NCERT Textbook - Getting to know Plants Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Science Class 6

Created by: Praveen Kumar

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - Getting to know Plants Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


52 SCIENCE
7 Getting to Know Plants
G
o outside and observe all the
plants around you. Do you see
that some plants are small,
some very big,  while some are just
patches of green on the soil?
Some have green leaves,
while some others have
reddish ones. Some have
huge red flowers, some have
tiny blue ones, while some
have none. We do see a
variety of plants existing all
around us — near our
homes, in the school
ground, on the way to the
school, in the parks and
gardens, isn’t it?
Let us  get to know the different
parts of any plant. This will help us
understand the differences between
Fig. 7.1 Parts of a plant
plants of different kinds. Can you label
the stem, branches, roots, leaves, and
flowers of the plant shown in Fig.7.1?
Colour the parts of the plant.
Let us now go on a Nature walk,
make friends with many different
kinds of plants and examine them
closely (Fig. 7.2).
7.1 HERBS, SHRUBS AND TREES
Activity 1
Look closely at the stem and branches
of:
1. Plants much smaller than you.
2. Plants that are about your size, and
3.Plants which are much taller than
you.
Feel their stem and try to bend them
gently to see if they are tender or hard.
Fig. 7.2 A Nature walk!
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


52 SCIENCE
7 Getting to Know Plants
G
o outside and observe all the
plants around you. Do you see
that some plants are small,
some very big,  while some are just
patches of green on the soil?
Some have green leaves,
while some others have
reddish ones. Some have
huge red flowers, some have
tiny blue ones, while some
have none. We do see a
variety of plants existing all
around us — near our
homes, in the school
ground, on the way to the
school, in the parks and
gardens, isn’t it?
Let us  get to know the different
parts of any plant. This will help us
understand the differences between
Fig. 7.1 Parts of a plant
plants of different kinds. Can you label
the stem, branches, roots, leaves, and
flowers of the plant shown in Fig.7.1?
Colour the parts of the plant.
Let us now go on a Nature walk,
make friends with many different
kinds of plants and examine them
closely (Fig. 7.2).
7.1 HERBS, SHRUBS AND TREES
Activity 1
Look closely at the stem and branches
of:
1. Plants much smaller than you.
2. Plants that are about your size, and
3.Plants which are much taller than
you.
Feel their stem and try to bend them
gently to see if they are tender or hard.
Fig. 7.2 A Nature walk!
©NCERT
not to be republished
53 GETTING TO KNOW PLANTS
Table 7.1 Categories of plants
t n a l P
e m a n
1 n m u l o C
t h g i e H
n m u l o C
4
n e e r G r e d n e T k c i h T d r a H
e s a b e h t t A
m e t s e h t f o
p u r e h g i H
e h t n o
m e t s
y r o g e t a C
t n a l p f o
o t a m o T
r e t r o h S
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y b r e H
o g n a M
h c u M
r e l l a t
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y s e Y e e r T
n o m e L
y l t h g i l S
r e l l a t
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y b u r h S
Take care that the stem does not break.
Hug the tall plants to see how thick their
stems are!
We also need to  notice from where the
branches grow in some plants — close to
the ground or higher up on the stem.
We will now group all the plants we
observed, in Table 7.1. Some examples
are shown. You can fill the Columns 1,
Column 2
Stem
Column 3
Where do the branches
appear
2 and 3 for many more plants. Fill
Column 4 after you have studied later
part of this section.
 Based on these characters most
plants can be classified into three
categories: herbs, shrubs and trees.  An
example of each is shown in Fig.7.3.
Fig.7.3 (a) Herb, (b) shrub and (c) tree
Suggestion: Work in groups of 4-5
students in doing activities suggested
in this Chapter so that a minimum
number of plants are uprooted.
Use weeds with soft stems for the
activities. Do you know what weeds
are? In crop fields, lawns, or in pots,
often some unwanted plants or
weeds start growing. Have you seen
farmers removing these weeds from
their fields?
