NCERT Textbook: Electricity

NCERT Textbook: Electricity | Science & Technology for UPSC CSE PDF Download

``` Page 1

Electricity
11 CHAPTER
E
lectricity has an important place in modern society. It is a controllable
and convenient form of energy for a variety of uses in homes, schools,
hospitals, industries and so on. What constitutes electricity? How does
it flow in an electric circuit? What are the factors that control or regulate
the current through an electric circuit? In this Chapter, we shall attempt
to answer such questions. We shall also discuss the heating effect of
electric current and its applications.
11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT
We are familiar with air current and water current. We know that flowing
water constitute water current in rivers. Similarly, if the electric charge
flows through a conductor (for example, through a metallic wire), we
say that there is an electric current in the conductor. In a torch, we
know that the cells (or a battery, when placed in proper order) provide
flow of charges or an electric current through the torch bulb to glow. We
have also seen that the torch gives light only when its switch is on. What
does a switch do? A switch makes a conducting link between the cell and
the bulb. A continuous and closed path of an electric current is called an
electric circuit. Now, if the circuit is broken anywhere (or the switch of the
torch is turned off ), the current stops flowing and the bulb does not glow.
How do we express electric current? Electric current is expressed by
the amount of charge flowing through a particular area in unit time. In
other words, it is the rate of flow of electric charges. In circuits using
metallic wires, electrons constitute the flow of charges. However, electrons
were not known at the time when the phenomenon of electricity was first
observed. So, electric current was considered to be the flow of positive
charges and the direction of flow of positive charges was taken to be the
direction of electric current. Conventionally, in an electric circuit the
direction of electric current is taken as opposite to the direction of the
flow of electrons, which are negative charges.
2024-25
Page 2

Electricity
11 CHAPTER
E
lectricity has an important place in modern society. It is a controllable
and convenient form of energy for a variety of uses in homes, schools,
hospitals, industries and so on. What constitutes electricity? How does
it flow in an electric circuit? What are the factors that control or regulate
the current through an electric circuit? In this Chapter, we shall attempt
to answer such questions. We shall also discuss the heating effect of
electric current and its applications.
11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT
We are familiar with air current and water current. We know that flowing
water constitute water current in rivers. Similarly, if the electric charge
flows through a conductor (for example, through a metallic wire), we
say that there is an electric current in the conductor. In a torch, we
know that the cells (or a battery, when placed in proper order) provide
flow of charges or an electric current through the torch bulb to glow. We
have also seen that the torch gives light only when its switch is on. What
does a switch do? A switch makes a conducting link between the cell and
the bulb. A continuous and closed path of an electric current is called an
electric circuit. Now, if the circuit is broken anywhere (or the switch of the
torch is turned off ), the current stops flowing and the bulb does not glow.
How do we express electric current? Electric current is expressed by
the amount of charge flowing through a particular area in unit time. In
other words, it is the rate of flow of electric charges. In circuits using
metallic wires, electrons constitute the flow of charges. However, electrons
were not known at the time when the phenomenon of electricity was first
observed. So, electric current was considered to be the flow of positive
charges and the direction of flow of positive charges was taken to be the
direction of electric current. Conventionally, in an electric circuit the
direction of electric current is taken as opposite to the direction of the
flow of electrons, which are negative charges.
2024-25
Science
172
If a net charge Q, flows across any cross-section of a conductor in
time t, then the current I, through the cross-section is
I
Q
t
=
(11.1)
The SI unit of electric charge is coulomb (C), which is equivalent to
the charge contained in nearly 6 × 10
18
electrons. (We know that an
electron possesses a negative charge of 1.6 × 10
–19
C.) The electric
current is expressed by a unit called ampere (A), named after the
French scientist, Andre-Marie Ampere (1775–1836). One ampere is
constituted by the flow of one coulomb of charge per second, that is,
1 A = 1 C/1 s. Small quantities of current are expressed in milliampere
(1 mA = 10
–3
A) or in microampere (1 µA = 10
–6
A).
An instrument called ammeter measures electric
current in a circuit. It is always connected in series
in a circuit through which the current is to be
measured. Figure 11.1 shows the schematic
diagram of a typical electric circuit comprising a
cell, an electric bulb, an ammeter and a plug key.
Note that the electric current flows in the circuit
from the positive terminal of the cell to the negative
terminal of the cell through the bulb and ammeter.
Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1
A schematic diagram of an electric circuit
comprising – cell, electric bulb, ammeter and
plug key
QUESTIONS
?
Example 11.1
A current of 0.5 A is drawn by a filament of an electric bulb for 10
minutes. Find the amount of electric charge that flows through the
circuit.
Solution
