NCERT Textbook - Buildings, Paintings and Books Class 6 Notes | EduRev

History(Prelims) by UPSC Toppers

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - Buildings, Paintings and Books Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


n 114
OUR PASTS–I
Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the iron pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar
Marutasami was so excited. His brother had propelled
his wheelchair all along the dusty, stony path, past the
towering Qutb Minar, and up the metal ramp. It had
been tough, but now he was here, in front of the famous
iron pillar. It was an unforgettable experience.
The ir The ir The ir The ir The iron pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar
The iron pillar at
Mehrauli, Delhi, is a
remarkable example of
the skill of Indian crafts
persons. It is made of
iron, 7.2. m high, and
weighs over 3 tonnes.
It was made about
1500 years ago. We
know the date because
there is an inscription
on the pillar mentioning a ruler named Chandra,
who probably belonged to the Gupta dynasty
(Chapter 10). What is amazing is the fact that the
pillar has not rusted in all these years.
Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone
The skills of our crafts persons are also apparent
in the buildings that have survived, such as
stupas. The word stupa means a mound. While
there are several kinds of stupas, round and tall,
big and small, these have certain common
features. Generally, there is a small box placed at
the centre or heart of the stupa. This may contain
bodily remains (such as teeth, bone or ashes) of
the Buddha or his followers, or things they used,
as well as precious stones, and coins.
The iron pillar
CHAPTER 11
BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, PAINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOKS S S S S
Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy
Ancient Indian metallurgists made major
contributions to the metallurgical history of the
world. Archaeological excavations have shown
that the Harappans were master craftsmen and
had knowledge of copper metallurgy. They even
manufactured bronze by mixing copper and tin.
While the Harappans belonged to the Bronze Age,
their successors belonged to the Iron Age. India
produced highly advanced types of iron-forged
iron, wrought iron and cast iron.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 2


n 114
OUR PASTS–I
Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the iron pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar
Marutasami was so excited. His brother had propelled
his wheelchair all along the dusty, stony path, past the
towering Qutb Minar, and up the metal ramp. It had
been tough, but now he was here, in front of the famous
iron pillar. It was an unforgettable experience.
The ir The ir The ir The ir The iron pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar
The iron pillar at
Mehrauli, Delhi, is a
remarkable example of
the skill of Indian crafts
persons. It is made of
iron, 7.2. m high, and
weighs over 3 tonnes.
It was made about
1500 years ago. We
know the date because
there is an inscription
on the pillar mentioning a ruler named Chandra,
who probably belonged to the Gupta dynasty
(Chapter 10). What is amazing is the fact that the
pillar has not rusted in all these years.
Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone
The skills of our crafts persons are also apparent
in the buildings that have survived, such as
stupas. The word stupa means a mound. While
there are several kinds of stupas, round and tall,
big and small, these have certain common
features. Generally, there is a small box placed at
the centre or heart of the stupa. This may contain
bodily remains (such as teeth, bone or ashes) of
the Buddha or his followers, or things they used,
as well as precious stones, and coins.
The iron pillar
CHAPTER 11
BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, PAINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOKS S S S S
Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy
Ancient Indian metallurgists made major
contributions to the metallurgical history of the
world. Archaeological excavations have shown
that the Harappans were master craftsmen and
had knowledge of copper metallurgy. They even
manufactured bronze by mixing copper and tin.
While the Harappans belonged to the Bronze Age,
their successors belonged to the Iron Age. India
produced highly advanced types of iron-forged
iron, wrought iron and cast iron.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
115 n
This box, known as a relic casket,
was covered with earth. Later, a layer
of mud brick or baked brick was
added on top. And then, the dome
like structure was sometimes
covered with carved stone slabs.
Often, a path, known as the
pradakshina patha, was laid around
the stupa. This was surrounded with
railings. Entrance to the path was
through gateways. Devotees walked
around the stupa, in a clockwise
direction, as a mark of devotion.
Both railings and gateways were
often decorated with sculpture.
Find Amaravati on Map 7
(page 105). This was a place where
a magnificent stupa once existed.
Many of the stone carvings for
decorating the stupa were made
about 2000 years ago.