(b)
(a)
(c)
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


52 SCIENCE
7 Getting to Know Plants
G
o outside and observe all the
plants around you. Do you see
that some plants are small,
some very big,  while some are just
patches of green on the soil?
Some have green leaves,
while some others have
reddish ones. Some have
huge red flowers, some have
tiny blue ones, while some
have none. We do see a
variety of plants existing all
around us — near our
homes, in the school
ground, on the way to the
school, in the parks and
gardens, isn’t it?
Let us  get to know the different
parts of any plant. This will help us
understand the differences between
Fig. 7.1 Parts of a plant
plants of different kinds. Can you label
the stem, branches, roots, leaves, and
flowers of the plant shown in Fig.7.1?
Colour the parts of the plant.
Let us now go on a Nature walk,
make friends with many different
kinds of plants and examine them
closely (Fig. 7.2).
7.1 HERBS, SHRUBS AND TREES
Activity 1
Look closely at the stem and branches
of:
1. Plants much smaller than you.
2. Plants that are about your size, and
3.Plants which are much taller than
you.
Feel their stem and try to bend them
gently to see if they are tender or hard.
Fig. 7.2 A Nature walk!
©NCERT
not to be republished
53 GETTING TO KNOW PLANTS
Table 7.1 Categories of plants
t n a l P
e m a n
1 n m u l o C
t h g i e H
n m u l o C
4
n e e r G r e d n e T k c i h T d r a H
e s a b e h t t A
m e t s e h t f o
p u r e h g i H
e h t n o
m e t s
y r o g e t a C
t n a l p f o
o t a m o T
r e t r o h S
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y b r e H
o g n a M
h c u M
r e l l a t
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y s e Y e e r T
n o m e L
y l t h g i l S
r e l l a t
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y b u r h S
Take care that the stem does not break.
Hug the tall plants to see how thick their
stems are!
We also need to  notice from where the
branches grow in some plants — close to
the ground or higher up on the stem.
We will now group all the plants we
observed, in Table 7.1. Some examples
are shown. You can fill the Columns 1,
Column 2
Stem
Column 3
Where do the branches
appear
2 and 3 for many more plants. Fill
Column 4 after you have studied later
part of this section.
 Based on these characters most
plants can be classified into three
categories: herbs, shrubs and trees.  An
example of each is shown in Fig.7.3.
Fig.7.3 (a) Herb, (b) shrub and (c) tree
Suggestion: Work in groups of 4-5
students in doing activities suggested
in this Chapter so that a minimum
number of plants are uprooted.
Use weeds with soft stems for the
activities. Do you know what weeds
are? In crop fields, lawns, or in pots,
often some unwanted plants or
weeds start growing. Have you seen
farmers removing these weeds from
their fields?
(b)
(a)
(c)
©NCERT
not to be republished
54 SCIENCE
Plants with green and tender stems
are called herbs. They are usually short
and may not have many branches
[Fig.7.3 (a)].
Some plants have the stem
branching out near the base. The stem
is hard but not very thick. Such plants
are called shrubs [Fig .7.3(b)].
Some plants are very tall and have
hard and thick brown stem. The stems
have branches in the upper part, much
above the ground. Such plants are
called trees [Fig.7.3(c)].
Based on the above characteristics
can you now correctly classify the plants
listed by you and complete column 4 in
Table 7.1?
are different from the herbs, shrubs
and trees.
Perhaps there are some plants in
your school or at home that you take
care of. Write down the names of any
two trees, shrubs, herbs or creepers
growing in your house or school.
7.2 STEM
Activity 2
We would require a glass, water, red ink,
a herb, and a blade for this activity.
Pour water to fill one-third of the
glass. Add a few drops of red ink to the
water. Cut the base of the stem of the
Paheli wonders what kind of stem — the
money plant, beanstalk, gourd plants and
grape vines have. Do observe some of these
plants. How are these different from a herb,
a shrub or a tree? Why do you think
some of them need support to climb
upwards?
