NCERT Textbook - Devotional Paths to the Divine Class 7 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 7

Created by: Rohini Seth

Class 7 : NCERT Textbook - Devotional Paths to the Divine Class 7 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


104 OUR PASTS – II
Y
ou may have seen people perform rituals of
worship, or singing bhajans, kirtans or qawwalis,
or even repeating the name of God in silence, and
noticed that some of them are moved to tears. Such
intense devotion or love of God is the legacy of various
kinds of bhakti and Sufi movements that have evolved
since the eighth century.
The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God
Before large kingdoms emerged, different groups
of people worshipped their own gods and goddesses.
As people were brought together through the growth
of towns, trade and empires, new ideas began to
develop. The idea that all living things pass through
countless cycles of birth and rebirth performing good
deeds and bad came to be widely accepted. Similarly,
the idea that all human beings are not equal even at
birth gained ground during this period. The belief that
social privileges came from birth in a “noble” family or
a “high” caste was the subject of many learned texts.
Many people were uneasy with such ideas and
turned to the teachings of the Buddha or the Jainas
according to which it was possible to overcome social
differences and break the cycle of rebirth through
personal effort. Others felt attracted to the idea of a
Supreme God who could deliver humans from such
bondage if approached with devotion (or bhakti). This
idea, advocated in the Bhagavadgita, grew in popularity
in the early centuries of the Common Era.
8
DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS
TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


104 OUR PASTS – II
Y
ou may have seen people perform rituals of
worship, or singing bhajans, kirtans or qawwalis,
or even repeating the name of God in silence, and
noticed that some of them are moved to tears. Such
intense devotion or love of God is the legacy of various
kinds of bhakti and Sufi movements that have evolved
since the eighth century.
The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God
Before large kingdoms emerged, different groups
of people worshipped their own gods and goddesses.
As people were brought together through the growth
of towns, trade and empires, new ideas began to
develop. The idea that all living things pass through
countless cycles of birth and rebirth performing good
deeds and bad came to be widely accepted. Similarly,
the idea that all human beings are not equal even at
birth gained ground during this period. The belief that
social privileges came from birth in a “noble” family or
a “high” caste was the subject of many learned texts.
Many people were uneasy with such ideas and
turned to the teachings of the Buddha or the Jainas
according to which it was possible to overcome social
differences and break the cycle of rebirth through
personal effort. Others felt attracted to the idea of a
Supreme God who could deliver humans from such
bondage if approached with devotion (or bhakti). This
idea, advocated in the Bhagavadgita, grew in popularity
in the early centuries of the Common Era.
8
DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS
TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE
©NCERT
not to be republished
105
Shiva, Vishnu and
Durga as supreme
deities came to
be worshipped
through elaborate
rituals. At the
same time, gods
and goddesses
worshipped in
different areas
came to be
identified with
Shiva, Vishnu or
Durga. In the
process, local myths and legends became a part of the
Puranic stories, and methods of worship recommended
in the Puranas were introduced into the local cults.
Eventually the Puranas also laid down that it was
possible for devotees to receive the grace of God
regardless of their caste status. The idea of bhakti
became so popular that even Buddhists and Jainas
adopted these beliefs.
A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India –
Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars
The seventh to ninth centuries saw the emergence of
new religious movements, led by the Nayanars (saints
devoted to Shiva) and Alvars (saints devoted to Vishnu)
who came from all castes including those considered
“untouchable” like the Pulaiyar and the Panars. They
were sharply critical of the Buddhists and Jainas and
preached ardent love of Shiva or Vishnu as the path
to salvation. They drew upon the ideals of love and
heroism as found in the Sangam literature (the earliest
example of Tamil literature, composed during the early
centuries of the Common Era) and blended them with
the values of bhakti. The Nayanars and Alvars went
from place to place composing exquisite poems in
praise of the deities enshrined in the villages they
visited, and set them to music.
You can observe
this process of
local myths and
legends receiving
wider acceptance
even today. Can
you find some
examples
around you?
DEVOTIONAL PATHS
TO THE DIVINE
Fig. 1
A page from a south
Indian manuscript of
the Bhagavadgita.
?
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


104 OUR PASTS – II
Y
ou may have seen people perform rituals of
worship, or singing bhajans, kirtans or qawwalis,
or even repeating the name of God in silence, and
noticed that some of them are moved to tears. Such
intense devotion or love of God is the legacy of various
kinds of bhakti and Sufi movements that have evolved
since the eighth century.
