NCERT Textbook - Citizenship Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Citizenship Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Citizenship
Citizenship
Political Theory
79
Chapter 6
Citizenship
Citizenship implies full and equal membership of a political community. In this
chapter we will explore what exactly this means today. In Sections 6.2 and 6.3 we
will look at some debates and struggles which are going on regarding the interpretation
of the term ‘full and equal membership’. Section 6.4 will discuss the relationship
between citizens and the nation and the criteria of citizenship adopted in different
countries. Theories of democratic citizenship claim that citizenship should be
universal. Does this mean that every person today should be accepted as a member
of one or other state? then How can we explain the existence of so many stateless
people? This issue will be discussed in Section 6.5. The last section 6.6 will discuss
the issue of global citizenship. Does it exist and could it replace national citizenship?
After going through this chapter you should be able to
o explain the meaning of citizenship, and
o discuss some of the areas in which that meaning is being expanded or
challenged today.
Overview
2020-21
Page 2


Citizenship
Citizenship
Political Theory
79
Chapter 6
Citizenship
Citizenship implies full and equal membership of a political community. In this
chapter we will explore what exactly this means today. In Sections 6.2 and 6.3 we
will look at some debates and struggles which are going on regarding the interpretation
of the term ‘full and equal membership’. Section 6.4 will discuss the relationship
between citizens and the nation and the criteria of citizenship adopted in different
countries. Theories of democratic citizenship claim that citizenship should be
universal. Does this mean that every person today should be accepted as a member
of one or other state? then How can we explain the existence of so many stateless
people? This issue will be discussed in Section 6.5. The last section 6.6 will discuss
the issue of global citizenship. Does it exist and could it replace national citizenship?
After going through this chapter you should be able to
o explain the meaning of citizenship, and
o discuss some of the areas in which that meaning is being expanded or
challenged today.
Overview
2020-21
Citizenship
Citizenship
80
Political Theory
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Citizenship has been defined as full and
equal membership of a political community.
In the contemporary world, states provide a
collective political identity to their members
as well as certain rights. Therefore we think
of ourselves as Indians, or Japanese, or
Germans, depending on the state to which
we belong. Citizens expect certain rights
from their state as well as help and
protection wherever they may travel.
The importance of full membership of a state can be
appreciated if we think of the condition of the thousands of people
in the world who have the bad fortune to be forced to live as
refugees or illegal migrants because no state is willing to grant
them membership. Such people are not guaranteed rights by any
state and generally live in precarious conditions. For them full
membership of a state of their choice is a goal for which they are
willing to struggle, as we see today with Palestinian refugees in
the Middle East.
The precise
nature of the
rights granted to
citizens may
vary from state
to state but in
most democratic
countries today
they would include
some political
rights like the right
to vote, civil rights
like the freedom of speech or belief, and some socio-economic rights
which could include the right to a minimum wage, or the right to
education. Equality of rights and status is one of the basic rights
of citizenship.
2020-21
Page 3


Citizenship
Citizenship
Political Theory
79
Chapter 6
Citizenship
Citizenship implies full and equal membership of a political community. In this
chapter we will explore what exactly this means today. In Sections 6.2 and 6.3 we
will look at some debates and struggles which are going on regarding the interpretation
of the term ‘full and equal membership’. Section 6.4 will discuss the relationship
between citizens and the nation and the criteria of citizenship adopted in different
countries. Theories of democratic citizenship claim that citizenship should be
universal. Does this mean that every person today should be accepted as a member
of one or other state? then How can we explain the existence of so many stateless
people? This issue will be discussed in Section 6.5. The last section 6.6 will discuss
the issue of global citizenship. Does it exist and could it replace national citizenship?
After going through this chapter you should be able to
o explain the meaning of citizenship, and
o discuss some of the areas in which that meaning is being expanded or
challenged today.
Overview
2020-21
Citizenship
Citizenship
80
Political Theory
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Citizenship has been defined as full and
equal membership of a political community.
In the contemporary world, states provide a
collective political identity to their members
as well as certain rights. Therefore we think
of ourselves as Indians, or Japanese, or
Germans, depending on the state to which
we belong. Citizens expect certain rights
from their state as well as help and
protection wherever they may travel.
The importance of full membership of a state can be
appreciated if we think of the condition of the thousands of people
in the world who have the bad fortune to be forced to live as
refugees or illegal migrants because no state is willing to grant
them membership. Such people are not guaranteed rights by any
state and generally live in precarious conditions. For them full
membership of a state of their choice is a goal for which they are
willing to struggle, as we see today with Palestinian refugees in
the Middle East.
