NCERT Textbook - Urban Administration Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Indian Polity for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

Created by: Rohini Seth

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - Urban Administration Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Chapter 7
Urban
Administration
ne lazy Sunday afternoon Mala
and her friends Shankar , Jehangir
and Rehana were playing a game of
cricket in the street.
Shankar had bowled a good over
and although he nearly managed to get
Rehana out, she was still batting.
Frustrated, he bowled a short ball and
hoped she would hit it for an easy catch.
Instead, Rehana hit the ball so hard and
so high that the street light broke.
Rehana screamed, "Oh no, look what
I've done!" Shankar said, "Yes! we forgot
to make a rule that if you break the
street light you are automatically out."
But Mala, Jehangir and Rehana were
more worried about what had happened
and they told Shankar he'd better stop
thinking  about the wicket.
Last week they had broken Nirmala
Mausi's window and had spent their
pocket money to have it replaced. Would
they have to dish out money again from
their pockets? But  who would they pay
this to? To whom did the lights on the
streets belong? Who changed them? 
Rehana's house was the closest and
they ran and told her mother what had
happened. Rehana's mother said, "I
don't really know these things in great
A city is much bigger than a village and more spread
out. A city has crowded markets, many buses and
cars, water and electricity facilities, traffic control
and hospitals. Have you ever wondered who is
responsible for running all this? Do you know how
decisions are made? How the planning is done?
Who are the people who do all the work? Read this
chapter and find some answers.
O
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Chapter 7
Urban
Administration
ne lazy Sunday afternoon Mala
and her friends Shankar , Jehangir
and Rehana were playing a game of
cricket in the street.
Shankar had bowled a good over
and although he nearly managed to get
Rehana out, she was still batting.
Frustrated, he bowled a short ball and
hoped she would hit it for an easy catch.
Instead, Rehana hit the ball so hard and
so high that the street light broke.
Rehana screamed, "Oh no, look what
I've done!" Shankar said, "Yes! we forgot
to make a rule that if you break the
street light you are automatically out."
But Mala, Jehangir and Rehana were
more worried about what had happened
and they told Shankar he'd better stop
thinking  about the wicket.
Last week they had broken Nirmala
Mausi's window and had spent their
pocket money to have it replaced. Would
they have to dish out money again from
their pockets? But  who would they pay
this to? To whom did the lights on the
streets belong? Who changed them? 
Rehana's house was the closest and
they ran and told her mother what had
happened. Rehana's mother said, "I
don't really know these things in great
A city is much bigger than a village and more spread
out. A city has crowded markets, many buses and
cars, water and electricity facilities, traffic control
and hospitals. Have you ever wondered who is
responsible for running all this? Do you know how
decisions are made? How the planning is done?
Who are the people who do all the work? Read this
chapter and find some answers.
O
© NCERT
not to be republished
detail but I do know that it is the
Municipal Corporation of the city that
takes care of replacing lights.  The best
person to ask would be Yasmin Khala.
She just retired from the Municipal
Corporation. Go and ask her, and
Rehana come back home soon."
Yasmin Khala lived in the same lane
and she and Rehana's mother were
good friends.  The children ran to
Khala's house and when she opened
the door they began to tell her what
had happened all at once! When they
asked about the street light, Yasmin
Khala laughed and said, "There is no
one person that you can pay the money
to.  There is a big organisation called
the Municipal Corporation that takes
care of street lights, garbage collection,
water supply, keeping the streets and
the market clean." 
"I've heard about the Municipal
Corporation. They've put up signs
around the city to inform people about
malaria," said Mala.  
"Yes, you are quite right. The
Municipal Corporation  is also
responsible for ensuring that diseases
do not break out in the city. It also runs
schools, hospitals and dispensaries.
And makes gardens and maintains
them," said Yasmin Khala. Then she
added, "Our city Pune is a big city and
so here it is called a Municipal
Corporation. In smaller towns it is
called a Municipal Council."  
The Ward Councillor and
Administrative Staff
"Yasmin Khala, I'm curious.  Who
decides where a park should go?  Did
you have to make interesting decisions
like this when you worked in the
Municipal Corporation?" asked
Rehana.  
"No Rehana, I was working in the
accounts office of the Corporation so I
just worked on pay slips.  Cities are
usually quite large so the Municipal
Corporation has to make a lot of
decisions as well as do a lot of work to
keep the city clean.  The decisions like
where a park or a new hospital should
go are usually made by the Ward
Councillors."  