Plants with weak
stems that cannot stand
upright and spread on
the ground are called
creepers, while those
that take support on
neighbouring structures
and climb up are called
climbers ( Fig.7.4 ). These
Fig. 7.4
Climbers
Fig. 7.5 What does the stem do?
herb and put it in the glass as shown in
Fig.7.5. Observe it the next day.
Do any of the parts of the herb appear
to have red colour? If yes, how do you
think the colour reached there?
You can cut the stem across and
look for the red colour inside the stem
( Fig. 7.6) .
From this activity we see that water
moves up the stem. In other words, stem
conducts water. Just like the red ink,
minerals dissolved in water also move
up in the stem, along with the water.
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


52 SCIENCE
7 Getting to Know Plants
G
o outside and observe all the
plants around you. Do you see
that some plants are small,
some very big,  while some are just
patches of green on the soil?
Some have green leaves,
while some others have
reddish ones. Some have
huge red flowers, some have
tiny blue ones, while some
have none. We do see a
variety of plants existing all
around us — near our
homes, in the school
ground, on the way to the
school, in the parks and
gardens, isn’t it?
Let us  get to know the different
parts of any plant. This will help us
understand the differences between
Fig. 7.1 Parts of a plant
plants of different kinds. Can you label
the stem, branches, roots, leaves, and
flowers of the plant shown in Fig.7.1?
Colour the parts of the plant.
Let us now go on a Nature walk,
make friends with many different
kinds of plants and examine them
closely (Fig. 7.2).
7.1 HERBS, SHRUBS AND TREES
Activity 1
Look closely at the stem and branches
of:
1. Plants much smaller than you.
2. Plants that are about your size, and
3.Plants which are much taller than
you.
Feel their stem and try to bend them
gently to see if they are tender or hard.
Fig. 7.2 A Nature walk!
©NCERT
not to be republished
53 GETTING TO KNOW PLANTS
Table 7.1 Categories of plants
t n a l P
e m a n
1 n m u l o C
t h g i e H
n m u l o C
4
n e e r G r e d n e T k c i h T d r a H
e s a b e h t t A
m e t s e h t f o
p u r e h g i H
e h t n o
m e t s
y r o g e t a C
t n a l p f o
o t a m o T
r e t r o h S
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y b r e H
o g n a M
h c u M
r e l l a t
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y s e Y e e r T
n o m e L
y l t h g i l S
r e l l a t
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y b u r h S
Take care that the stem does not break.
Hug the tall plants to see how thick their
stems are!
We also need to  notice from where the
branches grow in some plants — close to
the ground or higher up on the stem.
We will now group all the plants we
observed, in Table 7.1. Some examples
are shown. You can fill the Columns 1,
Column 2
Stem
Column 3
Where do the branches
appear
2 and 3 for many more plants. Fill
Column 4 after you have studied later
part of this section.
 Based on these characters most
plants can be classified into three
categories: herbs, shrubs and trees.  An
example of each is shown in Fig.7.3.
Fig.7.3 (a) Herb, (b) shrub and (c) tree
Suggestion: Work in groups of 4-5
students in doing activities suggested
in this Chapter so that a minimum
number of plants are uprooted.
Use weeds with soft stems for the
activities. Do you know what weeds
are? In crop fields, lawns, or in pots,
often some unwanted plants or
weeds start growing. Have you seen
farmers removing these weeds from
their fields?
(b)
(a)
(c)
©NCERT
not to be republished
54 SCIENCE
Plants with green and tender stems
are called herbs. They are usually short
and may not have many branches
[Fig.7.3 (a)].
Some plants have the stem
branching out near the base. The stem
is hard but not very thick. Such plants
are called shrubs [Fig .7.3(b)].
Some plants are very tall and have
hard and thick brown stem. The stems
have branches in the upper part, much
above the ground. Such plants are
called trees [Fig.7.3(c)].