The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God
Before large kingdoms emerged, different groups
of people worshipped their own gods and goddesses.
As people were brought together through the growth
of towns, trade and empires, new ideas began to
develop. The idea that all living things pass through
countless cycles of birth and rebirth performing good
deeds and bad came to be widely accepted. Similarly,
the idea that all human beings are not equal even at
birth gained ground during this period. The belief that
social privileges came from birth in a “noble” family or
a “high” caste was the subject of many learned texts.
Many people were uneasy with such ideas and
turned to the teachings of the Buddha or the Jainas
according to which it was possible to overcome social
differences and break the cycle of rebirth through
personal effort. Others felt attracted to the idea of a
Supreme God who could deliver humans from such
bondage if approached with devotion (or bhakti). This
idea, advocated in the Bhagavadgita, grew in popularity
in the early centuries of the Common Era.
8
DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS
TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE
©NCERT
not to be republished
105
Shiva, Vishnu and
Durga as supreme
deities came to
be worshipped
through elaborate
rituals. At the
same time, gods
and goddesses
worshipped in
different areas
came to be
identified with
Shiva, Vishnu or
Durga. In the
process, local myths and legends became a part of the
Puranic stories, and methods of worship recommended
in the Puranas were introduced into the local cults.
Eventually the Puranas also laid down that it was
possible for devotees to receive the grace of God
regardless of their caste status. The idea of bhakti
became so popular that even Buddhists and Jainas
adopted these beliefs.
A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India –
Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars
The seventh to ninth centuries saw the emergence of
new religious movements, led by the Nayanars (saints
devoted to Shiva) and Alvars (saints devoted to Vishnu)
who came from all castes including those considered
“untouchable” like the Pulaiyar and the Panars. They
were sharply critical of the Buddhists and Jainas and
preached ardent love of Shiva or Vishnu as the path
to salvation. They drew upon the ideals of love and
heroism as found in the Sangam literature (the earliest
example of Tamil literature, composed during the early
centuries of the Common Era) and blended them with
the values of bhakti. The Nayanars and Alvars went
from place to place composing exquisite poems in
praise of the deities enshrined in the villages they
visited, and set them to music.
You can observe
this process of
local myths and
legends receiving
wider acceptance
even today. Can
you find some
examples
around you?
DEVOTIONAL PATHS
TO THE DIVINE
Fig. 1
A page from a south
Indian manuscript of
the Bhagavadgita.
?
©NCERT
not to be republished
106 OUR PASTS – II
Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars
There were 63 Nayanars, who belonged to different
caste backgrounds such as potters, “untouchable”
workers, peasants, hunters, soldiers, Brahmanas and
chiefs. The best known among them were Appar,
Sambandar, Sundarar and Manikkavasagar. There are
two sets of compilations of their songs – Tevaram and
Tiruvacakam.
There were 12 Alvars, who came from equally
divergent backgrounds, the best known being
Periyalvar, his daughter Andal, Tondaradippodi Alvar
and Nammalvar. Their songs were compiled in the Divya
Prabandham.
Between the tenth and twelfth centuries the Chola
and Pandya kings built elaborate temples around many
of the shrines visited by the saint-poets, strengthening
the links between the bhakti tradition and temple
worship. This was also the time when their poems were
compiled. Besides, hagiographies or religious
biographies of the Alvars and Nayanars were also
composed. Today we use these texts as sources for
writing histories of the bhakti tradition.
The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord
This is a composition of Manikkavasagar:
Into my vile body of flesh
You came, as though it were a temple of gold,
And soothed me wholly and saved me,
O Lord of Grace, O Gem most Pure,
Sorrow and birth and death and illusion
You took from me, and set me free.
O Bliss! O Light! I have taken refuge in You,
And never can I be parted from You.
How does the poet describe his relationship
with the deity?
Hagiography
Writing of saints’
lives.
?
Fig. 2
A bronze image of
Manikkavasagar.
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


104 OUR PASTS – II
Y
ou may have seen people perform rituals of
worship, or singing bhajans, kirtans or qawwalis,
or even repeating the name of God in silence, and
noticed that some of them are moved to tears. Such
intense devotion or love of God is the legacy of various
kinds of bhakti and Sufi movements that have evolved
since the eighth century.
The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God
Before large kingdoms emerged, different groups
of people worshipped their own gods and goddesses.