The precise
nature of the
rights granted to
citizens may
vary from state
to state but in
most democratic
countries today
they would include
some political
rights like the right
to vote, civil rights
like the freedom of speech or belief, and some socio-economic rights
which could include the right to a minimum wage, or the right to
education. Equality of rights and status is one of the basic rights
of citizenship.
2020-21
Citizenship
Citizenship
Political Theory
81
Each of the rights now enjoyed by citizens
has been won after struggle. Some of the earliest
struggles were fought by people to assert their
independence and rights against powerful
monarchies. Many European countries
experienced such struggles, some of them violent,
like the French Revolution in 1789. In the colonies
of Asia and Africa, demands for equal citizenship
formed part of their struggle for independence
from colonial rulers. In South Africa, the black
African population had to undertake a long
struggle against the ruling white minority for
equal citizenship. This continued until the early
1990s. Struggles to achieve full membership and
equal rights continue even now in many parts of the world. You
may have read about the women’s movement and the dalit movement
in our country. Their purpose is to change public opinion by drawing
attention to their needs as well as to influence government policy to
ensure them equal rights and opportunities.
   LET’S THINK
During seventeenth to twentieth century, white people of
Europe established their rule over the black people in
South Africa. Read the following description about the
policy practices in South Africa till 1994.
The whites had the right to vote, contest elections
and elect government; they were free to purchase property
and go to any place in the country. Blacks did not have
such rights. Separate colonies for whites and blacks were
established. The blacks had to take ‘passes’ to work in
white neighbourhoods. They were not allowed to keep their
families in the white areas. The schools were also separate
for the people of different colour.
o Do you think the Blacks had full and equal membership
in South Africa? Give reasons.
o What does the above description tell us about the
relationship of different groups in South Africa?
2020-21
Page 4


Citizenship
Citizenship
Political Theory
79
Chapter 6
Citizenship
Citizenship implies full and equal membership of a political community. In this
chapter we will explore what exactly this means today. In Sections 6.2 and 6.3 we
will look at some debates and struggles which are going on regarding the interpretation
of the term ‘full and equal membership’. Section 6.4 will discuss the relationship
between citizens and the nation and the criteria of citizenship adopted in different
countries. Theories of democratic citizenship claim that citizenship should be
universal. Does this mean that every person today should be accepted as a member
of one or other state? then How can we explain the existence of so many stateless
people? This issue will be discussed in Section 6.5. The last section 6.6 will discuss
the issue of global citizenship. Does it exist and could it replace national citizenship?
After going through this chapter you should be able to
o explain the meaning of citizenship, and
o discuss some of the areas in which that meaning is being expanded or
challenged today.
Overview
2020-21
Citizenship
Citizenship
80
Political Theory
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Citizenship has been defined as full and
equal membership of a political community.
In the contemporary world, states provide a
collective political identity to their members
as well as certain rights. Therefore we think
of ourselves as Indians, or Japanese, or
Germans, depending on the state to which
we belong. Citizens expect certain rights
from their state as well as help and
protection wherever they may travel.
The importance of full membership of a state can be
appreciated if we think of the condition of the thousands of people
in the world who have the bad fortune to be forced to live as
refugees or illegal migrants because no state is willing to grant
them membership. Such people are not guaranteed rights by any
state and generally live in precarious conditions. For them full
membership of a state of their choice is a goal for which they are
willing to struggle, as we see today with Palestinian refugees in
the Middle East.
The precise
nature of the
rights granted to
citizens may
vary from state
to state but in
most democratic
countries today
they would include
some political
rights like the right
to vote, civil rights
like the freedom of speech or belief, and some socio-economic rights
which could include the right to a minimum wage, or the right to
education. Equality of rights and status is one of the basic rights
of citizenship.
2020-21
Citizenship
Citizenship
Political Theory
81
Each of the rights now enjoyed by citizens
has been won after struggle. Some of the earliest
struggles were fought by people to assert their
independence and rights against powerful
monarchies. Many European countries
experienced such struggles, some of them violent,
like the French Revolution in 1789. In the colonies
of Asia and Africa, demands for equal citizenship
formed part of their struggle for independence
from colonial rulers. In South Africa, the black
African population had to undertake a long
struggle against the ruling white minority for
equal citizenship. This continued until the early
1990s. Struggles to achieve full membership and
equal rights continue even now in many parts of the world. You
may have read about the women’s movement and the dalit movement
in our country. Their purpose is to change public opinion by drawing
attention to their needs as well as to influence government policy to
ensure them equal rights and opportunities.
