NCERT Textbook - India: Size And Location Class 9 Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

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Class 9 : NCERT Textbook - India: Size And Location Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30'N) divides the
country into almost two equal parts. To the
southeast and southwest of the mainland, lie
the Andaman and Nicobar islands and the
Lakshadweep islands in Bay of Bengal and
Arabian Sea respectively.  Find out the extent
of these groups of islands from your atlas.
SIZE
The land mass of India has an area of 3.28
million square km. India’s total area accounts
for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical
I
ndia is one of the ancient civilisations in the
world.  It has achieved multi-faceted socio-
economic progress during the last five
decades.  It has moved forward displaying
remarkable progress in the field of
agriculture, industry, technology and overall
economic development.  India has also
contributed significantly to the making of
world  history.
LOCATION
India is a vast country. Lying entirely in the
Northern hemisphere (Figure 1.1) the main
land extends between latitudes 8°4'N and
37°6'N and longitudes 68°7'E and 97°25'E.
INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION
Figure 1.1 : India in the World
• The southernmost point of
the Indian Union– ‘Indira Point’ got submerged under
the sea water in 2004 during the Tsunami.
180°W 150° 120° 90° 60° 30°W 0° 180°E 150° 120° 90° 60° 30°E
INDIAN
OCEAN
Antartica
75°N
60°
30°
15°N
0°
15°S
45°
60°
75°S
PACIFIC
OCEAN
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
PACIFIC
OCEAN
Africa
Asia
45°
Europe
North
America
South
America
Australia
30°
1
1 01/01/2015
2015-16
Page 2


The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30'N) divides the
country into almost two equal parts. To the
southeast and southwest of the mainland, lie
the Andaman and Nicobar islands and the
Lakshadweep islands in Bay of Bengal and
Arabian Sea respectively.  Find out the extent
of these groups of islands from your atlas.
SIZE
The land mass of India has an area of 3.28
million square km. India’s total area accounts
for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical
I
ndia is one of the ancient civilisations in the
world.  It has achieved multi-faceted socio-
economic progress during the last five
decades.  It has moved forward displaying
remarkable progress in the field of
agriculture, industry, technology and overall
economic development.  India has also
contributed significantly to the making of
world  history.
LOCATION
India is a vast country. Lying entirely in the
Northern hemisphere (Figure 1.1) the main
land extends between latitudes 8°4'N and
37°6'N and longitudes 68°7'E and 97°25'E.
INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION
Figure 1.1 : India in the World
• The southernmost point of
the Indian Union– ‘Indira Point’ got submerged under
the sea water in 2004 during the Tsunami.
180°W 150° 120° 90° 60° 30°W 0° 180°E 150° 120° 90° 60° 30°E
INDIAN
OCEAN
Antartica
75°N
60°
30°
15°N
0°
15°S
45°
60°
75°S
PACIFIC
OCEAN
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
PACIFIC
OCEAN
Africa
Asia
45°
Europe
North
America
South
America
Australia
30°
1
1 01/01/2015
2015-16
CONTEMPORARY INDIA 2
area of the world. From the Figure 1.2 it is
clear that India is the seventh largest
country of the world. India has a land
boundary of about 15,200 km and the total
length of the coast line of the mainland
including Andaman and Nicobar and
Lakshadweep is 7,516.6 km.
India is bounded by the young fold
mountains in the northwest,  north and
north east. South of about 22° north
latitude, it begins to taper, and extends
towards the Indian Ocean, dividing it into
two seas, the Arabian Sea on the west and
the Bay of  Bengal on its east.
Look at Figure 1.3 and note that the
latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the
mainland is about 30°. Despite this fact the
east-west extent appears to be smaller than
the north-south extent.
From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh
there is a time lag of two hours. Hence, time
along the Standard Meridian of India
(82°30'E) passing through Mirzapur (in
Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time
for the whole country. The latitudinal extent
influences the duration of the day and night,
as one moves from south to north.
• Why 82°30'E has been selected as the Standard
Meridian of India?
• Why is the difference between the durations
of day and night hardly felt at Kannyakumari
but not so in Kashmir?
INDIA AND THE WORLD
The Indian landmass has a central location
between the East and the West Asia. India is a
southward extension of the Asian Continent.
The trans Indian Ocean routes which connect
the countries of Europe in the West and the
countries of  East Asia provide a strategic central
location to India. Note that the Deccan Peninsula
protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping
India to establish close contact with West Asia,
Africa and Europe from the western coast and
with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern
coast. No other country has a long coastline on
the Indian Ocean as India has and indeed, it is
India’s eminent position in the Indian Ocean
which justifies the naming of an Ocean after it.