We are given, I = 0.5 A; t = 10 min = 600 s.
From Eq. (11.1), we have
Q = It
= 0.5 A × 600 s
= 300 C
1. What does an electric circuit mean?
2. Define the unit of current.
3. Calculate the number of electrons constituting one coulomb of charge.
2024-25
Page 3

Electricity
11 CHAPTER
E
lectricity has an important place in modern society. It is a controllable
and convenient form of energy for a variety of uses in homes, schools,
hospitals, industries and so on. What constitutes electricity? How does
it flow in an electric circuit? What are the factors that control or regulate
the current through an electric circuit? In this Chapter, we shall attempt
to answer such questions. We shall also discuss the heating effect of
electric current and its applications.
11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT
We are familiar with air current and water current. We know that flowing
water constitute water current in rivers. Similarly, if the electric charge
flows through a conductor (for example, through a metallic wire), we
say that there is an electric current in the conductor. In a torch, we
know that the cells (or a battery, when placed in proper order) provide
flow of charges or an electric current through the torch bulb to glow. We
have also seen that the torch gives light only when its switch is on. What
does a switch do? A switch makes a conducting link between the cell and
the bulb. A continuous and closed path of an electric current is called an
electric circuit. Now, if the circuit is broken anywhere (or the switch of the
torch is turned off ), the current stops flowing and the bulb does not glow.
How do we express electric current? Electric current is expressed by
the amount of charge flowing through a particular area in unit time. In
other words, it is the rate of flow of electric charges. In circuits using
metallic wires, electrons constitute the flow of charges. However, electrons
were not known at the time when the phenomenon of electricity was first
observed. So, electric current was considered to be the flow of positive
charges and the direction of flow of positive charges was taken to be the
direction of electric current. Conventionally, in an electric circuit the
direction of electric current is taken as opposite to the direction of the
flow of electrons, which are negative charges.
2024-25
Science
172
If a net charge Q, flows across any cross-section of a conductor in
time t, then the current I, through the cross-section is
I
Q
t
=
(11.1)
The SI unit of electric charge is coulomb (C), which is equivalent to
the charge contained in nearly 6 × 10
18
electrons. (We know that an
electron possesses a negative charge of 1.6 × 10
–19
C.) The electric
current is expressed by a unit called ampere (A), named after the
French scientist, Andre-Marie Ampere (1775–1836). One ampere is
constituted by the flow of one coulomb of charge per second, that is,
1 A = 1 C/1 s. Small quantities of current are expressed in milliampere
(1 mA = 10
–3
A) or in microampere (1 µA = 10
–6
A).
An instrument called ammeter measures electric
current in a circuit. It is always connected in series
in a circuit through which the current is to be
measured. Figure 11.1 shows the schematic
diagram of a typical electric circuit comprising a
cell, an electric bulb, an ammeter and a plug key.
Note that the electric current flows in the circuit
from the positive terminal of the cell to the negative
terminal of the cell through the bulb and ammeter.
Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1
A schematic diagram of an electric circuit
comprising – cell, electric bulb, ammeter and
plug key
QUESTIONS
?
Example 11.1
A current of 0.5 A is drawn by a filament of an electric bulb for 10
minutes. Find the amount of electric charge that flows through the
circuit.
Solution
We are given, I = 0.5 A; t = 10 min = 600 s.
From Eq. (11.1), we have
Q = It
= 0.5 A × 600 s
= 300 C
1. What does an electric circuit mean?
2. Define the unit of current.
3. Calculate the number of electrons constituting one coulomb of charge.
2024-25
Electricity 173
11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
What makes the electric charge to flow? Let us consider the analogy of
flow of water. Charges do not flow in a copper wire by themselves, just as
water in a perfectly horizontal tube does not flow. If one end of the tube
is connected to a tank of water kept at a higher level, such that there is a
pressure difference between the two ends of the tube, water flows out of
the other end of the tube. For flow of charges in a conducting metallic
wire, the gravity, of course, has no role to play; the electrons move only
if there is a difference of electric pressure – called the potential difference –
along the conductor. This difference of potential may be produced by a
battery, consisting of one or more electric cells. The chemical action within
a cell generates the potential difference across the terminals of the cell,
even when no current is drawn from it. When the cell is connected to a
conducting circuit element, the potential difference sets the charges in
motion in the conductor and produces an electric current. In order to
maintain the current in a given electric circuit, the cell has to expend its
chemical energy stored in it.
We define the electric potential difference between two points in an
electric circuit carrying some current as the work done to move a unit
charge from one point to the other –
Potential difference (V) between two points = Work done (W )/Charge (Q)
V = W/Q (11.2)
The SI unit of electric potential difference is volt (V), named after
Alessandro Volta (1745–1827), an Italian physicist. One volt is the
potential difference between two points in a current carrying conductor