Based on the above characteristics
can you now correctly classify the plants
listed by you and complete column 4 in
Table 7.1?
are different from the herbs, shrubs
and trees.
Perhaps there are some plants in
your school or at home that you take
care of. Write down the names of any
two trees, shrubs, herbs or creepers
growing in your house or school.
7.2 STEM
Activity 2
We would require a glass, water, red ink,
a herb, and a blade for this activity.
Pour water to fill one-third of the
glass. Add a few drops of red ink to the
water. Cut the base of the stem of the
Paheli wonders what kind of stem — the
money plant, beanstalk, gourd plants and
grape vines have. Do observe some of these
plants. How are these different from a herb,
a shrub or a tree? Why do you think
some of them need support to climb
upwards?
Plants with weak
stems that cannot stand
upright and spread on
the ground are called
creepers, while those
that take support on
neighbouring structures
and climb up are called
climbers ( Fig.7.4 ). These
Fig. 7.4
Climbers
Fig. 7.5 What does the stem do?
herb and put it in the glass as shown in
Fig.7.5. Observe it the next day.
Do any of the parts of the herb appear
to have red colour? If yes, how do you
think the colour reached there?
You can cut the stem across and
look for the red colour inside the stem
( Fig. 7.6) .
From this activity we see that water
moves up the stem. In other words, stem
conducts water. Just like the red ink,
minerals dissolved in water also move
up in the stem, along with the water.
©NCERT
not to be republished
55 GETTING TO KNOW PLANTS
The water and minerals go to leaves and
other plant parts attached to the stem,
through narrow tubes inside the stem.
Paheli did this activity with herbs
having white flowers. She put one
branch with a white flower in the water
in glass A and added a few drops of red
ink to the water. She did a funny thing
with another branch. She split it half
way along its length and put the two
ends in the water in glasses B and C
(Fig. 7.7). She put a few drops of red
Let us get to know the leaf better by
taking its impression! If you thought
that leaves cannot sign, here is an
activity which will make you think again.
Activity 3
Put a leaf under a white sheet of paper
or a sheet in your notebook. Hold it in
place as shown in Fig. 7.9. Hold your
pencil tip sideways and rub it on the
portion of the paper having the leaf below
it. Did you get an
impression with
some lines in it?
Are they similar to
those on the leaf?
These lines on
the leaf are called
veins. Do you see
a thick vein in the
Fig. 7.8 A leaf
Fig. 7.9 Taking an
impression of a leaf
Fig. 7.6 (a) Cutting the stem, (b) its enlarged view
ink in glass B and blue ink in glass C.
She wants you to guess what would
happen to the flower in glass A and the
flower put jointly in B and C.
When you had cut across the stem
in Activity 2, did you notice a number
of spots of red colour arranged in a ring
inside the stem?  Does this explain the
results that Paheli obtained? Try this
activity yourself!
Fig. 7.7 Paheli’s flowers
7.3 LEAF
Look at leaves of plants around you and
draw them in your notebook. Are all the
leaves the same in size, shape and
colour?
How are they attached to the stem?
The part of a leaf by which it is attached
to the stem is called petiole. The broad,
green part of the leaf is called lamina
(Fig. 7.8). Can you identify these parts
of the leaves in plants around you? Do
all the leaves have petioles?
Petiole
Lamina
(a)
(b)
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


52 SCIENCE
7 Getting to Know Plants
G
o outside and observe all the
plants around you. Do you see
that some plants are small,
some very big,  while some are just
patches of green on the soil?
Some have green leaves,
while some others have
reddish ones. Some have
huge red flowers, some have
tiny blue ones, while some
have none. We do see a
variety of plants existing all
around us — near our
homes, in the school
ground, on the way to the
school, in the parks and
gardens, isn’t it?
Let us  get to know the different
parts of any plant. This will help us
understand the differences between
Fig. 7.1 Parts of a plant
plants of different kinds. Can you label
the stem, branches, roots, leaves, and
flowers of the plant shown in Fig.7.1?
