NCERT Textbook - From Gathering to Growing Food Class 6 Notes | EduRev

History(Prelims) by UPSC Toppers

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - From Gathering to Growing Food Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


11 n
T T T T Tushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s train journe ain journe ain journe ain journe ain journey y y y y
Tushar was going from Delhi to Chennai for his cousin’s
wedding. They were travelling by train and he had
managed to squeeze into the window seat, his nose glued
to the glass pane. As he watched trees and houses fly
past, his uncle tapped his shoulder and said: “Do you
know that trains were first used about 150 years ago,
and that people began using buses a few decades later?”
Tushar wondered, when people couldn’t travel quickly
from one place to another, did they spend their entire
lives wherever they were born? Not quite.
The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: why w y w y w y w y wer er er er ere the e the e the e the e they on the y on the y on the y on the y on the
mo mo mo mo mov v v v ve? e? e? e? e?
We know about people who lived in the
subcontinent as early as two million years ago.
Today, we describe them as hunter-gatherers.  The
name comes from the way in which they got their
food. Generally, they hunted wild animals, caught
fish and birds, gathered fruits, roots, nuts, seeds,
leaves, stalks and eggs.
Hunter-gatherers moved from place to place.
There are many reasons for this.
First, if they had stayed at one place for a long
time, they would have eaten up all the available
plant and animal resources. Therefore, they would
have had to go elsewhere in search of food.
Second, animals move from place to place —
either in search of smaller prey, or, in the case of
deer and wild cattle, in search of grass and leaves.
That is why those who hunted them had to follow
their movements.
FR FR FR FR FROM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTING G G G G– – – – –GA GA GA GA GATHERING T THERING T THERING T THERING T THERING TO O O O O
GR GR GR GR GRO O O O OWING F WING F WING F WING F WING FOOD OOD OOD OOD OOD
CHAPTER 2
FROM HUNTING–GATHERING
TO GROWING FOOD
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 2


11 n
T T T T Tushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s train journe ain journe ain journe ain journe ain journey y y y y
Tushar was going from Delhi to Chennai for his cousin’s
wedding. They were travelling by train and he had
managed to squeeze into the window seat, his nose glued
to the glass pane. As he watched trees and houses fly
past, his uncle tapped his shoulder and said: “Do you
know that trains were first used about 150 years ago,
and that people began using buses a few decades later?”
Tushar wondered, when people couldn’t travel quickly
from one place to another, did they spend their entire
lives wherever they were born? Not quite.
The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: why w y w y w y w y wer er er er ere the e the e the e the e they on the y on the y on the y on the y on the
mo mo mo mo mov v v v ve? e? e? e? e?
We know about people who lived in the
subcontinent as early as two million years ago.
Today, we describe them as hunter-gatherers.  The
name comes from the way in which they got their
food. Generally, they hunted wild animals, caught
fish and birds, gathered fruits, roots, nuts, seeds,
leaves, stalks and eggs.
Hunter-gatherers moved from place to place.
There are many reasons for this.
First, if they had stayed at one place for a long
time, they would have eaten up all the available
plant and animal resources. Therefore, they would
have had to go elsewhere in search of food.
Second, animals move from place to place —
either in search of smaller prey, or, in the case of
deer and wild cattle, in search of grass and leaves.
That is why those who hunted them had to follow
their movements.
FR FR FR FR FROM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTING G G G G– – – – –GA GA GA GA GATHERING T THERING T THERING T THERING T THERING TO O O O O
GR GR GR GR GRO O O O OWING F WING F WING F WING F WING FOOD OOD OOD OOD OOD
CHAPTER 2
FROM HUNTING–GATHERING
TO GROWING FOOD
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 12
OUR PASTS–I
Third, plants and trees bear fruit in different
seasons. So, people may have moved from season
to season in search of different kinds of plants.
Fourth, people, plants and animals need water
to survive. Water is found in lakes, streams and
rivers. While many rivers and lakes are perennial
(with water throughout the year) others are
seasonal. People living on their banks would have
had to go in search of water during the dry seasons
(winter and summer).
Ho Ho Ho Ho How do w w do w w do w w do w w do we kno e kno e kno e kno e know about these people? w about these people? w about these people? w about these people? w about these people?
Archaeologists have found some of the things
hunter-gatherers made and used. It is likely
that people made and used tools of stone,
wood and bone, of which stone tools have
survived best.
Some of these stone tools were used to cut
meat and bone, scrape bark (from trees) and
hides (animal skins), chop fruit and roots. Some
may have been attached to handles of bone or
wood, to make spears and arrows for hunting.
Other tools were used to chop wood, which was
used as firewood. Wood was also used to make
huts and tools.
Stone tools may also
have been used for :
Left : Digging the ground
to collect edible roots.
Right : Stitching clothes
made out of animal skin.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 3