when 1 joule of work is done to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one
point to the other.
Therefore, 1 volt =
1 joule
1 coulomb
(11.3)
1 V  = 1 J C
–1
The potential difference is measured by means of an instrument called
the voltmeter. The voltmeter is always connected in parallel across the
points between which the potential difference is to be measured.
Example 11.2
How much work is done in moving a charge of 2 C across two points
having a potential difference 12 V?
Solution
The amount of charge Q, that flows between two points at potential
difference V (= 12 V) is 2 C. Thus, the amount of work W, done in
moving the charge [from Eq. (11.2)] is
2024-25
Page 4

Electricity
11 CHAPTER
E
lectricity has an important place in modern society. It is a controllable
and convenient form of energy for a variety of uses in homes, schools,
hospitals, industries and so on. What constitutes electricity? How does
it flow in an electric circuit? What are the factors that control or regulate
the current through an electric circuit? In this Chapter, we shall attempt
to answer such questions. We shall also discuss the heating effect of
electric current and its applications.
11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT
We are familiar with air current and water current. We know that flowing
water constitute water current in rivers. Similarly, if the electric charge
flows through a conductor (for example, through a metallic wire), we
say that there is an electric current in the conductor. In a torch, we
know that the cells (or a battery, when placed in proper order) provide
flow of charges or an electric current through the torch bulb to glow. We
have also seen that the torch gives light only when its switch is on. What
does a switch do? A switch makes a conducting link between the cell and
the bulb. A continuous and closed path of an electric current is called an
electric circuit. Now, if the circuit is broken anywhere (or the switch of the
torch is turned off ), the current stops flowing and the bulb does not glow.
How do we express electric current? Electric current is expressed by
the amount of charge flowing through a particular area in unit time. In
other words, it is the rate of flow of electric charges. In circuits using
metallic wires, electrons constitute the flow of charges. However, electrons
were not known at the time when the phenomenon of electricity was first
observed. So, electric current was considered to be the flow of positive
charges and the direction of flow of positive charges was taken to be the
direction of electric current. Conventionally, in an electric circuit the
direction of electric current is taken as opposite to the direction of the
flow of electrons, which are negative charges.
2024-25
Science
172
If a net charge Q, flows across any cross-section of a conductor in
time t, then the current I, through the cross-section is
I
Q
t
=
(11.1)
The SI unit of electric charge is coulomb (C), which is equivalent to
the charge contained in nearly 6 × 10
18
electrons. (We know that an
electron possesses a negative charge of 1.6 × 10
–19
C.) The electric
current is expressed by a unit called ampere (A), named after the
French scientist, Andre-Marie Ampere (1775–1836). One ampere is
constituted by the flow of one coulomb of charge per second, that is,
1 A = 1 C/1 s. Small quantities of current are expressed in milliampere
(1 mA = 10
–3
A) or in microampere (1 µA = 10
–6
A).
An instrument called ammeter measures electric
current in a circuit. It is always connected in series
in a circuit through which the current is to be
measured. Figure 11.1 shows the schematic
diagram of a typical electric circuit comprising a
cell, an electric bulb, an ammeter and a plug key.
Note that the electric current flows in the circuit
from the positive terminal of the cell to the negative
terminal of the cell through the bulb and ammeter.
Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1
A schematic diagram of an electric circuit
comprising – cell, electric bulb, ammeter and
plug key
QUESTIONS
?
Example 11.1
A current of 0.5 A is drawn by a filament of an electric bulb for 10
minutes. Find the amount of electric charge that flows through the
circuit.
Solution
We are given, I = 0.5 A; t = 10 min = 600 s.
From Eq. (11.1), we have
Q = It
= 0.5 A × 600 s
= 300 C
1. What does an electric circuit mean?
2. Define the unit of current.
3. Calculate the number of electrons constituting one coulomb of charge.
2024-25
Electricity 173
11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
What makes the electric charge to flow? Let us consider the analogy of
flow of water. Charges do not flow in a copper wire by themselves, just as
water in a perfectly horizontal tube does not flow. If one end of the tube
is connected to a tank of water kept at a higher level, such that there is a
pressure difference between the two ends of the tube, water flows out of
the other end of the tube. For flow of charges in a conducting metallic
wire, the gravity, of course, has no role to play; the electrons move only
if there is a difference of electric pressure – called the potential difference –
along the conductor. This difference of potential may be produced by a
battery, consisting of one or more electric cells. The chemical action within
a cell generates the potential difference across the terminals of the cell,
even when no current is drawn from it. When the cell is connected to a
conducting circuit element, the potential difference sets the charges in
motion in the conductor and produces an electric current. In order to
maintain the current in a given electric circuit, the cell has to expend its
chemical energy stored in it.
We define the electric potential difference between two points in an
