NCERT Textbook - Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Class 7 Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

Created by: Praveen Kumar

Class 7 : NCERT Textbook - Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Class 7 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


SCIENCE 68
Weather, Climate and
Adaptations of Animals to
Climate
7
D
o you remember the things that
you were asked to pack when
you were heading for a hill
station? When the sky is cloudy, your
parents insist that you carry an
umbrella. Have you heard elders in your
family discuss the weather before
planning a family function? You must
have also heard the experts discussing
the weather before the start of a game.
Have you ever wondered why? The
weather may have a profound effect on
the game. It has a profound effect on
our lives. Many of our daily activities are
planned based on the weather predicted
for that day. There are daily reports of
the weather on the television and
radio and in the newspapers. But do you
know what this weather really is? 
In this chapter, we will study about
the weather and climate. We will also
see how different forms of life are
adapted to the climate of their habitat.
7.1  WEATHER
In Fig. 7.1 a sample of weather report
from a newspaper is given.
We find that the daily weather report
carries information about the
temperature, humidity and rainfall
during the past 24 hours.  It also
predicts the weather for the day.
Humidity, as you might know, is a
measure of the moisture in air.
Activity 7.1
Cut out the weather reports of the last
week from any newspaper. If you do not
get a newspaper at home borrow from
your neighbours or friends and copy
these reports in your notebook. You can
also collect weather reports from a
library. Paste all the cut-outs on a white
sheet or on a chart paper.
Now record the information from the
weather reports collected by you in
Table 7.1. The first row is just a sample.
Fill all the columns according to the data
in the chart that you have prepared.
Fig. 7.1  A sample of a weather report from a
newspaper
The weather reports are prepared by
the Meteorological Department of the
Government. This department collects
data on temperature, wind, etc., and
makes the weather prediction.
I wonder who prepares
these reports!
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


SCIENCE 68
Weather, Climate and
Adaptations of Animals to
Climate
7
D
o you remember the things that
you were asked to pack when
you were heading for a hill
station? When the sky is cloudy, your
parents insist that you carry an
umbrella. Have you heard elders in your
family discuss the weather before
planning a family function? You must
have also heard the experts discussing
the weather before the start of a game.
Have you ever wondered why? The
weather may have a profound effect on
the game. It has a profound effect on
our lives. Many of our daily activities are
planned based on the weather predicted
for that day. There are daily reports of
the weather on the television and
radio and in the newspapers. But do you
know what this weather really is? 
In this chapter, we will study about
the weather and climate. We will also
see how different forms of life are
adapted to the climate of their habitat.
7.1  WEATHER
In Fig. 7.1 a sample of weather report
from a newspaper is given.
We find that the daily weather report
carries information about the
temperature, humidity and rainfall
during the past 24 hours.  It also
predicts the weather for the day.
Humidity, as you might know, is a
measure of the moisture in air.
Activity 7.1
Cut out the weather reports of the last
week from any newspaper. If you do not
get a newspaper at home borrow from
your neighbours or friends and copy
these reports in your notebook. You can
also collect weather reports from a
library. Paste all the cut-outs on a white
sheet or on a chart paper.
Now record the information from the
weather reports collected by you in
Table 7.1. The first row is just a sample.
Fill all the columns according to the data
in the chart that you have prepared.
Fig. 7.1  A sample of a weather report from a
newspaper
The weather reports are prepared by
the Meteorological Department of the
Government. This department collects
data on temperature, wind, etc., and
makes the weather prediction.
I wonder who prepares
these reports!
© NCERT
not to be republished
WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE 69
Do all the seven days have the same
maximum and minimum temperatures,
humidity and rainfall? The maximum
and minimum temperatures recorded
may be the same for some of the days.
However, all the parameters are not the
same on any two days. Over a week there
may be considerable variation. The day-
to-day condition of the atmosphere
at a place with respect to the
temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind-
speed, etc., is called the weather at that
place. The temperature, humidity, and
other factors are called the elements of
the weather. The weather of a place
changes day after day and week after
week. That is why we often say, “today’s
weather is too humid”, or “the weather
was warm last week”.
The weather is such a complex
phenomenon that it can vary over very
short periods of time. It can happen
sometimes that it is sunny in the
morning, but suddenly clouds appear
from nowhere and it starts raining
heavily. Or, a heavy rain may vanish in
a matter of minutes and give way to
bright sunshine. You must have had
several such experiences. Try to recall
any such experience and share it with
your friends.  Since weather is such a
complex phenomenon, it is not easy to
predict. 
Look at the graph given below which
shows the maximum temperature
recorded during 03 August 2006 to 09
August 2006 at Shillong, Meghalaya
(Fig. 7.2).
Rainfall is measured by an
instrument called the rain gauge. It
is basically a measuring cylinder with
a funnel on top to collect rainwater. 
Table 7.1
Weather data of a week
Date Max. Min. Min. Max. Rainfall*
temp. (°C) temp. (°C) humidity (%) humidity(%) (mm)
23-08-06 36.2 27.8 54 82
*(Rainfall may not be recorded for all the days since it may not rain everyday. Leave
the space for rainfall blank if the data is not available.)
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