As people were brought together through the growth
of towns, trade and empires, new ideas began to
develop. The idea that all living things pass through
countless cycles of birth and rebirth performing good
deeds and bad came to be widely accepted. Similarly,
the idea that all human beings are not equal even at
birth gained ground during this period. The belief that
social privileges came from birth in a “noble” family or
a “high” caste was the subject of many learned texts.
Many people were uneasy with such ideas and
turned to the teachings of the Buddha or the Jainas
according to which it was possible to overcome social
differences and break the cycle of rebirth through
personal effort. Others felt attracted to the idea of a
Supreme God who could deliver humans from such
bondage if approached with devotion (or bhakti). This
idea, advocated in the Bhagavadgita, grew in popularity
in the early centuries of the Common Era.
8
DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS
TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE
©NCERT
not to be republished
105
Shiva, Vishnu and
Durga as supreme
deities came to
be worshipped
through elaborate
rituals. At the
same time, gods
and goddesses
worshipped in
different areas
came to be
identified with
Shiva, Vishnu or
Durga. In the
process, local myths and legends became a part of the
Puranic stories, and methods of worship recommended
in the Puranas were introduced into the local cults.
Eventually the Puranas also laid down that it was
possible for devotees to receive the grace of God
regardless of their caste status. The idea of bhakti
became so popular that even Buddhists and Jainas
adopted these beliefs.
A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India –
Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars
The seventh to ninth centuries saw the emergence of
new religious movements, led by the Nayanars (saints
devoted to Shiva) and Alvars (saints devoted to Vishnu)
who came from all castes including those considered
“untouchable” like the Pulaiyar and the Panars. They
were sharply critical of the Buddhists and Jainas and
preached ardent love of Shiva or Vishnu as the path
to salvation. They drew upon the ideals of love and
heroism as found in the Sangam literature (the earliest
example of Tamil literature, composed during the early
centuries of the Common Era) and blended them with
the values of bhakti. The Nayanars and Alvars went
from place to place composing exquisite poems in
praise of the deities enshrined in the villages they
visited, and set them to music.
You can observe
this process of
local myths and
legends receiving
wider acceptance
even today. Can
you find some
examples
around you?
DEVOTIONAL PATHS
TO THE DIVINE
Fig. 1
A page from a south
Indian manuscript of
the Bhagavadgita.
?
©NCERT
not to be republished
106 OUR PASTS – II
Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars
There were 63 Nayanars, who belonged to different
caste backgrounds such as potters, “untouchable”
workers, peasants, hunters, soldiers, Brahmanas and
chiefs. The best known among them were Appar,
Sambandar, Sundarar and Manikkavasagar. There are
two sets of compilations of their songs – Tevaram and
Tiruvacakam.
There were 12 Alvars, who came from equally
divergent backgrounds, the best known being
Periyalvar, his daughter Andal, Tondaradippodi Alvar
and Nammalvar. Their songs were compiled in the Divya
Prabandham.
Between the tenth and twelfth centuries the Chola
and Pandya kings built elaborate temples around many
of the shrines visited by the saint-poets, strengthening
the links between the bhakti tradition and temple
worship. This was also the time when their poems were
compiled. Besides, hagiographies or religious
biographies of the Alvars and Nayanars were also
composed. Today we use these texts as sources for
writing histories of the bhakti tradition.
The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord
This is a composition of Manikkavasagar:
Into my vile body of flesh
You came, as though it were a temple of gold,
And soothed me wholly and saved me,
O Lord of Grace, O Gem most Pure,
Sorrow and birth and death and illusion
You took from me, and set me free.
O Bliss! O Light! I have taken refuge in You,
And never can I be parted from You.
How does the poet describe his relationship
with the deity?
Hagiography
Writing of saints’
lives.
?
Fig. 2
A bronze image of
Manikkavasagar.
©NCERT
not to be republished
107
?
Philosophy and Bhakti Philosophy and Bhakti Philosophy and Bhakti Philosophy and Bhakti Philosophy and Bhakti
Shankara, one of the most influential philosophers
of India, was born in Kerala in the eighth century.
He was an advocate of Advaita or the doctrine of the
oneness of the individual soul and the Supreme God
which is the Ultimate Reality. He taught that
Brahman, the only or Ultimate Reality, was formless
and without any attributes. He considered the world
around us to be an illusion or maya, and preached
renunciation of the world and adoption of the path
of knowledge to understand the true nature of
Brahman and attain salvation.
Ramanuja, born in Tamil Nadu in the eleventh
century, was deeply influenced by the Alvars.