electric circuit carrying some current as the work done to move a unit
charge from one point to the other –
Potential difference (V) between two points = Work done (W )/Charge (Q)
V = W/Q (11.2)
The SI unit of electric potential difference is volt (V), named after
Alessandro Volta (1745–1827), an Italian physicist. One volt is the
potential difference between two points in a current carrying conductor
when 1 joule of work is done to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one
point to the other.
Therefore, 1 volt =
1 joule
1 coulomb
(11.3)
1 V  = 1 J C
–1
The potential difference is measured by means of an instrument called
the voltmeter. The voltmeter is always connected in parallel across the
points between which the potential difference is to be measured.
Example 11.2
How much work is done in moving a charge of 2 C across two points
having a potential difference 12 V?
Solution
The amount of charge Q, that flows between two points at potential
difference V (= 12 V) is 2 C. Thus, the amount of work W, done in
moving the charge [from Eq. (11.2)] is
2024-25
Science
174
W = VQ
= 12 V × 2 C
= 24 J.
QUESTIONS
?
11.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 11.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 11.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 11.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 11.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
We know that an electric circuit, as shown in Fig. 11.1, comprises a cell
(or a battery), a plug key, electrical component(s), and connecting wires.
It is often convenient to draw a schematic diagram, in which different
components of the circuit are represented by the symbols conveniently
used. Conventional symbols  used to represent some of the most
commonly used electrical components are given in Table 11.1.
Table 11.1 Symbols of some commonly used components in circuit diagrams
Sl. Components Symbols
No.
1 An electric cell
2 A battery or a combination of cells
3 Plug key or switch (open)
4 Plug key or switch (closed)
5 A wire joint
6 Wires crossing without joining
1. Name a device that helps to maintain a potential difference across a
conductor.
2. What is meant by saying that the potential difference between two points
is 1 V?
3. How much energy is given to each coulomb of charge passing through a
6 V battery?
2024-25
Page 5

Electricity
11 CHAPTER
E
lectricity has an important place in modern society. It is a controllable
and convenient form of energy for a variety of uses in homes, schools,
hospitals, industries and so on. What constitutes electricity? How does
it flow in an electric circuit? What are the factors that control or regulate
the current through an electric circuit? In this Chapter, we shall attempt
to answer such questions. We shall also discuss the heating effect of
electric current and its applications.
11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT 11.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT
We are familiar with air current and water current. We know that flowing
water constitute water current in rivers. Similarly, if the electric charge
flows through a conductor (for example, through a metallic wire), we
say that there is an electric current in the conductor. In a torch, we
know that the cells (or a battery, when placed in proper order) provide
flow of charges or an electric current through the torch bulb to glow. We
have also seen that the torch gives light only when its switch is on. What
does a switch do? A switch makes a conducting link between the cell and
the bulb. A continuous and closed path of an electric current is called an
electric circuit. Now, if the circuit is broken anywhere (or the switch of the
torch is turned off ), the current stops flowing and the bulb does not glow.
How do we express electric current? Electric current is expressed by
the amount of charge flowing through a particular area in unit time. In
other words, it is the rate of flow of electric charges. In circuits using
metallic wires, electrons constitute the flow of charges. However, electrons
were not known at the time when the phenomenon of electricity was first
observed. So, electric current was considered to be the flow of positive
charges and the direction of flow of positive charges was taken to be the
direction of electric current. Conventionally, in an electric circuit the
direction of electric current is taken as opposite to the direction of the
flow of electrons, which are negative charges.
2024-25
Science
172
If a net charge Q, flows across any cross-section of a conductor in
time t, then the current I, through the cross-section is
I
Q
t
=
(11.1)
The SI unit of electric charge is coulomb (C), which is equivalent to
the charge contained in nearly 6 × 10
18
electrons. (We know that an
electron possesses a negative charge of 1.6 × 10
–19
C.) The electric
current is expressed by a unit called ampere (A), named after the
French scientist, Andre-Marie Ampere (1775–1836). One ampere is
constituted by the flow of one coulomb of charge per second, that is,
1 A = 1 C/1 s. Small quantities of current are expressed in milliampere
(1 mA = 10
–3
A) or in microampere (1 µA = 10
–6
A).
An instrument called ammeter measures electric
current in a circuit. It is always connected in series
in a circuit through which the current is to be
measured. Figure 11.1 shows the schematic
diagram of a typical electric circuit comprising a
cell, an electric bulb, an ammeter and a plug key.
Note that the electric current flows in the circuit
from the positive terminal of the cell to the negative
terminal of the cell through the bulb and ammeter.
Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.1
A schematic diagram of an electric circuit
comprising – cell, electric bulb, ammeter and
plug key
QUESTIONS