SCIENCE 68
Weather, Climate and
Adaptations of Animals to
Climate
7
D
o you remember the things that
you were asked to pack when
you were heading for a hill
station? When the sky is cloudy, your
parents insist that you carry an
umbrella. Have you heard elders in your
family discuss the weather before
planning a family function? You must
have also heard the experts discussing
the weather before the start of a game.
Have you ever wondered why? The
weather may have a profound effect on
the game. It has a profound effect on
our lives. Many of our daily activities are
planned based on the weather predicted
for that day. There are daily reports of
the weather on the television and
radio and in the newspapers. But do you
know what this weather really is? 
In this chapter, we will study about
the weather and climate. We will also
see how different forms of life are
adapted to the climate of their habitat.
7.1  WEATHER
In Fig. 7.1 a sample of weather report
from a newspaper is given.
We find that the daily weather report
carries information about the
temperature, humidity and rainfall
during the past 24 hours.  It also
predicts the weather for the day.
Humidity, as you might know, is a
measure of the moisture in air.
Activity 7.1
Cut out the weather reports of the last
week from any newspaper. If you do not
get a newspaper at home borrow from
your neighbours or friends and copy
these reports in your notebook. You can
also collect weather reports from a
library. Paste all the cut-outs on a white
sheet or on a chart paper.
Now record the information from the
weather reports collected by you in
Table 7.1. The first row is just a sample.
Fill all the columns according to the data
in the chart that you have prepared.
Fig. 7.1  A sample of a weather report from a
newspaper
The weather reports are prepared by
the Meteorological Department of the
Government. This department collects
data on temperature, wind, etc., and
makes the weather prediction.
I wonder who prepares
these reports!
© NCERT
not to be republished
WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE 69
Do all the seven days have the same
maximum and minimum temperatures,
humidity and rainfall? The maximum
and minimum temperatures recorded
may be the same for some of the days.
However, all the parameters are not the
same on any two days. Over a week there
may be considerable variation. The day-
to-day condition of the atmosphere
at a place with respect to the
temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind-
speed, etc., is called the weather at that
place. The temperature, humidity, and
other factors are called the elements of
the weather. The weather of a place
changes day after day and week after
week. That is why we often say, “today’s
weather is too humid”, or “the weather
was warm last week”.
The weather is such a complex
phenomenon that it can vary over very
short periods of time. It can happen
sometimes that it is sunny in the
morning, but suddenly clouds appear
from nowhere and it starts raining
heavily. Or, a heavy rain may vanish in
a matter of minutes and give way to
bright sunshine. You must have had
several such experiences. Try to recall
any such experience and share it with
your friends.  Since weather is such a
complex phenomenon, it is not easy to
predict. 
Look at the graph given below which
shows the maximum temperature
recorded during 03 August 2006 to 09
August 2006 at Shillong, Meghalaya
(Fig. 7.2).
Rainfall is measured by an
instrument called the rain gauge. It
is basically a measuring cylinder with
a funnel on top to collect rainwater. 
Table 7.1
Weather data of a week
Date Max. Min. Min. Max. Rainfall*
temp. (°C) temp. (°C) humidity (%) humidity(%) (mm)
23-08-06 36.2 27.8 54 82
*(Rainfall may not be recorded for all the days since it may not rain everyday. Leave
the space for rainfall blank if the data is not available.)
© NCERT
not to be republished
SCIENCE 70
As it is clear from any weather report,
the maximum and minimum
temperatures are recorded every day. Do
you know how these temperatures are
recorded. In Chapter 4 you have learnt
Fig. 7.2  Graph showing the variation of maximum temperature during 03 to 09 August 2006
that there are special thermometers for
this purpose, called maximum and
minimum thermometers. Can you
guess when during the day we have the
maximum temperature and when the
minimum?
The maximum temperature of the day
occurs generally in the afternoon while
the minimum temperature occurs
generally in the early morning.  Can you
now understand why in summers we feel
so miserable in the afternoon and
comparatively comfortable early in the
morning? 
Date Maximum
temperature
03-08-06 26.0°C
04-08-06 23.5°C
05-08-06 25.0°C
06-08-06 22.0°C
07-08-06 25.5°C
08-08-06 23.3°C
09-08-06 24.4°C
I wonder why weather
changes so frequently!
What is the source of weather
in the first place?
All changes in the weather are caused by the sun. The sun is a huge sphere of
hot gases at a very high temperature. The distance of the sun from us is very
large. Even then the energy sent out by the sun is so huge that it is the source of
all heat and light on the earth.  So, the sun is the primary source of energy that
causes changes in the weather. Energy absorbed and reflected by the earth’s
surface, oceans and the atmosphere play important roles in determining the
weather at any place. If you live near the sea, you would have realised that the
weather at your place is different from that of a place in a desert, or near a mountain.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