Colour the parts of the plant.
Let us now go on a Nature walk,
make friends with many different
kinds of plants and examine them
closely (Fig. 7.2).
7.1 HERBS, SHRUBS AND TREES
Activity 1
Look closely at the stem and branches
of:
1. Plants much smaller than you.
2. Plants that are about your size, and
3.Plants which are much taller than
you.
Feel their stem and try to bend them
gently to see if they are tender or hard.
Fig. 7.2 A Nature walk!
©NCERT
not to be republished
53 GETTING TO KNOW PLANTS
Table 7.1 Categories of plants
t n a l P
e m a n
1 n m u l o C
t h g i e H
n m u l o C
4
n e e r G r e d n e T k c i h T d r a H
e s a b e h t t A
m e t s e h t f o
p u r e h g i H
e h t n o
m e t s
y r o g e t a C
t n a l p f o
o t a m o T
r e t r o h S
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y b r e H
o g n a M
h c u M
r e l l a t
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y s e Y e e r T
n o m e L
y l t h g i l S
r e l l a t
e m n a h t
s e Y s e Y b u r h S
Take care that the stem does not break.
Hug the tall plants to see how thick their
stems are!
We also need to  notice from where the
branches grow in some plants — close to
the ground or higher up on the stem.
We will now group all the plants we
observed, in Table 7.1. Some examples
are shown. You can fill the Columns 1,
Column 2
Stem
Column 3
Where do the branches
appear
2 and 3 for many more plants. Fill
Column 4 after you have studied later
part of this section.
 Based on these characters most
plants can be classified into three
categories: herbs, shrubs and trees.  An
example of each is shown in Fig.7.3.
Fig.7.3 (a) Herb, (b) shrub and (c) tree
Suggestion: Work in groups of 4-5
students in doing activities suggested
in this Chapter so that a minimum
number of plants are uprooted.
Use weeds with soft stems for the
activities. Do you know what weeds
are? In crop fields, lawns, or in pots,
often some unwanted plants or
weeds start growing. Have you seen
farmers removing these weeds from
their fields?
(b)
(a)
(c)
©NCERT
not to be republished
54 SCIENCE
Plants with green and tender stems
are called herbs. They are usually short
and may not have many branches
[Fig.7.3 (a)].
Some plants have the stem
branching out near the base. The stem
is hard but not very thick. Such plants
are called shrubs [Fig .7.3(b)].
Some plants are very tall and have
hard and thick brown stem. The stems
have branches in the upper part, much
above the ground. Such plants are
called trees [Fig.7.3(c)].
Based on the above characteristics
can you now correctly classify the plants
listed by you and complete column 4 in
Table 7.1?
are different from the herbs, shrubs
and trees.
Perhaps there are some plants in
your school or at home that you take
care of. Write down the names of any
two trees, shrubs, herbs or creepers
growing in your house or school.
7.2 STEM
Activity 2
We would require a glass, water, red ink,
a herb, and a blade for this activity.
Pour water to fill one-third of the
glass. Add a few drops of red ink to the
water. Cut the base of the stem of the
Paheli wonders what kind of stem — the
money plant, beanstalk, gourd plants and
grape vines have. Do observe some of these
plants. How are these different from a herb,
a shrub or a tree? Why do you think
some of them need support to climb
upwards?
Plants with weak
stems that cannot stand
upright and spread on
the ground are called
creepers, while those
that take support on
neighbouring structures
and climb up are called
climbers ( Fig.7.4 ). These
Fig. 7.4
Climbers
Fig. 7.5 What does the stem do?
herb and put it in the glass as shown in
Fig.7.5. Observe it the next day.
Do any of the parts of the herb appear
to have red colour? If yes, how do you
think the colour reached there?
You can cut the stem across and
look for the red colour inside the stem
( Fig. 7.6) .
From this activity we see that water
moves up the stem. In other words, stem
conducts water. Just like the red ink,
minerals dissolved in water also move
up in the stem, along with the water.