According to him the best means of attaining
salvation was through intense devotion to Vishnu.
Vishnu in His grace helps the devotee to attain the
bliss of union with Him. He propounded the doctrine
of Vishishtadvaita or qualified oneness in that the
soul even when united with the Supreme God
remained distinct. Ramanuja’s doctrine greatly
inspired the new strand of bhakti which developed
in north India subsequently.
Basavanna’s Virashaivism Basavanna’s Virashaivism Basavanna’s Virashaivism Basavanna’s Virashaivism Basavanna’s Virashaivism
We noted earlier the connection between the Tamil
bhakti movement and temple worship. This in turn
led to a reaction that is best represented in the
Virashaiva movement initiated by Basavanna and
his companions like Allama Prabhu and
Akkamahadevi. This movement began in Karnataka
in the mid-twelfth century. The Virashaivas argued
strongly for the equality of all human beings and
against Brahmanical ideas about caste and the
treatment of women. They were also against all forms
of ritual and idol worship.
Try and find out
more about the
ideas of Shankara
or Ramanuja.
DEVOTIONAL PATHS
TO THE DIVINE
©NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


104 OUR PASTS – II
Y
ou may have seen people perform rituals of
worship, or singing bhajans, kirtans or qawwalis,
or even repeating the name of God in silence, and
noticed that some of them are moved to tears. Such
intense devotion or love of God is the legacy of various
kinds of bhakti and Sufi movements that have evolved
since the eighth century.
The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God The Idea of a Supreme God
Before large kingdoms emerged, different groups
of people worshipped their own gods and goddesses.
As people were brought together through the growth
of towns, trade and empires, new ideas began to
develop. The idea that all living things pass through
countless cycles of birth and rebirth performing good
deeds and bad came to be widely accepted. Similarly,
the idea that all human beings are not equal even at
birth gained ground during this period. The belief that
social privileges came from birth in a “noble” family or
a “high” caste was the subject of many learned texts.
Many people were uneasy with such ideas and
turned to the teachings of the Buddha or the Jainas
according to which it was possible to overcome social
differences and break the cycle of rebirth through
personal effort. Others felt attracted to the idea of a
Supreme God who could deliver humans from such
bondage if approached with devotion (or bhakti). This
idea, advocated in the Bhagavadgita, grew in popularity
in the early centuries of the Common Era.
8
DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS DEVOTIONAL PATHS
TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE TO THE DIVINE
©NCERT
not to be republished
105
Shiva, Vishnu and
Durga as supreme
deities came to
be worshipped
through elaborate
rituals. At the
same time, gods
and goddesses
worshipped in
different areas
came to be
identified with
Shiva, Vishnu or
Durga. In the
process, local myths and legends became a part of the
Puranic stories, and methods of worship recommended
in the Puranas were introduced into the local cults.
Eventually the Puranas also laid down that it was
possible for devotees to receive the grace of God
regardless of their caste status. The idea of bhakti
became so popular that even Buddhists and Jainas
adopted these beliefs.
A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India – A New Kind of Bhakti in South India –
Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars
The seventh to ninth centuries saw the emergence of
new religious movements, led by the Nayanars (saints
devoted to Shiva) and Alvars (saints devoted to Vishnu)
who came from all castes including those considered
“untouchable” like the Pulaiyar and the Panars. They
were sharply critical of the Buddhists and Jainas and
preached ardent love of Shiva or Vishnu as the path
to salvation. They drew upon the ideals of love and
heroism as found in the Sangam literature (the earliest
example of Tamil literature, composed during the early
centuries of the Common Era) and blended them with
the values of bhakti. The Nayanars and Alvars went
from place to place composing exquisite poems in
praise of the deities enshrined in the villages they
visited, and set them to music.
You can observe
this process of
local myths and
legends receiving
wider acceptance
even today. Can
you find some
examples
around you?
DEVOTIONAL PATHS
TO THE DIVINE
Fig. 1
A page from a south
Indian manuscript of
the Bhagavadgita.
?
©NCERT
not to be republished
106 OUR PASTS – II
Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars Nayanars and Alvars
There were 63 Nayanars, who belonged to different
caste backgrounds such as potters, “untouchable”
workers, peasants, hunters, soldiers, Brahmanas and
chiefs. The best known among them were Appar,
Sambandar, Sundarar and Manikkavasagar. There are
two sets of compilations of their songs – Tevaram and
Tiruvacakam.