SCIENCE 68
Weather, Climate and
Adaptations of Animals to
Climate
7
D
o you remember the things that
you were asked to pack when
you were heading for a hill
station? When the sky is cloudy, your
parents insist that you carry an
umbrella. Have you heard elders in your
family discuss the weather before
planning a family function? You must
have also heard the experts discussing
the weather before the start of a game.
Have you ever wondered why? The
weather may have a profound effect on
the game. It has a profound effect on
our lives. Many of our daily activities are
planned based on the weather predicted
for that day. There are daily reports of
the weather on the television and
radio and in the newspapers. But do you
know what this weather really is? 
In this chapter, we will study about
the weather and climate. We will also
see how different forms of life are
adapted to the climate of their habitat.
7.1  WEATHER
In Fig. 7.1 a sample of weather report
from a newspaper is given.
We find that the daily weather report
carries information about the
temperature, humidity and rainfall
during the past 24 hours.  It also
predicts the weather for the day.
Humidity, as you might know, is a
measure of the moisture in air.
Activity 7.1
Cut out the weather reports of the last
week from any newspaper. If you do not
get a newspaper at home borrow from
your neighbours or friends and copy
these reports in your notebook. You can
also collect weather reports from a
library. Paste all the cut-outs on a white
sheet or on a chart paper.
Now record the information from the
weather reports collected by you in
Table 7.1. The first row is just a sample.
Fill all the columns according to the data
in the chart that you have prepared.
Fig. 7.1  A sample of a weather report from a
newspaper
The weather reports are prepared by
the Meteorological Department of the
Government. This department collects
data on temperature, wind, etc., and
makes the weather prediction.
I wonder who prepares
these reports!
© NCERT
not to be republished
WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE 69
Do all the seven days have the same
maximum and minimum temperatures,
humidity and rainfall? The maximum
and minimum temperatures recorded
may be the same for some of the days.
However, all the parameters are not the
same on any two days. Over a week there
may be considerable variation. The day-
to-day condition of the atmosphere
at a place with respect to the
temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind-
speed, etc., is called the weather at that
place. The temperature, humidity, and
other factors are called the elements of
the weather. The weather of a place
changes day after day and week after
week. That is why we often say, “today’s
weather is too humid”, or “the weather
was warm last week”.
The weather is such a complex
phenomenon that it can vary over very
short periods of time. It can happen
sometimes that it is sunny in the
morning, but suddenly clouds appear
from nowhere and it starts raining
heavily. Or, a heavy rain may vanish in
a matter of minutes and give way to
bright sunshine. You must have had
several such experiences. Try to recall
any such experience and share it with
your friends.  Since weather is such a
complex phenomenon, it is not easy to
predict. 
Look at the graph given below which
shows the maximum temperature
recorded during 03 August 2006 to 09
August 2006 at Shillong, Meghalaya
(Fig. 7.2).
Rainfall is measured by an
instrument called the rain gauge. It
is basically a measuring cylinder with
a funnel on top to collect rainwater. 
Table 7.1
Weather data of a week
Date Max. Min. Min. Max. Rainfall*
temp. (°C) temp. (°C) humidity (%) humidity(%) (mm)
23-08-06 36.2 27.8 54 82
*(Rainfall may not be recorded for all the days since it may not rain everyday. Leave