List at least four different tasks
that the Municipality does:
1.
2.
3.
4.
58 / Social and Political Life
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Chapter 7
Urban
Administration
ne lazy Sunday afternoon Mala
and her friends Shankar , Jehangir
and Rehana were playing a game of
cricket in the street.
Shankar had bowled a good over
and although he nearly managed to get
Rehana out, she was still batting.
Frustrated, he bowled a short ball and
hoped she would hit it for an easy catch.
Instead, Rehana hit the ball so hard and
so high that the street light broke.
Rehana screamed, "Oh no, look what
I've done!" Shankar said, "Yes! we forgot
to make a rule that if you break the
street light you are automatically out."
But Mala, Jehangir and Rehana were
more worried about what had happened
and they told Shankar he'd better stop
thinking  about the wicket.
Last week they had broken Nirmala
Mausi's window and had spent their
pocket money to have it replaced. Would
they have to dish out money again from
their pockets? But  who would they pay
this to? To whom did the lights on the
streets belong? Who changed them? 
Rehana's house was the closest and
they ran and told her mother what had
happened. Rehana's mother said, "I
don't really know these things in great
A city is much bigger than a village and more spread
out. A city has crowded markets, many buses and
cars, water and electricity facilities, traffic control
and hospitals. Have you ever wondered who is
responsible for running all this? Do you know how
decisions are made? How the planning is done?
Who are the people who do all the work? Read this
chapter and find some answers.
O
© NCERT
not to be republished
detail but I do know that it is the
Municipal Corporation of the city that
takes care of replacing lights.  The best
person to ask would be Yasmin Khala.
She just retired from the Municipal
Corporation. Go and ask her, and
Rehana come back home soon."
Yasmin Khala lived in the same lane
and she and Rehana's mother were
good friends.  The children ran to
Khala's house and when she opened
the door they began to tell her what
had happened all at once! When they
asked about the street light, Yasmin
Khala laughed and said, "There is no
one person that you can pay the money
to.  There is a big organisation called
the Municipal Corporation that takes
care of street lights, garbage collection,
water supply, keeping the streets and
the market clean." 
"I've heard about the Municipal
Corporation. They've put up signs
around the city to inform people about
malaria," said Mala.  
"Yes, you are quite right. The
Municipal Corporation  is also
responsible for ensuring that diseases
do not break out in the city. It also runs
schools, hospitals and dispensaries.
And makes gardens and maintains
them," said Yasmin Khala. Then she
added, "Our city Pune is a big city and
so here it is called a Municipal
Corporation. In smaller towns it is
called a Municipal Council."  
The Ward Councillor and
Administrative Staff
"Yasmin Khala, I'm curious.  Who
decides where a park should go?  Did
you have to make interesting decisions
like this when you worked in the
Municipal Corporation?" asked
Rehana.  
"No Rehana, I was working in the
accounts office of the Corporation so I
just worked on pay slips.  Cities are
usually quite large so the Municipal
Corporation has to make a lot of
decisions as well as do a lot of work to
keep the city clean.  The decisions like
where a park or a new hospital should
go are usually made by the Ward
Councillors."  
List at least four different tasks
that the Municipality does:
1.
2.
3.
4.
58 / Social and Political Life
© NCERT
not to be republished
The city is divided into different
wards and ward councillors get
elected.  The complicated decisions that
affect the entire city are taken by
groups of councillors who form commi-
ttees to decide and debate issues.  For
example, if bus stands need to be
improved, or a crowded market-place
needs to have its garbage cleared more
regularly, or there is a 'nala' or drain
that cuts through the city that needs
cleaning etc.  It is these committees for
water , garbage collection, street lighting
etc. that decide on the work to be done.  
When the problems are within a
ward then the people who live in the
ward can contact their councillors.  For
example, if there are dangerous
electrical wires hanging down then the
local Councillor can help them get in
touch with the electricity authority.  
While the Councillor's Committees
and the councillors decide on issues,
the Commissioner and the adminis-
trative staff implement these. The
Commissioner and the administrative
staff are appointed. Councillors  are
elected.  
"So how are these decisions made?"
asked Rehana who never gave up on
her train of thought.  
"Well, all of the Ward Councillors
meet and they make a budget and the
money is spent according to this.  The
Ward Councillors try and ensure that
the particular demands of their wards
are placed before the entire council.
