NCERT Textbook - Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Indian Polity for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

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UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Understanding Marginalisation Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Social and Political Life 78
Unit Four
2015-16
Page 2


Social and Political Life 78
Unit Four
2015-16
79
Teacher’s Note
Equality is a value and right that we have tried to understand in the Social and Political Life
series. Over the three years, we have deepened our conceptual understanding of equality. We
have distinguished the idea of formal equality from that of substantive equality and the need to
move towards establishing the latter. Kanta’s story, in the Class VII book, is an example of this.
We have also established that to understand equality it is important to delve into how inequality
is experienced and manifested. We have, thus, examined the connections between discrimination
and inequality through the childhood experiences of Dr Ambedkar and Omprakash Valmiki in
Class VI and VII books. The impact of inequality on access to resources was looked at in the
context of women’s access to education. Rashsundari Devi and Rokeya Begum’s writings point
to women’s struggles to overcome this denial. We have often pointed to the Fundamental Rights
enshrined in our Constitution to highlight why equality and the idea of dignity that it contains
is crucial to the functioning of democracy in India.
This unit looks more closely at the ways in which inequality affects different groups and
communities by introducing the concept of marginalisation or exclusion from the mainstream.
The Unit focuses on three groups, namely the Adivasis, the Muslims and the Dalits.  These three
groups have been chosen because the causes that contribute to each group’s marginalisation
are different and they sometimes experience marginalisation in different ways.  In teaching this
unit, the aim should be to help students identify the factors that contribute to marginalisation
as well as be able to recognise and empathise with the marginalised. You could help children
identify the marginalised communities in your region. In Chapter 7, we look at the experiences
of Adivasi and Muslim communities. Chapter 8 discusses ways in which the government as well
as these communities themselves have tried to address marginalisation through various struggles.
The government does this through its law-making function and through different policies and
schemes that specifically target these communities as beneficiaries.
We have used a variety of pedagogic tools in this unit – data, poems, a storyboard and a case-
study. Use the storyboard to discuss processes of marginalisation experienced by the Adivasis.
The case study on Dalits should lead to a discussion on the importance of the SC/ST Act as well
as the ways in which this law reflects the Constitution’s commitment to Fundamental Rights. To
understand the situation of the Muslim community, we have used data from different sources,
which can be analysed in the class. Songs and poems have been used in this unit to break down
the boundaries created between social science and language textbooks and to establish that, in
the everyday lives of communities, this separation does not exist. Moreover, struggles for justice
have produced memorable poetry and songs that often do not find a place in textbooks.
This chapter does contain several issues that may lead to contentious discussions within the
classroom space. Children are aware of such issues and we have to find a mature way of discussing
these. You play a crucial role in facilitating these discussions in order to ensure that no child or
group of children feel discriminated against, ridiculed or left out from these discussions.
The Marginalisation
2015-16
Page 3


Social and Political Life 78
Unit Four
2015-16
79
Teacher’s Note
Equality is a value and right that we have tried to understand in the Social and Political Life
series. Over the three years, we have deepened our conceptual understanding of equality. We
have distinguished the idea of formal equality from that of substantive equality and the need to
move towards establishing the latter. Kanta’s story, in the Class VII book, is an example of this.
We have also established that to understand equality it is important to delve into how inequality
is experienced and manifested. We have, thus, examined the connections between discrimination
and inequality through the childhood experiences of Dr Ambedkar and Omprakash Valmiki in
Class VI and VII books. The impact of inequality on access to resources was looked at in the
context of women’s access to education. Rashsundari Devi and Rokeya Begum’s writings point
to women’s struggles to overcome this denial. We have often pointed to the Fundamental Rights
enshrined in our Constitution to highlight why equality and the idea of dignity that it contains
is crucial to the functioning of democracy in India.
This unit looks more closely at the ways in which inequality affects different groups and
communities by introducing the concept of marginalisation or exclusion from the mainstream.
The Unit focuses on three groups, namely the Adivasis, the Muslims and the Dalits.  These three
groups have been chosen because the causes that contribute to each group’s marginalisation
are different and they sometimes experience marginalisation in different ways.  In teaching this
unit, the aim should be to help students identify the factors that contribute to marginalisation
as well as be able to recognise and empathise with the marginalised. You could help children
identify the marginalised communities in your region. In Chapter 7, we look at the experiences
of Adivasi and Muslim communities. Chapter 8 discusses ways in which the government as well
as these communities themselves have tried to address marginalisation through various struggles.
The government does this through its law-making function and through different policies and
schemes that specifically target these communities as beneficiaries.
We have used a variety of pedagogic tools in this unit – data, poems, a storyboard and a case-
study. Use the storyboard to discuss processes of marginalisation experienced by the Adivasis.