the space for rainfall blank if the data is not available.)
© NCERT
not to be republished
SCIENCE 70
As it is clear from any weather report,
the maximum and minimum
temperatures are recorded every day. Do
you know how these temperatures are
recorded. In Chapter 4 you have learnt
Fig. 7.2  Graph showing the variation of maximum temperature during 03 to 09 August 2006
that there are special thermometers for
this purpose, called maximum and
minimum thermometers. Can you
guess when during the day we have the
maximum temperature and when the
minimum?
The maximum temperature of the day
occurs generally in the afternoon while
the minimum temperature occurs
generally in the early morning.  Can you
now understand why in summers we feel
so miserable in the afternoon and
comparatively comfortable early in the
morning? 
Date Maximum
temperature
03-08-06 26.0°C
04-08-06 23.5°C
05-08-06 25.0°C
06-08-06 22.0°C
07-08-06 25.5°C
08-08-06 23.3°C
09-08-06 24.4°C
I wonder why weather
changes so frequently!
What is the source of weather
in the first place?
All changes in the weather are caused by the sun. The sun is a huge sphere of
hot gases at a very high temperature. The distance of the sun from us is very
large. Even then the energy sent out by the sun is so huge that it is the source of
all heat and light on the earth.  So, the sun is the primary source of energy that
causes changes in the weather. Energy absorbed and reflected by the earth’s
surface, oceans and the atmosphere play important roles in determining the
weather at any place. If you live near the sea, you would have realised that the
weather at your place is different from that of a place in a desert, or near a mountain.
© NCERT
not to be republished
WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE 71
What about the times of sunrise and
sunset? You know that in winters it
becomes dark early and you do not get
much time to play. Are the days shorter
in winter than in summer?  Try to find
it out yourself by completing the project
given at the end of the chapter.
7.2 CLIMATE
Meteorologists record the weather every
day. The records of the weather have
been preserved for the past several
decades. These help us to determine the
weather pattern at a place. The average
weather pattern taken over a long
time, say 25 years, is called the
climate of the place.  If we find that
the temperature at a place is high most
of the time, then we say that the climate
of that place is hot. If there is also heavy
rainfall on most of the days in the same
place, then we can say that the climate
of that place is hot and wet.
In Table 7.2 and 7.3, we have given
the climatic condition at two places in
India. The mean temperature for a given
month is found in two steps. First we
find the average of the temperatures
recorded during the month. Second, we
calculate the average of such average
temperatures over many years. That
gives the mean temperature. The two
places are: Srinagar in Jammu and
Kashmir, and Thiruvananthapuram in
Kerala.
Table 7.3  Thiruvananthapuram
(Kerala)
Information about climate 
Month Mean temperature Mean
o
C total
Daily Daily rainfall
minimum maximum (mm)
Jan 22.2 31.5 23
Feb 22.8 31.9 24
Mar 24.1 32.6 40
Apr 24.9 32.6 117
May 24.7 31.6 230
Jun 23.5 29.7 321
July 23.1 29.2 227
Aug 23.2 29.4 138
Sep 23.3 30.0 175
Oct 23.3 29.9 282
Nov 23.1 30.3 185
Dec 22.6 31.0 66 
Table 7.2  Srinagar (Jammu &
Kashmir)
Information about climate 
Month Mean temperature Mean
o
C total
Daily Daily rainfall
minimum maximum (mm)
Jan -2.3 4.7 57
Feb -0.6 7.8 65
Mar 3.8 13.6 99
Apr 7.7 19.4 88
May 10.7 23.8 72
Jun 14.7 29.2 37
July 8.2 30.0 49
Aug 17.5 29.7 70
Sep 12.9 27.8 33
Oct 6.1 21.9 36 
Nov 0.9 14.7 27
Dec -1.6 8.2 43 
(Note: The numbers for the mean total rainfall have been rounded off)
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