Other buildings were hollowed out of rock to
make artificial caves. Some of these were very
elaborately decorated with sculptures and painted
walls.
Some of the earliest Hindu temples were also built
at this time. Deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, and Durga
were worshipped in these
shrines. The most
important part of the
temple was the  room
known as the
garbhagriha, where the
image of the chief deity
was placed. It was  here
that priests performed
religious rituals, and
devotees offered worship
to the deity.
Top : The Great Stupa
at Sanchi, Madhya
Pradesh.
Stupas like this one were
built over several
centuries. While the
brick mound probably
dates to the time of
Ashoka (Chapter 7), the
railings and gateways
were added during the
time of later rulers.
Left : Sculpture from
Amaravati.
Look at the picture and
describe what you see.
BUILDINGS, PAINTINGS
AND BOOKS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 3


n 114
OUR PASTS–I
Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the iron pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar
Marutasami was so excited. His brother had propelled
his wheelchair all along the dusty, stony path, past the
towering Qutb Minar, and up the metal ramp. It had
been tough, but now he was here, in front of the famous
iron pillar. It was an unforgettable experience.
The ir The ir The ir The ir The iron pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar
The iron pillar at
Mehrauli, Delhi, is a
remarkable example of
the skill of Indian crafts
persons. It is made of
iron, 7.2. m high, and
weighs over 3 tonnes.
It was made about
1500 years ago. We
know the date because
there is an inscription
on the pillar mentioning a ruler named Chandra,
who probably belonged to the Gupta dynasty
(Chapter 10). What is amazing is the fact that the
pillar has not rusted in all these years.
Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone
The skills of our crafts persons are also apparent
in the buildings that have survived, such as
stupas. The word stupa means a mound. While
there are several kinds of stupas, round and tall,
big and small, these have certain common
features. Generally, there is a small box placed at
the centre or heart of the stupa. This may contain
bodily remains (such as teeth, bone or ashes) of
the Buddha or his followers, or things they used,
as well as precious stones, and coins.
The iron pillar
CHAPTER 11
BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, PAINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOKS S S S S
Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy
Ancient Indian metallurgists made major
contributions to the metallurgical history of the
world. Archaeological excavations have shown
that the Harappans were master craftsmen and
had knowledge of copper metallurgy. They even
manufactured bronze by mixing copper and tin.
While the Harappans belonged to the Bronze Age,
their successors belonged to the Iron Age. India
produced highly advanced types of iron-forged
iron, wrought iron and cast iron.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
115 n
This box, known as a relic casket,
was covered with earth. Later, a layer
of mud brick or baked brick was
added on top. And then, the dome
like structure was sometimes
covered with carved stone slabs.
Often, a path, known as the
pradakshina patha, was laid around
the stupa. This was surrounded with
railings. Entrance to the path was
through gateways. Devotees walked
around the stupa, in a clockwise
direction, as a mark of devotion.
Both railings and gateways were
often decorated with sculpture.
Find Amaravati on Map 7
(page 105). This was a place where
a magnificent stupa once existed.
Many of the stone carvings for
decorating the stupa were made
about 2000 years ago.
Other buildings were hollowed out of rock to
make artificial caves. Some of these were very
elaborately decorated with sculptures and painted
walls.
Some of the earliest Hindu temples were also built
at this time. Deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, and Durga
were worshipped in these
shrines. The most
important part of the
temple was the  room
known as the
garbhagriha, where the
image of the chief deity
was placed. It was  here
that priests performed
religious rituals, and
devotees offered worship
to the deity.
Top : The Great Stupa
at Sanchi, Madhya
Pradesh.
Stupas like this one were
built over several
centuries. While the
brick mound probably
dates to the time of
Ashoka (Chapter 7), the
railings and gateways
were added during the
time of later rulers.
Left : Sculpture from
Amaravati.
Look at the picture and
describe what you see.
BUILDINGS, PAINTINGS
AND BOOKS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 116
OUR PASTS–I
Often, as at Bhitargaon, a tower, known as the
shikhara, was built on top of the garbhagriha, to
mark this out as a sacred place. Building
shikharas required careful planning. Most temples
also had a space known as the mandapa. It was
a hall where people could assemble.