   LET’S THINK
During seventeenth to twentieth century, white people of
Europe established their rule over the black people in
South Africa. Read the following description about the
policy practices in South Africa till 1994.
The whites had the right to vote, contest elections
and elect government; they were free to purchase property
and go to any place in the country. Blacks did not have
such rights. Separate colonies for whites and blacks were
established. The blacks had to take ‘passes’ to work in
white neighbourhoods. They were not allowed to keep their
families in the white areas. The schools were also separate
for the people of different colour.
o Do you think the Blacks had full and equal membership
in South Africa? Give reasons.
o What does the above description tell us about the
relationship of different groups in South Africa?
2020-21
Citizenship
Citizenship
82
Political Theory
However, citizenship is about more than the
relationship between states and their members. It
is also about citizen-citizen relations and involves
certain obligations of citizens to each other and to
the society. These would include not just the legal
obligations imposed by states but also a moral
obligation to participate in, and contribute to, the
shared life of the community. Citizens are also
considered to be the inheritors and trustees of the
culture and natural resources of the country.
A good way to understand a political concept is
to look for instances where its accepted meaning is
being questioned by groups who feel that it does
not take account of their needs and aspirations.
6.2 FULL AND EQUAL MEMBERSHIP
If you have ever travelled in a crowded
railway compartment or bus you will be
familiar with the way in which those who
may have earlier fought each other to enter,
once inside discover a shared interest in
keeping others out! A division soon
develops between ‘insiders’ and ‘outsiders’
with ‘outsiders’ being seen as a threat.
Similar processes take place from time
to time in cities, regions, or even the nation
as a whole. If jobs, facilities like medical
care or education, and natural resources
like land or water, are limited, demands may be made to restrict
entry to ‘outsiders’ even though they may be fellow citizens. You may
remember the slogan ‘Mumbai for Mumbaikars’ which expressed
such feelings. Many similar struggles have taken place in different
parts of India and the world.
This raises questions about what ‘full and equal membership’
really means? Does it mean that citizens should enjoy equal rights
Think of some
examples of activities
of citizens in your area
intended to help
others, or improve the
area, or protect the
environment. List
some of the activities
which could be
undertaken by young
people of your age-
group.
LET’S DO IT
Do
2020-21
Page 5


Citizenship
Citizenship
Political Theory
79
Chapter 6
Citizenship
Citizenship implies full and equal membership of a political community. In this
chapter we will explore what exactly this means today. In Sections 6.2 and 6.3 we
will look at some debates and struggles which are going on regarding the interpretation
of the term ‘full and equal membership’. Section 6.4 will discuss the relationship
between citizens and the nation and the criteria of citizenship adopted in different
countries. Theories of democratic citizenship claim that citizenship should be
universal. Does this mean that every person today should be accepted as a member
of one or other state? then How can we explain the existence of so many stateless
people? This issue will be discussed in Section 6.5. The last section 6.6 will discuss
the issue of global citizenship. Does it exist and could it replace national citizenship?
After going through this chapter you should be able to
o explain the meaning of citizenship, and
o discuss some of the areas in which that meaning is being expanded or
challenged today.
Overview
2020-21
Citizenship
Citizenship
80
Political Theory
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Citizenship has been defined as full and
equal membership of a political community.
In the contemporary world, states provide a
collective political identity to their members
as well as certain rights. Therefore we think
of ourselves as Indians, or Japanese, or
Germans, depending on the state to which
we belong. Citizens expect certain rights
from their state as well as help and
protection wherever they may travel.
The importance of full membership of a state can be
appreciated if we think of the condition of the thousands of people
in the world who have the bad fortune to be forced to live as
refugees or illegal migrants because no state is willing to grant
them membership. Such people are not guaranteed rights by any
state and generally live in precarious conditions. For them full
membership of a state of their choice is a goal for which they are
willing to struggle, as we see today with Palestinian refugees in
the Middle East.
The precise
nature of the
rights granted to
citizens may
vary from state
to state but in
most democratic
countries today
they would include
some political
rights like the right
to vote, civil rights
like the freedom of speech or belief, and some socio-economic rights
which could include the right to a minimum wage, or the right to
education. Equality of rights and status is one of the basic rights
of citizenship.
2020-21
Citizenship
Citizenship
Political Theory
81
Each of the rights now enjoyed by citizens
has been won after struggle. Some of the earliest
struggles were fought by people to assert their
independence and rights against powerful
monarchies. Many European countries
experienced such struggles, some of them violent,
like the French Revolution in 1789. In the colonies
of Asia and Africa, demands for equal citizenship
formed part of their struggle for independence
from colonial rulers. In South Africa, the black
African population had to undertake a long
struggle against the ruling white minority for
equal citizenship. This continued until the early
1990s. Struggles to achieve full membership and
equal rights continue even now in many parts of the world. You
may have read about the women’s movement and the dalit movement
in our country. Their purpose is to change public opinion by drawing
attention to their needs as well as to influence government policy to
ensure them equal rights and opportunities.