SCIENCE 68
Weather, Climate and
Adaptations of Animals to
Climate
7
D
o you remember the things that
you were asked to pack when
you were heading for a hill
station? When the sky is cloudy, your
parents insist that you carry an
umbrella. Have you heard elders in your
family discuss the weather before
planning a family function? You must
have also heard the experts discussing
the weather before the start of a game.
Have you ever wondered why? The
weather may have a profound effect on
the game. It has a profound effect on
our lives. Many of our daily activities are
planned based on the weather predicted
for that day. There are daily reports of
the weather on the television and
radio and in the newspapers. But do you
know what this weather really is? 
In this chapter, we will study about
the weather and climate. We will also
see how different forms of life are
adapted to the climate of their habitat.
7.1  WEATHER
In Fig. 7.1 a sample of weather report
from a newspaper is given.
We find that the daily weather report
carries information about the
temperature, humidity and rainfall
during the past 24 hours.  It also
predicts the weather for the day.
Humidity, as you might know, is a
measure of the moisture in air.
Activity 7.1
Cut out the weather reports of the last
week from any newspaper. If you do not
get a newspaper at home borrow from
your neighbours or friends and copy
these reports in your notebook. You can
also collect weather reports from a
library. Paste all the cut-outs on a white
sheet or on a chart paper.
Now record the information from the
weather reports collected by you in
Table 7.1. The first row is just a sample.
Fill all the columns according to the data
in the chart that you have prepared.
Fig. 7.1  A sample of a weather report from a
newspaper
The weather reports are prepared by
the Meteorological Department of the
Government. This department collects
data on temperature, wind, etc., and
makes the weather prediction.
I wonder who prepares
these reports!
© NCERT
not to be republished
WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE 69
Do all the seven days have the same
maximum and minimum temperatures,
humidity and rainfall? The maximum
and minimum temperatures recorded
may be the same for some of the days.
However, all the parameters are not the
same on any two days. Over a week there
may be considerable variation. The day-
to-day condition of the atmosphere
at a place with respect to the
temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind-
speed, etc., is called the weather at that
place. The temperature, humidity, and
other factors are called the elements of
the weather. The weather of a place
changes day after day and week after
week. That is why we often say, “today’s
weather is too humid”, or “the weather
was warm last week”.
The weather is such a complex
phenomenon that it can vary over very
short periods of time. It can happen
sometimes that it is sunny in the
morning, but suddenly clouds appear
from nowhere and it starts raining
heavily. Or, a heavy rain may vanish in
a matter of minutes and give way to
bright sunshine. You must have had
several such experiences. Try to recall
any such experience and share it with
your friends.  Since weather is such a
complex phenomenon, it is not easy to
predict. 
Look at the graph given below which
shows the maximum temperature
recorded during 03 August 2006 to 09
August 2006 at Shillong, Meghalaya
(Fig. 7.2).
Rainfall is measured by an
instrument called the rain gauge. It
is basically a measuring cylinder with
a funnel on top to collect rainwater. 
Table 7.1
Weather data of a week
Date Max. Min. Min. Max. Rainfall*
temp. (°C) temp. (°C) humidity (%) humidity(%) (mm)