Figure 1.2 : Seven Largest Countries of the World
Source : United Nations Demographic Year Book 2009-2010
Since the opening of the
Suez Canal in 1869, India’s distance from Europe
has been reduced by 7,000 km.
2 01/01/2015
2015-16
Page 3


The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30'N) divides the
country into almost two equal parts. To the
southeast and southwest of the mainland, lie
the Andaman and Nicobar islands and the
Lakshadweep islands in Bay of Bengal and
Arabian Sea respectively.  Find out the extent
of these groups of islands from your atlas.
SIZE
The land mass of India has an area of 3.28
million square km. India’s total area accounts
for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical
I
ndia is one of the ancient civilisations in the
world.  It has achieved multi-faceted socio-
economic progress during the last five
decades.  It has moved forward displaying
remarkable progress in the field of
agriculture, industry, technology and overall
economic development.  India has also
contributed significantly to the making of
world  history.
LOCATION
India is a vast country. Lying entirely in the
Northern hemisphere (Figure 1.1) the main
land extends between latitudes 8°4'N and
37°6'N and longitudes 68°7'E and 97°25'E.
INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION
Figure 1.1 : India in the World
• The southernmost point of
the Indian Union– ‘Indira Point’ got submerged under
the sea water in 2004 during the Tsunami.
180°W 150° 120° 90° 60° 30°W 0° 180°E 150° 120° 90° 60° 30°E
INDIAN
OCEAN
Antartica
75°N
60°
30°
15°N
0°
15°S
45°
60°
75°S
PACIFIC
OCEAN
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
PACIFIC
OCEAN
Africa
Asia
45°
Europe
North
America
South
America
Australia
30°
1
1 01/01/2015
2015-16
CONTEMPORARY INDIA 2
area of the world. From the Figure 1.2 it is
clear that India is the seventh largest
country of the world. India has a land
boundary of about 15,200 km and the total
length of the coast line of the mainland
including Andaman and Nicobar and
Lakshadweep is 7,516.6 km.
India is bounded by the young fold
mountains in the northwest,  north and
north east. South of about 22° north
latitude, it begins to taper, and extends
towards the Indian Ocean, dividing it into
two seas, the Arabian Sea on the west and
the Bay of  Bengal on its east.
Look at Figure 1.3 and note that the
latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the
mainland is about 30°. Despite this fact the
east-west extent appears to be smaller than
the north-south extent.
From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh
there is a time lag of two hours. Hence, time
along the Standard Meridian of India
(82°30'E) passing through Mirzapur (in
Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time
for the whole country. The latitudinal extent
influences the duration of the day and night,
as one moves from south to north.
• Why 82°30'E has been selected as the Standard
Meridian of India?
• Why is the difference between the durations
of day and night hardly felt at Kannyakumari
but not so in Kashmir?
INDIA AND THE WORLD
The Indian landmass has a central location
between the East and the West Asia. India is a
southward extension of the Asian Continent.
The trans Indian Ocean routes which connect
the countries of Europe in the West and the
countries of  East Asia provide a strategic central
location to India. Note that the Deccan Peninsula
protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping
India to establish close contact with West Asia,
Africa and Europe from the western coast and
with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern
coast. No other country has a long coastline on
the Indian Ocean as India has and indeed, it is
India’s eminent position in the Indian Ocean
which justifies the naming of an Ocean after it.
Figure 1.2 : Seven Largest Countries of the World
Source : United Nations Demographic Year Book 2009-2010
Since the opening of the
Suez Canal in 1869, India’s distance from Europe
has been reduced by 7,000 km.
2 01/01/2015
2015-16
INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION 3
Figure 1.3 : India : Extent and Standard Meridian
3 01/01/2015
2015-16
Page 4


The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30'N) divides the
country into almost two equal parts. To the
southeast and southwest of the mainland, lie
the Andaman and Nicobar islands and the
Lakshadweep islands in Bay of Bengal and
Arabian Sea respectively.  Find out the extent
of these groups of islands from your atlas.
SIZE
The land mass of India has an area of 3.28
million square km. India’s total area accounts
for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical
I
ndia is one of the ancient civilisations in the
world.  It has achieved multi-faceted socio-
economic progress during the last five
decades.  It has moved forward displaying
remarkable progress in the field of
agriculture, industry, technology and overall
economic development.  India has also
contributed significantly to the making of
world  history.
LOCATION
India is a vast country. Lying entirely in the
Northern hemisphere (Figure 1.1) the main
land extends between latitudes 8°4'N and
37°6'N and longitudes 68°7'E and 97°25'E.
INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION
Figure 1.1 : India in the World
• The southernmost point of
the Indian Union– ‘Indira Point’ got submerged under
the sea water in 2004 during the Tsunami.