The case study on Dalits should lead to a discussion on the importance of the SC/ST Act as well
as the ways in which this law reflects the Constitution’s commitment to Fundamental Rights. To
understand the situation of the Muslim community, we have used data from different sources,
which can be analysed in the class. Songs and poems have been used in this unit to break down
the boundaries created between social science and language textbooks and to establish that, in
the everyday lives of communities, this separation does not exist. Moreover, struggles for justice
have produced memorable poetry and songs that often do not find a place in textbooks.
This chapter does contain several issues that may lead to contentious discussions within the
classroom space. Children are aware of such issues and we have to find a mature way of discussing
these. You play a crucial role in facilitating these discussions in order to ensure that no child or
group of children feel discriminated against, ridiculed or left out from these discussions.
The Marginalisation
2015-16
Social and Political Life 80
Chapter 7
Understanding
Marginalisation
What Does it Mean to be Socially Marginalised?
To be marginalised is to be forced to occupy the sides or fringes and thus not be at the
centre of things.  This is something that some of you have probably experienced in the
classroom or playground. If you are not like most people in your class, that is, if your
taste in music or films is different, if your accent marks you out from others, if you are
less chatty than others in your class, if you don’t play the same sport that many of
your classmates like, if you dress differently, the chances are that you will not be
considered to be ‘in’ by your peers. So, often, you end up feeling that you are ‘not with
it’ – as if what you say, feel and think and how you act are not quite right or acceptable
to others.
As in the classroom, in the social environment too, groups of people or communities
may have the experience of being excluded. Their marginalisation can be because they
speak a different language, follow different customs or belong to a different religious
group from the majority community. They may also feel marginalised because they are
poor, considered to be of ‘low’ social status and viewed as being less human than
others. Sometimes, marginalised groups are viewed with hostility and fear. This sense
of difference and exclusion leads to communities not having access to resources and
opportunities and in their inability to assert their rights.  They experience a sense of
disadvantage and powerlessness vis-a-vis more powerful and dominant sections of
society who own land, are wealthy, better educated and politically powerful. Thus,
marginalisation is seldom experienced in one sphere. Economic, social, cultural and
political factors work together to make certain groups in society feel marginalised.
In this chapter, you will read about two communities that are considered to be socially
marginalised in India today.
2015-16
Page 4


Social and Political Life 78
Unit Four
2015-16
79
Teacher’s Note
Equality is a value and right that we have tried to understand in the Social and Political Life
series. Over the three years, we have deepened our conceptual understanding of equality. We
have distinguished the idea of formal equality from that of substantive equality and the need to
move towards establishing the latter. Kanta’s story, in the Class VII book, is an example of this.
We have also established that to understand equality it is important to delve into how inequality
is experienced and manifested. We have, thus, examined the connections between discrimination
and inequality through the childhood experiences of Dr Ambedkar and Omprakash Valmiki in
Class VI and VII books. The impact of inequality on access to resources was looked at in the
context of women’s access to education. Rashsundari Devi and Rokeya Begum’s writings point
to women’s struggles to overcome this denial. We have often pointed to the Fundamental Rights
enshrined in our Constitution to highlight why equality and the idea of dignity that it contains
is crucial to the functioning of democracy in India.
This unit looks more closely at the ways in which inequality affects different groups and
communities by introducing the concept of marginalisation or exclusion from the mainstream.
The Unit focuses on three groups, namely the Adivasis, the Muslims and the Dalits.  These three
groups have been chosen because the causes that contribute to each group’s marginalisation
are different and they sometimes experience marginalisation in different ways.  In teaching this
unit, the aim should be to help students identify the factors that contribute to marginalisation
as well as be able to recognise and empathise with the marginalised. You could help children
identify the marginalised communities in your region. In Chapter 7, we look at the experiences
of Adivasi and Muslim communities. Chapter 8 discusses ways in which the government as well
as these communities themselves have tried to address marginalisation through various struggles.
The government does this through its law-making function and through different policies and
schemes that specifically target these communities as beneficiaries.
We have used a variety of pedagogic tools in this unit – data, poems, a storyboard and a case-
study. Use the storyboard to discuss processes of marginalisation experienced by the Adivasis.
The case study on Dalits should lead to a discussion on the importance of the SC/ST Act as well
as the ways in which this law reflects the Constitution’s commitment to Fundamental Rights. To
understand the situation of the Muslim community, we have used data from different sources,
which can be analysed in the class. Songs and poems have been used in this unit to break down
the boundaries created between social science and language textbooks and to establish that, in
the everyday lives of communities, this separation does not exist. Moreover, struggles for justice
have produced memorable poetry and songs that often do not find a place in textbooks.