23-08-06 36.2 27.8 54 82
*(Rainfall may not be recorded for all the days since it may not rain everyday. Leave
the space for rainfall blank if the data is not available.)
© NCERT
not to be republished
SCIENCE 70
As it is clear from any weather report,
the maximum and minimum
temperatures are recorded every day. Do
you know how these temperatures are
recorded. In Chapter 4 you have learnt
Fig. 7.2  Graph showing the variation of maximum temperature during 03 to 09 August 2006
that there are special thermometers for
this purpose, called maximum and
minimum thermometers. Can you
guess when during the day we have the
maximum temperature and when the
minimum?
The maximum temperature of the day
occurs generally in the afternoon while
the minimum temperature occurs
generally in the early morning.  Can you
now understand why in summers we feel
so miserable in the afternoon and
comparatively comfortable early in the
morning? 
Date Maximum
temperature
03-08-06 26.0°C
04-08-06 23.5°C
05-08-06 25.0°C
06-08-06 22.0°C
07-08-06 25.5°C
08-08-06 23.3°C
09-08-06 24.4°C
I wonder why weather
changes so frequently!
What is the source of weather
in the first place?
All changes in the weather are caused by the sun. The sun is a huge sphere of
hot gases at a very high temperature. The distance of the sun from us is very
large. Even then the energy sent out by the sun is so huge that it is the source of
all heat and light on the earth.  So, the sun is the primary source of energy that
causes changes in the weather. Energy absorbed and reflected by the earth’s
surface, oceans and the atmosphere play important roles in determining the
weather at any place. If you live near the sea, you would have realised that the
weather at your place is different from that of a place in a desert, or near a mountain.
© NCERT
not to be republished
WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE 71
What about the times of sunrise and
sunset? You know that in winters it
becomes dark early and you do not get
much time to play. Are the days shorter
in winter than in summer?  Try to find
it out yourself by completing the project
given at the end of the chapter.
7.2 CLIMATE
Meteorologists record the weather every
day. The records of the weather have
been preserved for the past several
decades. These help us to determine the
weather pattern at a place. The average
weather pattern taken over a long
time, say 25 years, is called the
climate of the place.  If we find that
the temperature at a place is high most
of the time, then we say that the climate
of that place is hot. If there is also heavy
rainfall on most of the days in the same
place, then we can say that the climate
of that place is hot and wet.
In Table 7.2 and 7.3, we have given
the climatic condition at two places in
India. The mean temperature for a given
month is found in two steps. First we
find the average of the temperatures
recorded during the month. Second, we
calculate the average of such average
temperatures over many years. That
gives the mean temperature. The two
places are: Srinagar in Jammu and
Kashmir, and Thiruvananthapuram in
Kerala.
Table 7.3  Thiruvananthapuram
(Kerala)
Information about climate 
Month Mean temperature Mean
o
C total
Daily Daily rainfall
minimum maximum (mm)
Jan 22.2 31.5 23
Feb 22.8 31.9 24
Mar 24.1 32.6 40
Apr 24.9 32.6 117
May 24.7 31.6 230
Jun 23.5 29.7 321
July 23.1 29.2 227
Aug 23.2 29.4 138
Sep 23.3 30.0 175
Oct 23.3 29.9 282
Nov 23.1 30.3 185
Dec 22.6 31.0 66 
Table 7.2  Srinagar (Jammu &
Kashmir)
Information about climate 
Month Mean temperature Mean
o
C total
Daily Daily rainfall
minimum maximum (mm)
Jan -2.3 4.7 57
Feb -0.6 7.8 65
Mar 3.8 13.6 99
Apr 7.7 19.4 88
May 10.7 23.8 72