180°W 150° 120° 90° 60° 30°W 0° 180°E 150° 120° 90° 60° 30°E
INDIAN
OCEAN
Antartica
75°N
60°
30°
15°N
0°
15°S
45°
60°
75°S
PACIFIC
OCEAN
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
PACIFIC
OCEAN
Africa
Asia
45°
Europe
North
America
South
America
Australia
30°
1
1 01/01/2015
2015-16
CONTEMPORARY INDIA 2
area of the world. From the Figure 1.2 it is
clear that India is the seventh largest
country of the world. India has a land
boundary of about 15,200 km and the total
length of the coast line of the mainland
including Andaman and Nicobar and
Lakshadweep is 7,516.6 km.
India is bounded by the young fold
mountains in the northwest,  north and
north east. South of about 22° north
latitude, it begins to taper, and extends
towards the Indian Ocean, dividing it into
two seas, the Arabian Sea on the west and
the Bay of  Bengal on its east.
Look at Figure 1.3 and note that the
latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the
mainland is about 30°. Despite this fact the
east-west extent appears to be smaller than
the north-south extent.
From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh
there is a time lag of two hours. Hence, time
along the Standard Meridian of India
(82°30'E) passing through Mirzapur (in
Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time
for the whole country. The latitudinal extent
influences the duration of the day and night,
as one moves from south to north.
• Why 82°30'E has been selected as the Standard
Meridian of India?
• Why is the difference between the durations
of day and night hardly felt at Kannyakumari
but not so in Kashmir?
INDIA AND THE WORLD
The Indian landmass has a central location
between the East and the West Asia. India is a
southward extension of the Asian Continent.
The trans Indian Ocean routes which connect
the countries of Europe in the West and the
countries of  East Asia provide a strategic central
location to India. Note that the Deccan Peninsula
protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping
India to establish close contact with West Asia,
Africa and Europe from the western coast and
with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern
coast. No other country has a long coastline on
the Indian Ocean as India has and indeed, it is
India’s eminent position in the Indian Ocean
which justifies the naming of an Ocean after it.
Figure 1.2 : Seven Largest Countries of the World
Source : United Nations Demographic Year Book 2009-2010
Since the opening of the
Suez Canal in 1869, India’s distance from Europe
has been reduced by 7,000 km.
2 01/01/2015
2015-16
INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION 3
Figure 1.3 : India : Extent and Standard Meridian
3 01/01/2015
2015-16
CONTEMPORARY INDIA 4
Figure 1.4 : India on International Highway of Trade and Commerce
•  The number of Union Territories
along the western and eastern coasts.
•  Area-wise which is the smallest and which is
the largest state?
•  The states which do not have an international
border or lie on the coast
•  Classify the states into four groups each
having common frontiers with
(i) Pakistan, (ii) China, (iii) Myanmar, and
(iv) Bangladesh.
India shares its land boundaries with
Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest,
China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north
and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east.
Our southern neighbours across the sea
consist of the two island countries, namely
India’s contacts with the World have
continued through the ages but her relationships
through the land routes are much older than
her maritime contacts. The various passes across
the mountains in the north have provided
passages to the ancient travellers, while the
oceans restricted such interaction for a long time.
These routes have contributed in the
exchange of ideas and commodities since
ancient times. The ideas of the Upanishads
and the Ramayana, the stories of Panchtantra,
the Indian numerals and the decimal system
thus could reach many parts of the world. The
spices, muslin and other merchandise were
taken from India to different countries. On the
other hand, the influence of Greek sculpture,
and the architectural styles of dome and
minarets from West Asia can be seen in
different parts of our country.
INDIA’S NEIGHBOURS
India occupies an important strategic position
in South Asia. India has 29 states and 7 Union
Territories (Figure 1.5).
Before 1947, there were two
types of states in India – the provinces and the
Princely states.  Provinces were ruled directly by
British officials who were appointed by the
Viceroy. Princely states were ruled by local,
hereditary rulers, who acknowledged sovereignity
in return for local autonomy.
4 01/01/2015
2015-16
Page 5


The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30'N) divides the
country into almost two equal parts. To the
southeast and southwest of the mainland, lie
the Andaman and Nicobar islands and the
Lakshadweep islands in Bay of Bengal and
Arabian Sea respectively.  Find out the extent
of these groups of islands from your atlas.
SIZE
The land mass of India has an area of 3.28
million square km. India’s total area accounts
for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical
I
ndia is one of the ancient civilisations in the
world.  It has achieved multi-faceted socio-
economic progress during the last five
decades.  It has moved forward displaying
remarkable progress in the field of
agriculture, industry, technology and overall
economic development.  India has also
contributed significantly to the making of
world  history.
LOCATION
India is a vast country. Lying entirely in the
Northern hemisphere (Figure 1.1) the main
land extends between latitudes 8°4'N and
37°6'N and longitudes 68°7'E and 97°25'E.
INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION
Figure 1.1 : India in the World
• The southernmost point of
the Indian Union– ‘Indira Point’ got submerged under
the sea water in 2004 during the Tsunami.
180°W 150° 120° 90° 60° 30°W 0° 180°E 150° 120° 90° 60° 30°E
INDIAN
OCEAN
Antartica
75°N
60°
30°
15°N
0°
15°S
45°
60°
75°S
PACIFIC
OCEAN
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
PACIFIC
OCEAN
Africa
Asia
45°
Europe
North
America
South
America
Australia
30°
1
1 01/01/2015
2015-16
CONTEMPORARY INDIA 2
area of the world. From the Figure 1.2 it is
clear that India is the seventh largest
country of the world. India has a land
boundary of about 15,200 km and the total
length of the coast line of the mainland
including Andaman and Nicobar and
Lakshadweep is 7,516.6 km.
India is bounded by the young fold
mountains in the northwest,  north and
north east. South of about 22° north
latitude, it begins to taper, and extends
towards the Indian Ocean, dividing it into
two seas, the Arabian Sea on the west and
the Bay of  Bengal on its east.
Look at Figure 1.3 and note that the
latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the
mainland is about 30°. Despite this fact the
east-west extent appears to be smaller than
the north-south extent.
From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh
there is a time lag of two hours. Hence, time
along the Standard Meridian of India
(82°30'E) passing through Mirzapur (in
Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time
for the whole country. The latitudinal extent
influences the duration of the day and night,
as one moves from south to north.
• Why 82°30'E has been selected as the Standard
Meridian of India?
• Why is the difference between the durations
of day and night hardly felt at Kannyakumari
but not so in Kashmir?
INDIA AND THE WORLD
The Indian landmass has a central location
between the East and the West Asia. India is a
southward extension of the Asian Continent.
The trans Indian Ocean routes which connect
the countries of Europe in the West and the
countries of  East Asia provide a strategic central
location to India. Note that the Deccan Peninsula
protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping
India to establish close contact with West Asia,
Africa and Europe from the western coast and
with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern
coast. No other country has a long coastline on
the Indian Ocean as India has and indeed, it is
India’s eminent position in the Indian Ocean
which justifies the naming of an Ocean after it.
Figure 1.2 : Seven Largest Countries of the World
Source : United Nations Demographic Year Book 2009-2010
Since the opening of the
Suez Canal in 1869, India’s distance from Europe
has been reduced by 7,000 km.
2 01/01/2015
2015-16
INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION 3
Figure 1.3 : India : Extent and Standard Meridian
3 01/01/2015
2015-16
CONTEMPORARY INDIA 4
Figure 1.4 : India on International Highway of Trade and Commerce
•  The number of Union Territories
along the western and eastern coasts.
•  Area-wise which is the smallest and which is
the largest state?
•  The states which do not have an international
border or lie on the coast
•  Classify the states into four groups each
having common frontiers with
(i) Pakistan, (ii) China, (iii) Myanmar, and
(iv) Bangladesh.
India shares its land boundaries with
Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest,
China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north
and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east.
Our southern neighbours across the sea
consist of the two island countries, namely
India’s contacts with the World have
continued through the ages but her relationships
through the land routes are much older than
her maritime contacts. The various passes across
the mountains in the north have provided
passages to the ancient travellers, while the
oceans restricted such interaction for a long time.
These routes have contributed in the
exchange of ideas and commodities since
ancient times. The ideas of the Upanishads
and the Ramayana, the stories of Panchtantra,
the Indian numerals and the decimal system
thus could reach many parts of the world. The
spices, muslin and other merchandise were
taken from India to different countries. On the
other hand, the influence of Greek sculpture,
and the architectural styles of dome and
minarets from West Asia can be seen in
different parts of our country.
INDIA’S NEIGHBOURS
India occupies an important strategic position
in South Asia. India has 29 states and 7 Union
Territories (Figure 1.5).
Before 1947, there were two
types of states in India – the provinces and the
Princely states.  Provinces were ruled directly by
British officials who were appointed by the
Viceroy. Princely states were ruled by local,
hereditary rulers, who acknowledged sovereignity
in return for local autonomy.
4 01/01/2015
2015-16
INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION 5
Figure 1.5 : India and Adjacent Countries
Sri Lanka and Maldives. Sri Lanka is
separated from India by a narrow channel
of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf
of Mannar while Maldives Islands are situated
to the south of the Lakshadweep Islands.
India has had strong geographical and
historical links with her neighbours. Look
at the physical map of Asia in your atlas,
and note how India stands apart from the
rest of Asia.
* Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India on the 2nd June 2014 after the reorganisation of the state of
Andhra Pradesh
5 01/01/2015
2015-16
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