11 n
T T T T Tushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s train journe ain journe ain journe ain journe ain journey y y y y
Tushar was going from Delhi to Chennai for his cousin’s
wedding. They were travelling by train and he had
managed to squeeze into the window seat, his nose glued
to the glass pane. As he watched trees and houses fly
past, his uncle tapped his shoulder and said: “Do you
know that trains were first used about 150 years ago,
and that people began using buses a few decades later?”
Tushar wondered, when people couldn’t travel quickly
from one place to another, did they spend their entire
lives wherever they were born? Not quite.
The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: why w y w y w y w y wer er er er ere the e the e the e the e they on the y on the y on the y on the y on the
mo mo mo mo mov v v v ve? e? e? e? e?
We know about people who lived in the
subcontinent as early as two million years ago.
Today, we describe them as hunter-gatherers.  The
name comes from the way in which they got their
food. Generally, they hunted wild animals, caught
fish and birds, gathered fruits, roots, nuts, seeds,
leaves, stalks and eggs.
Hunter-gatherers moved from place to place.
There are many reasons for this.
First, if they had stayed at one place for a long
time, they would have eaten up all the available
plant and animal resources. Therefore, they would
have had to go elsewhere in search of food.
Second, animals move from place to place —
either in search of smaller prey, or, in the case of
deer and wild cattle, in search of grass and leaves.
That is why those who hunted them had to follow
their movements.
FR FR FR FR FROM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTING G G G G– – – – –GA GA GA GA GATHERING T THERING T THERING T THERING T THERING TO O O O O
GR GR GR GR GRO O O O OWING F WING F WING F WING F WING FOOD OOD OOD OOD OOD
CHAPTER 2
FROM HUNTING–GATHERING
TO GROWING FOOD
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 12
OUR PASTS–I
Third, plants and trees bear fruit in different
seasons. So, people may have moved from season
to season in search of different kinds of plants.
Fourth, people, plants and animals need water
to survive. Water is found in lakes, streams and
rivers. While many rivers and lakes are perennial
(with water throughout the year) others are
seasonal. People living on their banks would have
had to go in search of water during the dry seasons
(winter and summer).
Ho Ho Ho Ho How do w w do w w do w w do w w do we kno e kno e kno e kno e know about these people? w about these people? w about these people? w about these people? w about these people?
Archaeologists have found some of the things
hunter-gatherers made and used. It is likely
that people made and used tools of stone,
wood and bone, of which stone tools have
survived best.
Some of these stone tools were used to cut
meat and bone, scrape bark (from trees) and
hides (animal skins), chop fruit and roots. Some
may have been attached to handles of bone or
wood, to make spears and arrows for hunting.
Other tools were used to chop wood, which was
used as firewood. Wood was also used to make
huts and tools.
Stone tools may also
have been used for :
Left : Digging the ground
to collect edible roots.
Right : Stitching clothes
made out of animal skin.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
13 n
Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in
Look at Map 2 below. All the places marked with
red triangles are sites from which archaeologists
have found evidence of hunter-gatherers. (Hunter-
gatherers lived in many more places. Only some
are shown on the map). Many sites were located
near sources of water, such as rivers and lakes.
MAP : 2
Some Important Archaeological Sites
FROM HUNTING–GATHERING
TO GROWING FOOD
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 4