Jun 14.7 29.2 37
July 8.2 30.0 49
Aug 17.5 29.7 70
Sep 12.9 27.8 33
Oct 6.1 21.9 36 
Nov 0.9 14.7 27
Dec -1.6 8.2 43 
(Note: The numbers for the mean total rainfall have been rounded off)
© NCERT
not to be republished
SCIENCE 72
By looking at Tables 7.2 and 7.3 we
can easily see the difference in the
climate of Jammu & Kashmir and
Kerala. We can see that Kerala is very
hot and wet in comparison to Jammu
& Kashmir, which has a moderately hot
and wet climate for a part of the year.
Similar data for the western region
of India, for example Rajasthan, will
show that the temperature is high
during most part of the year. But during
winter, which lasts only for a few
months, the temperature is quite low.
This region receives very little
rainfall. This is the typical desert
climate. It is hot and dry. The north-
eastern India receives rain for a major
part of the year. Therefore, we can say
that the climate of the north-east is wet.
7.3 CLIMATE AND ADAPTATION
Climate has a profound effect on all
living organisms. 
Animals are adapted to survive in the
conditions in which they live. Animals
living in very cold and hot climate must
possess special features to protect
themselves against the extreme cold or
heat. Recall from Chapter 9 of your
Class VI science book the definition of
adaptation. Features and habits that
help animals to adapt to their
surroundings are a result of the process
of evolution.
In Chapter 9 you will learn about the
effect of weather and climate on soil. Here
we will study the effect of climate on
animals only. In Class VI, you have read
about adaptations of animals to certain
habitats. As examples of adaptation of
animals to climatic conditions, we
discuss only animals living in polar
regions and tropical rainforests.
As the name suggests, the polar
regions are situated near the poles, i.e.,
north pole and south pole.
Some well-known countries that
belong to the polar regions are Canada,
Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden,
Finland, Alaska in U.S.A. and Siberian
region of Russia.
Examples of some countries where
the tropical rainforests are found are
India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil,
Republic of Congo, Kenya, Uganda, and
Nigeria.
Activity 7.2
Take an outline map of the world. Mark
the polar regions in blue. Similarly,
mark the tropical regions in red.
(i) The polar regions
The polar regions present an extreme
climate. These regions are covered with
snow and it is very cold for most part of
the year. For six months the sun does
not set at the poles while for the other
six months the sun does not rise. In
winters, the temperature can be as low
as –37°C. Animals living there have
adapted to these severe conditions. Let
us see how they are adapted by
considering the examples of polar bears
and penguins.
Polar bears have white fur so that
they are not easily visible in the snowy
white background. It protects them from
© NCERT
not to be republished
Read More

Complete Syllabus of Class 7

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Class 7 Notes | EduRev

,

pdf

,

NCERT Textbook - Weather

,

Extra Questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

MCQs

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

NCERT Textbook - Weather

,

Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Class 7 Notes | EduRev

,

Semester Notes

,

Viva Questions

,

NCERT Textbook - Weather

,

ppt

,

mock tests for examination

,

video lectures

,

Exam

,

study material

,

Summary

,

Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate Class 7 Notes | EduRev

,

practice quizzes

,

past year papers

,

Free

,

Objective type Questions

,

Important questions

,

Sample Paper

;