There were 12 Alvars, who came from equally
divergent backgrounds, the best known being
Periyalvar, his daughter Andal, Tondaradippodi Alvar
and Nammalvar. Their songs were compiled in the Divya
Prabandham.
Between the tenth and twelfth centuries the Chola
and Pandya kings built elaborate temples around many
of the shrines visited by the saint-poets, strengthening
the links between the bhakti tradition and temple
worship. This was also the time when their poems were
compiled. Besides, hagiographies or religious
biographies of the Alvars and Nayanars were also
composed. Today we use these texts as sources for
writing histories of the bhakti tradition.
The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord The devotee and the Lord
This is a composition of Manikkavasagar:
Into my vile body of flesh
You came, as though it were a temple of gold,
And soothed me wholly and saved me,
O Lord of Grace, O Gem most Pure,
Sorrow and birth and death and illusion
You took from me, and set me free.
O Bliss! O Light! I have taken refuge in You,
And never can I be parted from You.
How does the poet describe his relationship
with the deity?
Hagiography
Writing of saints’
lives.
?
Fig. 2
A bronze image of
Manikkavasagar.
©NCERT
not to be republished
107
?
Philosophy and Bhakti Philosophy and Bhakti Philosophy and Bhakti Philosophy and Bhakti Philosophy and Bhakti
Shankara, one of the most influential philosophers
of India, was born in Kerala in the eighth century.
He was an advocate of Advaita or the doctrine of the
oneness of the individual soul and the Supreme God
which is the Ultimate Reality. He taught that
Brahman, the only or Ultimate Reality, was formless
and without any attributes. He considered the world
around us to be an illusion or maya, and preached
renunciation of the world and adoption of the path
of knowledge to understand the true nature of
Brahman and attain salvation.
Ramanuja, born in Tamil Nadu in the eleventh
century, was deeply influenced by the Alvars.
According to him the best means of attaining
salvation was through intense devotion to Vishnu.
Vishnu in His grace helps the devotee to attain the
bliss of union with Him. He propounded the doctrine
of Vishishtadvaita or qualified oneness in that the
soul even when united with the Supreme God
remained distinct. Ramanuja’s doctrine greatly
inspired the new strand of bhakti which developed
in north India subsequently.
Basavanna’s Virashaivism Basavanna’s Virashaivism Basavanna’s Virashaivism Basavanna’s Virashaivism Basavanna’s Virashaivism
We noted earlier the connection between the Tamil
bhakti movement and temple worship. This in turn
led to a reaction that is best represented in the
Virashaiva movement initiated by Basavanna and
his companions like Allama Prabhu and
Akkamahadevi. This movement began in Karnataka
in the mid-twelfth century. The Virashaivas argued
strongly for the equality of all human beings and
against Brahmanical ideas about caste and the
treatment of women. They were also against all forms
of ritual and idol worship.
Try and find out
more about the
ideas of Shankara
or Ramanuja.
DEVOTIONAL PATHS
TO THE DIVINE
©NCERT
not to be republished
108 OUR PASTS – II
?
Virashaiva Virashaiva Virashaiva Virashaiva Virashaiva vachanas vachanas vachanas vachanas vachanas
These are vachanas or sayings attributed to Basavanna:
The rich,
Will make temples for Shiva.
What shall I,
A poor man,
Do?
My legs are pillars,
The body the shrine,
The head a cupola
Of gold.
Listen, O Lord of the meeting rivers,
Things standing shall fall,
But the moving ever shall stay.
What is the temple that Basavanna is offering to God?
The Saints of Maharashtra The Saints of Maharashtra The Saints of Maharashtra The Saints of Maharashtra The Saints of Maharashtra
From the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries
Maharashtra saw a great number of saint-poets, whose
songs in simple Marathi continue to inspire people.
The most important among them were Janeshwar,
Namdev, Eknath and Tukaram as well as women like
Sakkubai and the family of Chokhamela, who belonged
to the “untouchable” Mahar caste. This regional
tradition of bhakti focused on the Vitthala (a form of
Vishnu) temple in Pandharpur, as well as on the notion
of a personal god residing in the hearts of all people.
These saint-poets rejected all forms of ritualism,
outward display of piety and social differences based
on birth. In fact they even rejected the idea of
renunciation and preferred to live with their families,
earning their livelihood like any other person, while
humbly serving fellow human beings in need. A new
humanist idea emerged as they insisted that bhakti
©NCERT
not to be republished
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