Find Mahabalipuram and Aihole on Map 7
(page 105). Some of the finest stone temples were
built in these towns. Some of these are shown
here.
Top : An early temple at
Bhitargaon, Uttar
Pradesh.
This was built about
1500 years ago, and was
made of baked brick
and stone.
Top Right :     Monolithic
temples at
Mahabalipuram.
Each of these was carved
out of a huge, single
piece of stone (that is
why they are known as
monoliths). While brick
structures are built up
by adding layers of
bricks from the bottom
upwards, in this case the
stone cutters had to
work from top
downwards.
List the problems that
stone cutters may have
faced.
Right : The Durga
temple at Aihole, built
about 1400 years ago.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 4


n 114
OUR PASTS–I
Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the iron pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar
Marutasami was so excited. His brother had propelled
his wheelchair all along the dusty, stony path, past the
towering Qutb Minar, and up the metal ramp. It had
been tough, but now he was here, in front of the famous
iron pillar. It was an unforgettable experience.
The ir The ir The ir The ir The iron pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar
The iron pillar at
Mehrauli, Delhi, is a
remarkable example of
the skill of Indian crafts
persons. It is made of
iron, 7.2. m high, and
weighs over 3 tonnes.
It was made about
1500 years ago. We
know the date because
there is an inscription
on the pillar mentioning a ruler named Chandra,
who probably belonged to the Gupta dynasty
(Chapter 10). What is amazing is the fact that the
pillar has not rusted in all these years.
Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone
The skills of our crafts persons are also apparent
in the buildings that have survived, such as
stupas. The word stupa means a mound. While
there are several kinds of stupas, round and tall,
big and small, these have certain common
features. Generally, there is a small box placed at
the centre or heart of the stupa. This may contain
bodily remains (such as teeth, bone or ashes) of
the Buddha or his followers, or things they used,
as well as precious stones, and coins.
The iron pillar
CHAPTER 11
BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, PAINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOKS S S S S
Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy
Ancient Indian metallurgists made major
contributions to the metallurgical history of the
world. Archaeological excavations have shown
that the Harappans were master craftsmen and
had knowledge of copper metallurgy. They even
manufactured bronze by mixing copper and tin.
While the Harappans belonged to the Bronze Age,
their successors belonged to the Iron Age. India
produced highly advanced types of iron-forged
iron, wrought iron and cast iron.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
115 n
This box, known as a relic casket,
was covered with earth. Later, a layer
of mud brick or baked brick was
added on top. And then, the dome
like structure was sometimes
covered with carved stone slabs.
Often, a path, known as the
pradakshina patha, was laid around
the stupa. This was surrounded with
railings. Entrance to the path was
through gateways. Devotees walked
around the stupa, in a clockwise
direction, as a mark of devotion.
Both railings and gateways were
often decorated with sculpture.
Find Amaravati on Map 7
(page 105). This was a place where
a magnificent stupa once existed.
Many of the stone carvings for
decorating the stupa were made
about 2000 years ago.
Other buildings were hollowed out of rock to
make artificial caves. Some of these were very
elaborately decorated with sculptures and painted
walls.
Some of the earliest Hindu temples were also built
at this time. Deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, and Durga
were worshipped in these
shrines. The most
important part of the
temple was the  room
known as the
garbhagriha, where the
image of the chief deity
was placed. It was  here
that priests performed
religious rituals, and
devotees offered worship
to the deity.
Top : The Great Stupa
at Sanchi, Madhya
Pradesh.
Stupas like this one were
built over several
centuries. While the
brick mound probably
dates to the time of
Ashoka (Chapter 7), the
railings and gateways
were added during the
time of later rulers.
Left : Sculpture from
Amaravati.
Look at the picture and
describe what you see.
BUILDINGS, PAINTINGS
AND BOOKS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 116
OUR PASTS–I
Often, as at Bhitargaon, a tower, known as the
shikhara, was built on top of the garbhagriha, to
mark this out as a sacred place. Building
shikharas required careful planning. Most temples
also had a space known as the mandapa. It was
a hall where people could assemble.
Find Mahabalipuram and Aihole on Map 7
(page 105). Some of the finest stone temples were
built in these towns. Some of these are shown
here.