11 n
T T T T Tushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s train journe ain journe ain journe ain journe ain journey y y y y
Tushar was going from Delhi to Chennai for his cousin’s
wedding. They were travelling by train and he had
managed to squeeze into the window seat, his nose glued
to the glass pane. As he watched trees and houses fly
past, his uncle tapped his shoulder and said: “Do you
know that trains were first used about 150 years ago,
and that people began using buses a few decades later?”
Tushar wondered, when people couldn’t travel quickly
from one place to another, did they spend their entire
lives wherever they were born? Not quite.
The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: why w y w y w y w y wer er er er ere the e the e the e the e they on the y on the y on the y on the y on the
mo mo mo mo mov v v v ve? e? e? e? e?
We know about people who lived in the
subcontinent as early as two million years ago.
Today, we describe them as hunter-gatherers.  The
name comes from the way in which they got their
food. Generally, they hunted wild animals, caught
fish and birds, gathered fruits, roots, nuts, seeds,
leaves, stalks and eggs.
Hunter-gatherers moved from place to place.
There are many reasons for this.
First, if they had stayed at one place for a long
time, they would have eaten up all the available
plant and animal resources. Therefore, they would
have had to go elsewhere in search of food.
Second, animals move from place to place —
either in search of smaller prey, or, in the case of
deer and wild cattle, in search of grass and leaves.
That is why those who hunted them had to follow
their movements.
FR FR FR FR FROM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTING G G G G– – – – –GA GA GA GA GATHERING T THERING T THERING T THERING T THERING TO O O O O
GR GR GR GR GRO O O O OWING F WING F WING F WING F WING FOOD OOD OOD OOD OOD
CHAPTER 2
FROM HUNTING–GATHERING
TO GROWING FOOD
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 12
OUR PASTS–I
Third, plants and trees bear fruit in different
seasons. So, people may have moved from season
to season in search of different kinds of plants.
Fourth, people, plants and animals need water
to survive. Water is found in lakes, streams and
rivers. While many rivers and lakes are perennial
(with water throughout the year) others are
seasonal. People living on their banks would have
had to go in search of water during the dry seasons
(winter and summer).
Ho Ho Ho Ho How do w w do w w do w w do w w do we kno e kno e kno e kno e know about these people? w about these people? w about these people? w about these people? w about these people?
Archaeologists have found some of the things
hunter-gatherers made and used. It is likely
that people made and used tools of stone,
wood and bone, of which stone tools have
survived best.
Some of these stone tools were used to cut
meat and bone, scrape bark (from trees) and
hides (animal skins), chop fruit and roots. Some
may have been attached to handles of bone or
wood, to make spears and arrows for hunting.
Other tools were used to chop wood, which was
used as firewood. Wood was also used to make
huts and tools.
Stone tools may also
have been used for :
Left : Digging the ground
to collect edible roots.
Right : Stitching clothes
made out of animal skin.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
13 n
Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in
Look at Map 2 below. All the places marked with
red triangles are sites from which archaeologists
have found evidence of hunter-gatherers. (Hunter-
gatherers lived in many more places. Only some
are shown on the map). Many sites were located
near sources of water, such as rivers and lakes.
MAP : 2
Some Important Archaeological Sites
FROM HUNTING–GATHERING
TO GROWING FOOD
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 14
OUR PASTS–I
Bhimbetka (in present-
day Madhya Pradesh).
This is an old site with
caves and rock shelters.
People chose these
natural caves because
they provided shelter
from the rain, heat and
wind. These rock
shelters are close to the
Narmada valley. Can
you think of why people
chose to live here?
Many of the caves in which these early people
lived have paintings on the walls. Some of the
best examples are from Madhya Pradesh and
southern Uttar Pradesh. These paintings show
wild animals, drawn with great accuracy and skill.
A painting from a rock shelter.
Describe the painting.
As stone tools were important, people tried to
find places where good quality stone was easily
available.
R R R R Rock paintings and what the ock paintings and what the ock paintings and what the ock paintings and what the ock paintings and what they tell us y tell us y tell us y tell us y tell us
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 5