These decisions are then implemented
by the administrative staff," said
Yasmin Khala, enjoying the questions
Fill in the blanks in the sentences
below:
1. In a panchayat the elected members
are called ___________.
2. The city is divided into several
___________.
3. In a municipal corporation the elected
members are called ___________.
4. Groups of councillors deal with
issues that affect the ___________ .
5. Elections are held once every
_________ years for the panchayat as
well as for the municipality
6.While the councillors make
decisions the administrative 
staff led by the Commissioner
______________ these.
How does the Municipal
Corporation get its money?
Providing and running so many
services  requires a lot of money.  The
Municipal Corporation collects this in
different ways.  A tax is a sum of
money that people pay to the
government for the services the
government provides.  People who
own homes have to pay a property tax
as well as taxes for water and other
services.  The larger the house the
more the tax.  Property taxes however
form only 25-30 per cent of the money
that a Municipal Corporation earns.
There are also taxes for education and
other amenities.  If you own a hotel or
shop then you have to pay a tax for
this as well.  Also the next time you go
to see a movie look carefully at your
ticket because you pay a tax for this as
well. Thus while rich people account
for property taxes, a much wider
population pays more general taxes. 
Urban Administration / 59
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Chapter 7
Urban
Administration
ne lazy Sunday afternoon Mala
and her friends Shankar , Jehangir
and Rehana were playing a game of
cricket in the street.
Shankar had bowled a good over
and although he nearly managed to get
Rehana out, she was still batting.
Frustrated, he bowled a short ball and
hoped she would hit it for an easy catch.
Instead, Rehana hit the ball so hard and
so high that the street light broke.
Rehana screamed, "Oh no, look what
I've done!" Shankar said, "Yes! we forgot
to make a rule that if you break the
street light you are automatically out."
But Mala, Jehangir and Rehana were
more worried about what had happened
and they told Shankar he'd better stop
thinking  about the wicket.
Last week they had broken Nirmala
Mausi's window and had spent their
pocket money to have it replaced. Would
they have to dish out money again from
their pockets? But  who would they pay
this to? To whom did the lights on the
streets belong? Who changed them? 
Rehana's house was the closest and
they ran and told her mother what had
happened. Rehana's mother said, "I
don't really know these things in great
A city is much bigger than a village and more spread
out. A city has crowded markets, many buses and
cars, water and electricity facilities, traffic control
and hospitals. Have you ever wondered who is
responsible for running all this? Do you know how
decisions are made? How the planning is done?
Who are the people who do all the work? Read this
chapter and find some answers.
O
© NCERT
not to be republished
detail but I do know that it is the
Municipal Corporation of the city that
takes care of replacing lights.  The best
person to ask would be Yasmin Khala.
She just retired from the Municipal
Corporation. Go and ask her, and
Rehana come back home soon."
Yasmin Khala lived in the same lane
and she and Rehana's mother were
good friends.  The children ran to
Khala's house and when she opened
the door they began to tell her what
had happened all at once! When they
asked about the street light, Yasmin
Khala laughed and said, "There is no
one person that you can pay the money
to.  There is a big organisation called
the Municipal Corporation that takes
care of street lights, garbage collection,
water supply, keeping the streets and
the market clean." 
"I've heard about the Municipal
Corporation. They've put up signs
around the city to inform people about
malaria," said Mala.  
"Yes, you are quite right. The
Municipal Corporation  is also
responsible for ensuring that diseases
do not break out in the city. It also runs
schools, hospitals and dispensaries.
And makes gardens and maintains
them," said Yasmin Khala. Then she
added, "Our city Pune is a big city and
so here it is called a Municipal
Corporation. In smaller towns it is
called a Municipal Council."  
The Ward Councillor and
Administrative Staff
"Yasmin Khala, I'm curious.  Who
decides where a park should go?  Did
you have to make interesting decisions
like this when you worked in the
Municipal Corporation?" asked
Rehana.  
"No Rehana, I was working in the
accounts office of the Corporation so I
just worked on pay slips.  Cities are
usually quite large so the Municipal
Corporation has to make a lot of
decisions as well as do a lot of work to
keep the city clean.  The decisions like
where a park or a new hospital should
go are usually made by the Ward
Councillors."  
List at least four different tasks
that the Municipality does:
1.
2.
3.
4.