Top : An early temple at
Bhitargaon, Uttar
Pradesh.
This was built about
1500 years ago, and was
made of baked brick
and stone.
Top Right :     Monolithic
temples at
Mahabalipuram.
Each of these was carved
out of a huge, single
piece of stone (that is
why they are known as
monoliths). While brick
structures are built up
by adding layers of
bricks from the bottom
upwards, in this case the
stone cutters had to
work from top
downwards.
List the problems that
stone cutters may have
faced.
Right : The Durga
temple at Aihole, built
about 1400 years ago.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
117 n
Ho Ho Ho Ho How w w w w w w w w wer er er er ere stupas and temples built? e stupas and temples built? e stupas and temples built? e stupas and temples built? e stupas and temples built?
There were several stages in building a stupa or a
temple. Usually, kings or queens decided to build
these as it was an expensive affair. First, good
quality stone had to be found, quarried, and
transported to the place that was often carefully
chosen for the new building. Here, these rough
blocks of stone had to be shaped and carved into
pillars, and panels for walls, floors and ceilings.
And then these had to be placed in precisely the
right position.
Kings and queens probably spent money from
their treasury to pay the crafts persons who
worked to build these splendid structures.
Besides, when devotees came to visit
the temple or the stupa, they often
brought gifts, which were used to
decorate the buildings. For
example, an association of ivory
workers paid for one of the
beautiful gateways at Sanchi.
Among the others who paid
for decorations were merchants,
farmers, garland makers,perfumers,
smiths, and hundreds of men and
Left : A  Jaina
monastery from Orissa.
This two storey building
was carved out of the
rock surface. Notice the
entrance to the rooms.
Jaina monks lived and
meditated in these
rooms.
In what ways is the cave
shown here different from
the illustration on p.14?
Below : A sculpture from
the National Museum,
New Delhi.
Can you see how some
of the caves may have
been hollowed out?
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 5


n 114
OUR PASTS–I
Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the ir Marutasami and the iron pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar
Marutasami was so excited. His brother had propelled
his wheelchair all along the dusty, stony path, past the
towering Qutb Minar, and up the metal ramp. It had
been tough, but now he was here, in front of the famous
iron pillar. It was an unforgettable experience.
The ir The ir The ir The ir The iron pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar on pillar
The iron pillar at
Mehrauli, Delhi, is a
remarkable example of
the skill of Indian crafts
persons. It is made of
iron, 7.2. m high, and
weighs over 3 tonnes.
It was made about
1500 years ago. We
know the date because
there is an inscription
on the pillar mentioning a ruler named Chandra,
who probably belonged to the Gupta dynasty
(Chapter 10). What is amazing is the fact that the
pillar has not rusted in all these years.
Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone Buildings in brick and stone
The skills of our crafts persons are also apparent
in the buildings that have survived, such as
stupas. The word stupa means a mound. While
there are several kinds of stupas, round and tall,
big and small, these have certain common
features. Generally, there is a small box placed at
the centre or heart of the stupa. This may contain
bodily remains (such as teeth, bone or ashes) of
the Buddha or his followers, or things they used,
as well as precious stones, and coins.
The iron pillar
CHAPTER 11
BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, P BUILDINGS, PAINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOK AINTINGS AND BOOKS S S S S
Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy Metallurgy
Ancient Indian metallurgists made major
contributions to the metallurgical history of the
world. Archaeological excavations have shown
that the Harappans were master craftsmen and
had knowledge of copper metallurgy. They even
manufactured bronze by mixing copper and tin.
While the Harappans belonged to the Bronze Age,
their successors belonged to the Iron Age. India
produced highly advanced types of iron-forged
iron, wrought iron and cast iron.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
115 n
This box, known as a relic casket,
was covered with earth. Later, a layer
of mud brick or baked brick was
added on top. And then, the dome
like structure was sometimes
covered with carved stone slabs.
Often, a path, known as the
pradakshina patha, was laid around
the stupa. This was surrounded with
railings. Entrance to the path was
through gateways. Devotees walked
around the stupa, in a clockwise
direction, as a mark of devotion.