11 n
T T T T Tushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s tr ushar’s train journe ain journe ain journe ain journe ain journey y y y y
Tushar was going from Delhi to Chennai for his cousin’s
wedding. They were travelling by train and he had
managed to squeeze into the window seat, his nose glued
to the glass pane. As he watched trees and houses fly
past, his uncle tapped his shoulder and said: “Do you
know that trains were first used about 150 years ago,
and that people began using buses a few decades later?”
Tushar wondered, when people couldn’t travel quickly
from one place to another, did they spend their entire
lives wherever they were born? Not quite.
The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: wh The earliest people: why w y w y w y w y wer er er er ere the e the e the e the e they on the y on the y on the y on the y on the
mo mo mo mo mov v v v ve? e? e? e? e?
We know about people who lived in the
subcontinent as early as two million years ago.
Today, we describe them as hunter-gatherers.  The
name comes from the way in which they got their
food. Generally, they hunted wild animals, caught
fish and birds, gathered fruits, roots, nuts, seeds,
leaves, stalks and eggs.
Hunter-gatherers moved from place to place.
There are many reasons for this.
First, if they had stayed at one place for a long
time, they would have eaten up all the available
plant and animal resources. Therefore, they would
have had to go elsewhere in search of food.
Second, animals move from place to place —
either in search of smaller prey, or, in the case of
deer and wild cattle, in search of grass and leaves.
That is why those who hunted them had to follow
their movements.
FR FR FR FR FROM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTIN OM HUNTING G G G G– – – – –GA GA GA GA GATHERING T THERING T THERING T THERING T THERING TO O O O O
GR GR GR GR GRO O O O OWING F WING F WING F WING F WING FOOD OOD OOD OOD OOD
CHAPTER 2
FROM HUNTING–GATHERING
TO GROWING FOOD
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 12
OUR PASTS–I
Third, plants and trees bear fruit in different
seasons. So, people may have moved from season
to season in search of different kinds of plants.
Fourth, people, plants and animals need water
to survive. Water is found in lakes, streams and
rivers. While many rivers and lakes are perennial
(with water throughout the year) others are
seasonal. People living on their banks would have
had to go in search of water during the dry seasons
(winter and summer).
Ho Ho Ho Ho How do w w do w w do w w do w w do we kno e kno e kno e kno e know about these people? w about these people? w about these people? w about these people? w about these people?
Archaeologists have found some of the things
hunter-gatherers made and used. It is likely
that people made and used tools of stone,
wood and bone, of which stone tools have
survived best.
Some of these stone tools were used to cut
meat and bone, scrape bark (from trees) and
hides (animal skins), chop fruit and roots. Some
may have been attached to handles of bone or
wood, to make spears and arrows for hunting.
Other tools were used to chop wood, which was
used as firewood. Wood was also used to make
huts and tools.
Stone tools may also
have been used for :
Left : Digging the ground
to collect edible roots.
Right : Stitching clothes
made out of animal skin.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
13 n
Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in Choosing a place to live in
Look at Map 2 below. All the places marked with
red triangles are sites from which archaeologists
have found evidence of hunter-gatherers. (Hunter-
gatherers lived in many more places. Only some
are shown on the map). Many sites were located
near sources of water, such as rivers and lakes.
MAP : 2
Some Important Archaeological Sites
FROM HUNTING–GATHERING
TO GROWING FOOD
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 14
OUR PASTS–I
Bhimbetka (in present-
day Madhya Pradesh).
This is an old site with
caves and rock shelters.
People chose these
natural caves because
they provided shelter
from the rain, heat and
wind. These rock
shelters are close to the
Narmada valley. Can
you think of why people
chose to live here?
Many of the caves in which these early people
lived have paintings on the walls. Some of the
best examples are from Madhya Pradesh and
southern Uttar Pradesh. These paintings show
wild animals, drawn with great accuracy and skill.
A painting from a rock shelter.
Describe the painting.
As stone tools were important, people tried to
find places where good quality stone was easily
available.
R R R R Rock paintings and what the ock paintings and what the ock paintings and what the ock paintings and what the ock paintings and what they tell us y tell us y tell us y tell us y tell us
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
15 n
Finding out about f Finding out about f Finding out about f Finding out about f Finding out about fir ir ir ir ire e e e e
Find the Kurnool caves on Map 2 (page13). Traces
of ash have been found here. This suggests that
people were familiar with the use of fire. Fire could
have been used for many things: as a source of
light, to roast meat, and to scare away animals.
What do we use fire for today?
Sites Sites Sites Sites Sites
are places where the remains of things (tools, pots,
buildings etc.) were found. These were made, used
and left behind by people. These may be found on
the surface of the earth, buried under the earth, or
sometimes even under water. You will learn more
about different sites in later chapters.
Names and dates Names and dates Names and dates Names and dates Names and dates
Archaeologists have given lengthy names for the time that we are studying.
They call the earliest period the Palaeolithic. This comes from two Greek
words, ‘palaeo’, meaning old, and ‘lithos’, meaning stone. The name points
to the importance of finds of stone tools. The Palaeolithic period extends
from 2 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago. This long stretch of
time is divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. This long
span of time covers 99% of human history.
The period when we find environmental changes, beginning about
12,000 years ago till about 10,000 years ago is called the Mesolithic (middle
stone). Stone tools found during this period are generally tiny, and are
called microliths. Microliths were probably stuck on to handles of bone or
wood to make tools such as saws and sickles. At the same time, older
varieties of tools continued to be in use.
The next stage, from about 10,000 years ago, is known as the Neolithic.
What do you think the term Neolithic means?
We have also mentioned the names of some places. You will find the
names of many more places in later chapters. Very often, we use present-
day names of the places where people lived in the past, because we do not
know what they called them.
FROM HUNTING–GATHERING
TO GROWING FOOD
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
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