58 / Social and Political Life
© NCERT
not to be republished
The city is divided into different
wards and ward councillors get
elected.  The complicated decisions that
affect the entire city are taken by
groups of councillors who form commi-
ttees to decide and debate issues.  For
example, if bus stands need to be
improved, or a crowded market-place
needs to have its garbage cleared more
regularly, or there is a 'nala' or drain
that cuts through the city that needs
cleaning etc.  It is these committees for
water , garbage collection, street lighting
etc. that decide on the work to be done.  
When the problems are within a
ward then the people who live in the
ward can contact their councillors.  For
example, if there are dangerous
electrical wires hanging down then the
local Councillor can help them get in
touch with the electricity authority.  
While the Councillor's Committees
and the councillors decide on issues,
the Commissioner and the adminis-
trative staff implement these. The
Commissioner and the administrative
staff are appointed. Councillors  are
elected.  
"So how are these decisions made?"
asked Rehana who never gave up on
her train of thought.  
"Well, all of the Ward Councillors
meet and they make a budget and the
money is spent according to this.  The
Ward Councillors try and ensure that
the particular demands of their wards
are placed before the entire council.
These decisions are then implemented
by the administrative staff," said
Yasmin Khala, enjoying the questions
Fill in the blanks in the sentences
below:
1. In a panchayat the elected members
are called ___________.
2. The city is divided into several
___________.
3. In a municipal corporation the elected
members are called ___________.
4. Groups of councillors deal with
issues that affect the ___________ .
5. Elections are held once every
_________ years for the panchayat as
well as for the municipality
6.While the councillors make
decisions the administrative 
staff led by the Commissioner
______________ these.
How does the Municipal
Corporation get its money?
Providing and running so many
services  requires a lot of money.  The
Municipal Corporation collects this in
different ways.  A tax is a sum of
money that people pay to the
government for the services the
government provides.  People who
own homes have to pay a property tax
as well as taxes for water and other
services.  The larger the house the
more the tax.  Property taxes however
form only 25-30 per cent of the money
that a Municipal Corporation earns.
There are also taxes for education and
other amenities.  If you own a hotel or
shop then you have to pay a tax for
this as well.  Also the next time you go
to see a movie look carefully at your
ticket because you pay a tax for this as
well. Thus while rich people account
for property taxes, a much wider
population pays more general taxes. 
Urban Administration / 59
© NCERT
not to be republished
that the children asked.
No adults asked her
about her job and the
children's questions
provided her an
opportunity to relive some
of her experiences.
"But the city is so
large.  It must take a lot of
people to look after it.
Does the Municipal
Corporation have a lot of
workers?" asked Shankar
curiously.  He had by now
luckily forgotten about the
cricket match and his
incomplete over.  
"Yes, the work in the
city is divided into
different departments.  So
there is the water
department, the garbage collection
department, a department to look after
gardens, another to look after roads.  I
worked on accounts in the sanitation
department," said Yasmin Khala and
then went on to offer the children some
kababs to eat. 
Jehangir ate his kababs at top
speed and as he wolfed them down he
asked loudly from the kitchen, "Yasmin
Khala where does the garbage that the
Municipal Corporation collects go to?".
The others were still eating when
Yasmin Khala began to answer, "This
question has an interesting answer.  As
you know you can usually find garbage
lying all over the street.  Earlier even
our neighbourhood used to have
garbage lying all over, and if this
remains uncollected it attracts dogs,
rats and flies.  Also, people get ill from
the smell.  At one point things became
so bad that children even stopped
playing cricket in the street because
their parents were afraid that they'd
get sick from staying on the streets too
long." 
A Community Protest
Yasmin Khala continued, "The women
were very unhappy about the situation
and even came to me for advice.  I said
I could try and speak with some officer
in the department but I wasn't sure
how long it would take.  Then it was
Gangabai who said that it is the Ward
Councillor who we should go to and
protest since we are the ones who
60 / Social and Political Life
Recycling is not a new thing. People like the man in the photo
above have been recycling paper, metal, glass and plastic for a
long time. The kabadi wallah plays a major role in recycling
household plastic and paper, including your note books.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Chapter 7
Urban
Administration
ne lazy Sunday afternoon Mala
and her friends Shankar , Jehangir
and Rehana were playing a game of
cricket in the street.
Shankar had bowled a good over
and although he nearly managed to get
Rehana out, she was still batting.
Frustrated, he bowled a short ball and
hoped she would hit it for an easy catch.
Instead, Rehana hit the ball so hard and
so high that the street light broke.
Rehana screamed, "Oh no, look what
I've done!" Shankar said, "Yes! we forgot
to make a rule that if you break the
street light you are automatically out."