Both railings and gateways were
often decorated with sculpture.
Find Amaravati on Map 7
(page 105). This was a place where
a magnificent stupa once existed.
Many of the stone carvings for
decorating the stupa were made
about 2000 years ago.
Other buildings were hollowed out of rock to
make artificial caves. Some of these were very
elaborately decorated with sculptures and painted
walls.
Some of the earliest Hindu temples were also built
at this time. Deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, and Durga
were worshipped in these
shrines. The most
important part of the
temple was the  room
known as the
garbhagriha, where the
image of the chief deity
was placed. It was  here
that priests performed
religious rituals, and
devotees offered worship
to the deity.
Top : The Great Stupa
at Sanchi, Madhya
Pradesh.
Stupas like this one were
built over several
centuries. While the
brick mound probably
dates to the time of
Ashoka (Chapter 7), the
railings and gateways
were added during the
time of later rulers.
Left : Sculpture from
Amaravati.
Look at the picture and
describe what you see.
BUILDINGS, PAINTINGS
AND BOOKS
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 116
OUR PASTS–I
Often, as at Bhitargaon, a tower, known as the
shikhara, was built on top of the garbhagriha, to
mark this out as a sacred place. Building
shikharas required careful planning. Most temples
also had a space known as the mandapa. It was
a hall where people could assemble.
Find Mahabalipuram and Aihole on Map 7
(page 105). Some of the finest stone temples were
built in these towns. Some of these are shown
here.
Top : An early temple at
Bhitargaon, Uttar
Pradesh.
This was built about
1500 years ago, and was
made of baked brick
and stone.
Top Right :     Monolithic
temples at
Mahabalipuram.
Each of these was carved
out of a huge, single
piece of stone (that is
why they are known as
monoliths). While brick
structures are built up
by adding layers of
bricks from the bottom
upwards, in this case the
stone cutters had to
work from top
downwards.
List the problems that
stone cutters may have
faced.
Right : The Durga
temple at Aihole, built
about 1400 years ago.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
117 n
Ho Ho Ho Ho How w w w w w w w w wer er er er ere stupas and temples built? e stupas and temples built? e stupas and temples built? e stupas and temples built? e stupas and temples built?
There were several stages in building a stupa or a
temple. Usually, kings or queens decided to build
these as it was an expensive affair. First, good
quality stone had to be found, quarried, and
transported to the place that was often carefully
chosen for the new building. Here, these rough
blocks of stone had to be shaped and carved into
pillars, and panels for walls, floors and ceilings.
And then these had to be placed in precisely the
right position.
Kings and queens probably spent money from
their treasury to pay the crafts persons who
worked to build these splendid structures.
Besides, when devotees came to visit
the temple or the stupa, they often
brought gifts, which were used to
decorate the buildings. For
example, an association of ivory
workers paid for one of the
beautiful gateways at Sanchi.
Among the others who paid
for decorations were merchants,
farmers, garland makers,perfumers,
smiths, and hundreds of men and
Left : A  Jaina
monastery from Orissa.
This two storey building
was carved out of the
rock surface. Notice the
entrance to the rooms.
Jaina monks lived and
meditated in these
rooms.
In what ways is the cave
shown here different from
the illustration on p.14?
Below : A sculpture from
the National Museum,
New Delhi.
Can you see how some
of the caves may have
been hollowed out?
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 118
OUR PASTS–I
women who are known only by their
names which were inscribed on
pillars, railings and walls. So when
you get a chance to visit any of these
buildings, remember how several
hundreds of people probably worked
to construct and decorate them.
Make a diagram like the one on
page 88 (Chapter 8) to show the stages
in the building of a temple or stupa.
P P P P Painting ainting ainting ainting ainting
Find Ajanta on Map 7 (page 105). This
is a place where several caves were
hollowed out of the hills over
centuries. Most of these were
monasteries for Buddhist monks, and
some of them were decorated with
paintings. Here are some examples.
As the caves are dark inside, most of these
paintings were done in the light of torches. The
colours, which are vivid even after 1500 years,
were made of plants and minerals. The artists
who created these splendid works of art remain
unknown.
Paintings from Ajanta.
Describe what you see
in each of these
paintings.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
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