©NCERT
not to be republished
55 GETTING TO KNOW PLANTS
The water and minerals go to leaves and
other plant parts attached to the stem,
through narrow tubes inside the stem.
Paheli did this activity with herbs
having white flowers. She put one
branch with a white flower in the water
in glass A and added a few drops of red
ink to the water. She did a funny thing
with another branch. She split it half
way along its length and put the two
ends in the water in glasses B and C
(Fig. 7.7). She put a few drops of red
Let us get to know the leaf better by
taking its impression! If you thought
that leaves cannot sign, here is an
activity which will make you think again.
Activity 3
Put a leaf under a white sheet of paper
or a sheet in your notebook. Hold it in
place as shown in Fig. 7.9. Hold your
pencil tip sideways and rub it on the
portion of the paper having the leaf below
it. Did you get an
impression with
some lines in it?
Are they similar to
those on the leaf?
These lines on
the leaf are called
veins. Do you see
a thick vein in the
Fig. 7.8 A leaf
Fig. 7.9 Taking an
impression of a leaf
Fig. 7.6 (a) Cutting the stem, (b) its enlarged view
ink in glass B and blue ink in glass C.
She wants you to guess what would
happen to the flower in glass A and the
flower put jointly in B and C.
When you had cut across the stem
in Activity 2, did you notice a number
of spots of red colour arranged in a ring
inside the stem?  Does this explain the
results that Paheli obtained? Try this
activity yourself!
Fig. 7.7 Paheli’s flowers
7.3 LEAF
Look at leaves of plants around you and
draw them in your notebook. Are all the
leaves the same in size, shape and
colour?
How are they attached to the stem?
The part of a leaf by which it is attached
to the stem is called petiole. The broad,
green part of the leaf is called lamina
(Fig. 7.8). Can you identify these parts
of the leaves in plants around you? Do
all the leaves have petioles?
Petiole
Lamina
(a)
(b)
©NCERT
not to be republished
56 SCIENCE
middle of the leaf? This vein is called the
midrib. The design made by veins in a
leaf is called the leaf venation. If this
design is net-like on both sides of
midrib, the venation is reticulate
[Fig. 7.10 (a)]. In the leaves of grass you
might have seen that the veins are parallel
to one another. This is parallel venation
[(Fig. 7.10 (b)]. Observe the venation in
as many leaves as you can without
removing them from the plant. Draw the
pattern and write names of some plants
having reticulate and parallel venation.
Shall we now find out some of the
functions of a leaf?
Activity 4
We will require a herb, two transparent
polythene bags and some string.
Do this activity during day time on a
sunny day. Use a healthy, well watered
plant that has been growing in the sun,
for this activity. Enclose a leafy branch
of the  plant in a polythene bag and tie
up its mouth as shown in Fig. 7.11. Tie
up the mouth of the empty polythene
bag and keep it also in the sun.
After a few hours, observe the inner
surface of the bags. What do you see?
Are there any droplets of water in any
of the bags? Which bag has the droplets?
How do you think they got there? [Don’t
forget to remove the polythene bag after
the activity!]
Water comes out of leaves in the form
of vapour by a process called
transpiration. Plants release a lot of water
into the air through this process. We will
learn more about this in Chapter 14.
Why did we tie a bag around the
leaves? Would we have seen the water
from the transpiration of plants
otherwise? What makes the water
appear on the polythene bag? In
Chapter 5, we noticed water changing
into different forms in some of our
activities. Can you think of these and
name the process that makes water
drops appear on the polythene bag?
Leaves also have another function.
Let us study this.
Activity 5
We would require a leaf, spirit, a beaker,
test tube, burner, water, a plate and
iodine solution for this activity.
Put a leaf in a test tube and pour
spirit to completely cover the leaf. Now,
Fig. 7.10 Leaf venation (a) reticulate and
(b) parallel
(a) (b)
Fig. 7.11 What does the leaf do?
Midrib Veins
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