But Mala, Jehangir and Rehana were
more worried about what had happened
and they told Shankar he'd better stop
thinking  about the wicket.
Last week they had broken Nirmala
Mausi's window and had spent their
pocket money to have it replaced. Would
they have to dish out money again from
their pockets? But  who would they pay
this to? To whom did the lights on the
streets belong? Who changed them? 
Rehana's house was the closest and
they ran and told her mother what had
happened. Rehana's mother said, "I
don't really know these things in great
A city is much bigger than a village and more spread
out. A city has crowded markets, many buses and
cars, water and electricity facilities, traffic control
and hospitals. Have you ever wondered who is
responsible for running all this? Do you know how
decisions are made? How the planning is done?
Who are the people who do all the work? Read this
chapter and find some answers.
O
© NCERT
not to be republished
detail but I do know that it is the
Municipal Corporation of the city that
takes care of replacing lights.  The best
person to ask would be Yasmin Khala.
She just retired from the Municipal
Corporation. Go and ask her, and
Rehana come back home soon."
Yasmin Khala lived in the same lane
and she and Rehana's mother were
good friends.  The children ran to
Khala's house and when she opened
the door they began to tell her what
had happened all at once! When they
asked about the street light, Yasmin
Khala laughed and said, "There is no
one person that you can pay the money
to.  There is a big organisation called
the Municipal Corporation that takes
care of street lights, garbage collection,
water supply, keeping the streets and
the market clean." 
"I've heard about the Municipal
Corporation. They've put up signs
around the city to inform people about
malaria," said Mala.  
"Yes, you are quite right. The
Municipal Corporation  is also
responsible for ensuring that diseases
do not break out in the city. It also runs
schools, hospitals and dispensaries.
And makes gardens and maintains
them," said Yasmin Khala. Then she
added, "Our city Pune is a big city and
so here it is called a Municipal
Corporation. In smaller towns it is
called a Municipal Council."  
The Ward Councillor and
Administrative Staff
"Yasmin Khala, I'm curious.  Who
decides where a park should go?  Did
you have to make interesting decisions
like this when you worked in the
Municipal Corporation?" asked
Rehana.  
"No Rehana, I was working in the
accounts office of the Corporation so I
just worked on pay slips.  Cities are
usually quite large so the Municipal
Corporation has to make a lot of
decisions as well as do a lot of work to
keep the city clean.  The decisions like
where a park or a new hospital should
go are usually made by the Ward
Councillors."  
List at least four different tasks
that the Municipality does:
1.
2.
3.
4.
58 / Social and Political Life
© NCERT
not to be republished
The city is divided into different
wards and ward councillors get
elected.  The complicated decisions that
affect the entire city are taken by
groups of councillors who form commi-
ttees to decide and debate issues.  For
example, if bus stands need to be
improved, or a crowded market-place
needs to have its garbage cleared more
regularly, or there is a 'nala' or drain
that cuts through the city that needs
cleaning etc.  It is these committees for
water , garbage collection, street lighting
etc. that decide on the work to be done.  
When the problems are within a
ward then the people who live in the
ward can contact their councillors.  For
example, if there are dangerous
electrical wires hanging down then the
local Councillor can help them get in
touch with the electricity authority.  
While the Councillor's Committees
and the councillors decide on issues,
the Commissioner and the adminis-
trative staff implement these. The
Commissioner and the administrative
staff are appointed. Councillors  are
elected.  
"So how are these decisions made?"
asked Rehana who never gave up on
her train of thought.  
"Well, all of the Ward Councillors
meet and they make a budget and the
money is spent according to this.  The
Ward Councillors try and ensure that
the particular demands of their wards
are placed before the entire council.
These decisions are then implemented
by the administrative staff," said
Yasmin Khala, enjoying the questions
Fill in the blanks in the sentences
below:
1. In a panchayat the elected members
are called ___________.
2. The city is divided into several
___________.
3. In a municipal corporation the elected
members are called ___________.
4. Groups of councillors deal with
issues that affect the ___________ .
5. Elections are held once every
_________ years for the panchayat as
well as for the municipality
6.While the councillors make
decisions the administrative 
staff led by the Commissioner
______________ these.
How does the Municipal
Corporation get its money?