?
Example 11.1
A current of 0.5 A is drawn by a filament of an electric bulb for 10
minutes. Find the amount of electric charge that flows through the
circuit.
Solution
We are given, I = 0.5 A; t = 10 min = 600 s.
From Eq. (11.1), we have
Q = It
= 0.5 A × 600 s
= 300 C
1. What does an electric circuit mean?
2. Define the unit of current.
3. Calculate the number of electrons constituting one coulomb of charge.
2024-25
Electricity 173
11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE 11.2 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
What makes the electric charge to flow? Let us consider the analogy of
flow of water. Charges do not flow in a copper wire by themselves, just as
water in a perfectly horizontal tube does not flow. If one end of the tube
is connected to a tank of water kept at a higher level, such that there is a
pressure difference between the two ends of the tube, water flows out of
the other end of the tube. For flow of charges in a conducting metallic
wire, the gravity, of course, has no role to play; the electrons move only
if there is a difference of electric pressure – called the potential difference –
along the conductor. This difference of potential may be produced by a
battery, consisting of one or more electric cells. The chemical action within
a cell generates the potential difference across the terminals of the cell,
even when no current is drawn from it. When the cell is connected to a
conducting circuit element, the potential difference sets the charges in
motion in the conductor and produces an electric current. In order to
maintain the current in a given electric circuit, the cell has to expend its
chemical energy stored in it.
We define the electric potential difference between two points in an
electric circuit carrying some current as the work done to move a unit
charge from one point to the other –
Potential difference (V) between two points = Work done (W )/Charge (Q)
V = W/Q (11.2)
The SI unit of electric potential difference is volt (V), named after
Alessandro Volta (1745–1827), an Italian physicist. One volt is the
potential difference between two points in a current carrying conductor
when 1 joule of work is done to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one
point to the other.
Therefore, 1 volt =
1 joule
1 coulomb
(11.3)
1 V  = 1 J C
–1
The potential difference is measured by means of an instrument called
the voltmeter. The voltmeter is always connected in parallel across the
points between which the potential difference is to be measured.
Example 11.2
How much work is done in moving a charge of 2 C across two points
having a potential difference 12 V?
Solution
The amount of charge Q, that flows between two points at potential
difference V (= 12 V) is 2 C. Thus, the amount of work W, done in
moving the charge [from Eq. (11.2)] is
2024-25
Science
174
W = VQ
= 12 V × 2 C
= 24 J.
QUESTIONS
?
11.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 11.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 11.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 11.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 11.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
We know that an electric circuit, as shown in Fig. 11.1, comprises a cell
(or a battery), a plug key, electrical component(s), and connecting wires.
It is often convenient to draw a schematic diagram, in which different
components of the circuit are represented by the symbols conveniently
used. Conventional symbols  used to represent some of the most
commonly used electrical components are given in Table 11.1.
Table 11.1 Symbols of some commonly used components in circuit diagrams
Sl. Components Symbols
No.
1 An electric cell
2 A battery or a combination of cells
3 Plug key or switch (open)
4 Plug key or switch (closed)
5 A wire joint
6 Wires crossing without joining
1. Name a device that helps to maintain a potential difference across a
conductor.
2. What is meant by saying that the potential difference between two points
is 1 V?
3. How much energy is given to each coulomb of charge passing through a
6 V battery?
2024-25
Electricity 175
11.4 OHM’S LA 11.4 OHM’S LA 11.4 OHM’S LA 11.4 OHM’S LA 11.4 OHM’S LAW W W W W
Is there a relationship between the potential difference across a conductor
and the current through it? Let us explore with an Activity.
Activity 11.1 Activity 11.1 Activity 11.1 Activity 11.1 Activity 11.1
n Set up a circuit as shown in Fig. 11.2,
consisting of a nichrome wire XY of length,
say 0.5 m, an ammeter, a voltmeter and
four cells of 1.5 V each. (Nichrome is an
alloy of nickel, chromium, manganese, and
iron metals.)
n First use only one cell as the source in the
circuit. Note the reading in the ammeter I,
for the current and reading of the voltmeter
V for the potential difference across the
nichrome wire XY in the circuit. Tabulate
them in the Table given.
n Next connect two cells in the circuit and
note the respective readings of the ammeter and voltmeter for the values of current through
the nichrome wire and potential difference across the nichrome wire.
n Repeat the above steps using three cells and then four cells in the circuit separately.
n Calculate the ratio of V to I for each pair of potential difference V and current I.
S. Number of cells Current through Potential difference V/I
No. used in the the nichrome across the (volt/ampere)
circuit wire, I nichrome
(ampere) wire, V (volt)
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
n Plot a graph between V and I, and observe the nature of the graph.
7 Electric bulb or
8 A resistor of resistance R
9 Variable resistance or rheostat or
10 Ammeter
11 Voltmeter
Figure 11.2 Figure 11.2 Figure 11.2 Figure 11.2 Figure 11.2 Electric circuit for studying Ohm’s law
2024-25
```

Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

146 videos|357 docs|249 tests

FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Electricity - Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

 1. What is electricity?
Ans. Electricity is a form of energy resulting from the movement of charged particles. It is commonly used to power various devices and appliances in our daily lives.
 2. What is an electric circuit?
Ans. An electric circuit is a path through which electric current can flow. It usually consists of a source of electricity (such as a battery), a conductor (such as a wire), and a load (such as a light bulb).
 3. What are the different types of electric circuits?
Ans. There are two main types of electric circuits: series circuits and parallel circuits. In a series circuit, the components are arranged in a single path, while in a parallel circuit, the components are arranged in multiple paths.
 4. What is the difference between AC and DC electricity?
Ans. AC (alternating current) electricity is a type of electricity where the direction of the current periodically reverses, while DC (direct current) electricity is a type of electricity where the current flows in one direction only. AC electricity is commonly used in homes and businesses, while DC electricity is commonly used in batteries and electronic devices.
 5. How can electricity be generated?
Ans. Electricity can be generated in various ways, such as through the burning of fossil fuels (such as coal or natural gas), the use of nuclear reactions, or the harnessing of renewable sources of energy (such as wind or solar power).

Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

146 videos|357 docs|249 tests

Up next

 Explore Courses for UPSC exam
Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev
Related Searches

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

;