This chapter does contain several issues that may lead to contentious discussions within the
classroom space. Children are aware of such issues and we have to find a mature way of discussing
these. You play a crucial role in facilitating these discussions in order to ensure that no child or
group of children feel discriminated against, ridiculed or left out from these discussions.
The Marginalisation
2015-16
Social and Political Life 80
Chapter 7
Understanding
Marginalisation
What Does it Mean to be Socially Marginalised?
To be marginalised is to be forced to occupy the sides or fringes and thus not be at the
centre of things.  This is something that some of you have probably experienced in the
classroom or playground. If you are not like most people in your class, that is, if your
taste in music or films is different, if your accent marks you out from others, if you are
less chatty than others in your class, if you don’t play the same sport that many of
your classmates like, if you dress differently, the chances are that you will not be
considered to be ‘in’ by your peers. So, often, you end up feeling that you are ‘not with
it’ – as if what you say, feel and think and how you act are not quite right or acceptable
to others.
As in the classroom, in the social environment too, groups of people or communities
may have the experience of being excluded. Their marginalisation can be because they
speak a different language, follow different customs or belong to a different religious
group from the majority community. They may also feel marginalised because they are
poor, considered to be of ‘low’ social status and viewed as being less human than
others. Sometimes, marginalised groups are viewed with hostility and fear. This sense
of difference and exclusion leads to communities not having access to resources and
opportunities and in their inability to assert their rights.  They experience a sense of
disadvantage and powerlessness vis-a-vis more powerful and dominant sections of
society who own land, are wealthy, better educated and politically powerful. Thus,
marginalisation is seldom experienced in one sphere. Economic, social, cultural and
political factors work together to make certain groups in society feel marginalised.
In this chapter, you will read about two communities that are considered to be socially
marginalised in India today.
2015-16
81
Suddenly we were told that the forest was not ours.
Forest officials and contractors cut down large
parts of it.  If we protested they beat us and then
took us to court, where we did not have our
lawyers and could not fight our cases.
Then the companywallahs came.
They said there was iron ore under
our land, they wanted to mine it.
They promised jobs and money, if we
sold our land to them.  Some
villagers were excited.  Others said
this would destroy our lives and we
would get nothing.  Some gave
thumbprints, not realising they were
selling their lands off.  Only a few
were given token jobs.  But most of
us did not sell…
Oh, see! The Nagaland
Many of us were forced to leave our
homes and find seasonal work in
nearby towns.
Adivasis and Marginalisation
An Adivasi Family in Delhi Soma and Helen are
watching the Republic Day parade on TV with their
grandfather .
Oh see!  An adivasi float!
Dadu why do they always show
adivasis as only dancing?
Yes, don’t they know
anything else about us!
The lives of adivasis are
very rich; most people
don’t know that.
When I was young, our village in Orissa was
beautiful.  We got everything we needed from
the land and the forests around us.  We in
turn respected the land, the forest, the river.
Then how did you survive,
Dadu?
Chapter 7: Understanding Marginalisation
2015-16
Page 5


Social and Political Life 78
Unit Four
2015-16
79
Teacher’s Note
Equality is a value and right that we have tried to understand in the Social and Political Life
series. Over the three years, we have deepened our conceptual understanding of equality. We
have distinguished the idea of formal equality from that of substantive equality and the need to
move towards establishing the latter. Kanta’s story, in the Class VII book, is an example of this.
We have also established that to understand equality it is important to delve into how inequality
is experienced and manifested. We have, thus, examined the connections between discrimination
and inequality through the childhood experiences of Dr Ambedkar and Omprakash Valmiki in
Class VI and VII books. The impact of inequality on access to resources was looked at in the
context of women’s access to education. Rashsundari Devi and Rokeya Begum’s writings point
to women’s struggles to overcome this denial. We have often pointed to the Fundamental Rights
enshrined in our Constitution to highlight why equality and the idea of dignity that it contains
is crucial to the functioning of democracy in India.
This unit looks more closely at the ways in which inequality affects different groups and
communities by introducing the concept of marginalisation or exclusion from the mainstream.
The Unit focuses on three groups, namely the Adivasis, the Muslims and the Dalits.  These three
groups have been chosen because the causes that contribute to each group’s marginalisation
are different and they sometimes experience marginalisation in different ways.  In teaching this
unit, the aim should be to help students identify the factors that contribute to marginalisation
as well as be able to recognise and empathise with the marginalised. You could help children
identify the marginalised communities in your region. In Chapter 7, we look at the experiences
of Adivasi and Muslim communities. Chapter 8 discusses ways in which the government as well
as these communities themselves have tried to address marginalisation through various struggles.
