of charging.
Suppose we connect one end of a copper wire to a neutral pith ball and
the other end to a negatively charged plastic rod. We will find that the
pith ball acquires a negative charge. If a similar experiment is repeated
with a nylon thread or a rubber band, no transfer of charge will take
place from the plastic rod to the pith ball. Why does the transfer of charge
not take place from the rod to the ball?
Some substances readily allow passage of electricity through them,
others do not.  Those which allow electricity to pass through them easily
are called conductors. They have electric charges (electrons) that are
comparatively free to move inside the material. Metals, human and animal
bodies and earth are conductors. Most of the non-metals like glass,
porcelain, plastic, nylon, wood offer high resistance to the passage of
electricity through them. They are called insulators. Most  substances
fall into one of the two classes stated above*.
When some charge is transferred to a conductor, it readily gets
distributed over the entire surface of the conductor. In contrast, if some
charge is put on an insulator, it stays at the same place. You will learn
why this happens in the next chapter.
This property of the materials tells you why a nylon or plastic comb
gets electrified on combing dry hair or on rubbing, but a metal article
like spoon does not. The charges on metal leak through our body to the
ground as both are conductors of electricity.
  When we bring a charged body  in contact with the earth,  all the
excess charge on the body disappears by causing a momentary current
to pass to the ground through the connecting conductor (such as our
body). This process of sharing the charges with the earth is called
grounding or earthing. Earthing provides a safety measure for electrical
circuits and appliances. A thick metal plate is buried deep into the earth
and thick wires are drawn from this plate; these are  used in buildings
for the purpose of earthing near the mains supply.  The electric wiring in
our houses has three wires: live, neutral and earth. The first two carry
* There is a third category called semiconductors, which offer resistance to the
movement of charges which is intermediate between the conductors and
insulators.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
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