Providing and running so many
services  requires a lot of money.  The
Municipal Corporation collects this in
different ways.  A tax is a sum of
money that people pay to the
government for the services the
government provides.  People who
own homes have to pay a property tax
as well as taxes for water and other
services.  The larger the house the
more the tax.  Property taxes however
form only 25-30 per cent of the money
that a Municipal Corporation earns.
There are also taxes for education and
other amenities.  If you own a hotel or
shop then you have to pay a tax for
this as well.  Also the next time you go
to see a movie look carefully at your
ticket because you pay a tax for this as
well. Thus while rich people account
for property taxes, a much wider
population pays more general taxes. 
Urban Administration / 59
© NCERT
not to be republished
that the children asked.
No adults asked her
about her job and the
children's questions
provided her an
opportunity to relive some
of her experiences.
"But the city is so
large.  It must take a lot of
people to look after it.
Does the Municipal
Corporation have a lot of
workers?" asked Shankar
curiously.  He had by now
luckily forgotten about the
cricket match and his
incomplete over.  
"Yes, the work in the
city is divided into
different departments.  So
there is the water
department, the garbage collection
department, a department to look after
gardens, another to look after roads.  I
worked on accounts in the sanitation
department," said Yasmin Khala and
then went on to offer the children some
kababs to eat. 
Jehangir ate his kababs at top
speed and as he wolfed them down he
asked loudly from the kitchen, "Yasmin
Khala where does the garbage that the
Municipal Corporation collects go to?".
The others were still eating when
Yasmin Khala began to answer, "This
question has an interesting answer.  As
you know you can usually find garbage
lying all over the street.  Earlier even
our neighbourhood used to have
garbage lying all over, and if this
remains uncollected it attracts dogs,
rats and flies.  Also, people get ill from
the smell.  At one point things became
so bad that children even stopped
playing cricket in the street because
their parents were afraid that they'd
get sick from staying on the streets too
long." 
A Community Protest
Yasmin Khala continued, "The women
were very unhappy about the situation
and even came to me for advice.  I said
I could try and speak with some officer
in the department but I wasn't sure
how long it would take.  Then it was
Gangabai who said that it is the Ward
Councillor who we should go to and
protest since we are the ones who
60 / Social and Political Life
Recycling is not a new thing. People like the man in the photo
above have been recycling paper, metal, glass and plastic for a
long time. The kabadi wallah plays a major role in recycling
household plastic and paper, including your note books.
© NCERT
not to be republished
elected him.  She gathered a small
group of women and went to his house.
They began shouting slogans in front of
his house and he came out and asked
them what was wrong.
Gangabai described the situation in
the locality to him.  He promised to go
with them the next day to meet the
Commissioner.  He asked Gangabai to
get a petition signed by all of the adults
in the locality saying that garbage was
not being collected.  He suggested that
taking the local sanitation engineer
with them the next day might be a good
idea. The sanitation engineer could also
speak with the Commissioner and tell
him how bad the situation was. That
evening children ran from house to
house making sure that as many
families as possible signed the petition.  
The next morning a large group of
women and the Ward Councillor and
the sanitation engineer went to the
Municipal Corporation office.  The
Commissioner met with this large group
and began giving excuses saying that
the Corporation did not have enough
trucks.  But Gangabai smartly replied,
"But you seem to have enough trucks to
collect garbage from the rich localities".  
"That must have left him lost for
words," quipped Jehangir. 
"Yes, he said that he would take
care of it immediately and Gangabai
threatened that if it was not done in
two days a larger group of women
would protest in front of the
Corporation," said Yasmin Khala.  "So
did the streets get cleaned?" asked
Rehana who never let things remain
unfinished.   
"Well not within two days and then
after another larger and more noisy
protest the sanitation service in this
locality became more regular." 
"Wow this sounds just like a
Bollywood film with a happy ending,"
Urban Administration / 61
What has changed since Khala
retired?  
What Yasmin Khala did not
mention to the children was that in
recent times, in order to save money
the Commissioners of several
municipalities across the country
had hired private contractors to
collect and process garbage. This is
called Sub-Contracting. This means
that the work that was earlier being
done by government workers is now
being done by a private company.  
These contract workers get paid less
and their jobs are temporary.
Collecting garbage is also quite a
dangerous job and often these
contract workers do not have any
access to safety measures and are
not taken care of if they are injured
while working.
What was Gangabai protesting
about?
Why do you think Gangabai
decided to approach the Ward
Councillor?  
What did Gangabai say when
the Commissioner said that
there were not enough trucks in
the city?
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not to be republished
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