The government does this through its law-making function and through different policies and
schemes that specifically target these communities as beneficiaries.
We have used a variety of pedagogic tools in this unit – data, poems, a storyboard and a case-
study. Use the storyboard to discuss processes of marginalisation experienced by the Adivasis.
The case study on Dalits should lead to a discussion on the importance of the SC/ST Act as well
as the ways in which this law reflects the Constitution’s commitment to Fundamental Rights. To
understand the situation of the Muslim community, we have used data from different sources,
which can be analysed in the class. Songs and poems have been used in this unit to break down
the boundaries created between social science and language textbooks and to establish that, in
the everyday lives of communities, this separation does not exist. Moreover, struggles for justice
have produced memorable poetry and songs that often do not find a place in textbooks.
This chapter does contain several issues that may lead to contentious discussions within the
classroom space. Children are aware of such issues and we have to find a mature way of discussing
these. You play a crucial role in facilitating these discussions in order to ensure that no child or
group of children feel discriminated against, ridiculed or left out from these discussions.
The Marginalisation
2015-16
Social and Political Life 80
Chapter 7
Understanding
Marginalisation
What Does it Mean to be Socially Marginalised?
To be marginalised is to be forced to occupy the sides or fringes and thus not be at the
centre of things.  This is something that some of you have probably experienced in the
classroom or playground. If you are not like most people in your class, that is, if your
taste in music or films is different, if your accent marks you out from others, if you are
less chatty than others in your class, if you don’t play the same sport that many of
your classmates like, if you dress differently, the chances are that you will not be
considered to be ‘in’ by your peers. So, often, you end up feeling that you are ‘not with
it’ – as if what you say, feel and think and how you act are not quite right or acceptable
to others.
As in the classroom, in the social environment too, groups of people or communities
may have the experience of being excluded. Their marginalisation can be because they
speak a different language, follow different customs or belong to a different religious
group from the majority community. They may also feel marginalised because they are
poor, considered to be of ‘low’ social status and viewed as being less human than
others. Sometimes, marginalised groups are viewed with hostility and fear. This sense
of difference and exclusion leads to communities not having access to resources and
opportunities and in their inability to assert their rights.  They experience a sense of
disadvantage and powerlessness vis-a-vis more powerful and dominant sections of
society who own land, are wealthy, better educated and politically powerful. Thus,
marginalisation is seldom experienced in one sphere. Economic, social, cultural and
political factors work together to make certain groups in society feel marginalised.
In this chapter, you will read about two communities that are considered to be socially
marginalised in India today.
2015-16
81
Suddenly we were told that the forest was not ours.
Forest officials and contractors cut down large
parts of it.  If we protested they beat us and then
took us to court, where we did not have our
lawyers and could not fight our cases.
Then the companywallahs came.
They said there was iron ore under
our land, they wanted to mine it.
They promised jobs and money, if we
sold our land to them.  Some
villagers were excited.  Others said
this would destroy our lives and we
would get nothing.  Some gave
thumbprints, not realising they were
selling their lands off.  Only a few
were given token jobs.  But most of
us did not sell…
Oh, see! The Nagaland
Many of us were forced to leave our
homes and find seasonal work in
nearby towns.
Adivasis and Marginalisation
An Adivasi Family in Delhi Soma and Helen are
watching the Republic Day parade on TV with their
grandfather .
Oh see!  An adivasi float!
Dadu why do they always show
adivasis as only dancing?
Yes, don’t they know
anything else about us!
The lives of adivasis are
very rich; most people
don’t know that.
When I was young, our village in Orissa was
beautiful.  We got everything we needed from
the land and the forests around us.  We in
turn respected the land, the forest, the river.
Then how did you survive,
Dadu?
Chapter 7: Understanding Marginalisation
2015-16
Social and Political Life 82
For our 30 acres we got a little
money from one contractor.  I
never saw most of my friends
again.
Then they beat and threatened us till
eventually everyone was forced to sell and
abandon the land of their forefathers.  They
had the support of the authorities. Our
whole way of living vanished overnight.
The money hardly lasted in the city.  We had
no means of livelihood anymore.  We were
all cramped into a tiny rented room.  How we
missed our carefree lives, the open spaces.
After a few years your father got a job in
Delhi and we all moved here.  Those were
very difficult times… That is why both of you
did not go to school for several years.
Oh, Dadu! And our land what…
I hated going back to school.
We had missed so much of our
studies and other children
made fun of us.  We spoke
Santhali at home, and did not
know Hindi.
I wish I could have
shown my friends our
village before it was
destroyed.
You can still tell them
about our village.  It has
a lot to teach them…
One day I’ll make a
movie on this story, our
story, the adivasi story.
But now we have
friends.  I can even
speak some English
now.
2015-16
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