   LET’S THINK
During seventeenth to twentieth century, white people of
Europe established their rule over the black people in
South Africa. Read the following description about the
policy practices in South Africa till 1994.
The whites had the right to vote, contest elections
and elect government; they were free to purchase property
and go to any place in the country. Blacks did not have
such rights. Separate colonies for whites and blacks were
established. The blacks had to take ‘passes’ to work in
white neighbourhoods. They were not allowed to keep their
families in the white areas. The schools were also separate
for the people of different colour.
o Do you think the Blacks had full and equal membership
in South Africa? Give reasons.
o What does the above description tell us about the
relationship of different groups in South Africa?
2020-21
Citizenship
Citizenship
82
Political Theory
However, citizenship is about more than the
relationship between states and their members. It
is also about citizen-citizen relations and involves
certain obligations of citizens to each other and to
the society. These would include not just the legal
obligations imposed by states but also a moral
obligation to participate in, and contribute to, the
shared life of the community. Citizens are also
considered to be the inheritors and trustees of the
culture and natural resources of the country.
A good way to understand a political concept is
to look for instances where its accepted meaning is
being questioned by groups who feel that it does
not take account of their needs and aspirations.
6.2 FULL AND EQUAL MEMBERSHIP
If you have ever travelled in a crowded
railway compartment or bus you will be
familiar with the way in which those who
may have earlier fought each other to enter,
once inside discover a shared interest in
keeping others out! A division soon
develops between ‘insiders’ and ‘outsiders’
with ‘outsiders’ being seen as a threat.
Similar processes take place from time
to time in cities, regions, or even the nation
as a whole. If jobs, facilities like medical
care or education, and natural resources
like land or water, are limited, demands may be made to restrict
entry to ‘outsiders’ even though they may be fellow citizens. You may
remember the slogan ‘Mumbai for Mumbaikars’ which expressed
such feelings. Many similar struggles have taken place in different
parts of India and the world.
This raises questions about what ‘full and equal membership’
really means? Does it mean that citizens should enjoy equal rights
Think of some
examples of activities
of citizens in your area
intended to help
others, or improve the
area, or protect the
environment. List
some of the activities
which could be
undertaken by young
people of your age-
group.
LET’S DO IT
Do
2020-21
Citizenship
Citizenship
Political Theory
83
and opportunities wherever
in the country they may
decide to live, study, or
work? Does it mean that all
citizens, rich or poor,
should enjoy certain basic
rights and facilities?
In this section we will
explore the meaning of
citizenship by focusing on
the first of these questions.
One of the rights
granted to citizens in our
country, and in many
others, is freedom of
movement. This right is of
particular importance for
workers. Labour tends to
migrate in search of jobs
when opportunities are not
available near their homes.
Some people may even
travel outside the country
in search of jobs. Markets
for skilled and unskilled
workers have developed in
different parts of our
country. For instance, I.T.
workers may flock to
towns like Bangalore.
Nurses from Kerala may
be found all over the
country. The booming
building industry in town
attracts workers from
different parts of the
    MARTIN LUTHER KING
The 1950s witnessed the emergence of Civil
Rights Movements against inequalities that
existed between black and white populations in
many of the southern states of the USA. Such
inequalities were maintained in these states by a
set of laws called Segregation Laws through which
the black people were denied many civil and
political rights. These laws created separate areas
for coloured and white people in various civic
amenities like railways, buses, theatres, housing,
hotels, restaurants, etc.
Martin Luther King Jr. was a black leader of
the movement against these laws. King gave many
arguments against the prevailing laws of
segregation. First, in terms of self-worth and
dignity every human person in the world is equal
regardless of one’s race or colour. Second, King
argued that segregation is like ‘social leprosy’ on
the body politic because it inflicts deep
psychological wounds on the people who suffer
as a result of such laws.
King argued that the practice of segregation
diminishes the quality of life for the white
community also. He illustrates this point by
examples. The white community, instead of
allowing the black people to enter some
community parks as was directed by the court,
decided to close them. Similarly, some baseball
teams had to be disbanded, as the authorities
did not want to accept black players. Thirdly, the
segregation laws create artificial boundaries
between people and prevent them from
cooperating with each other for the overall benefit
of the country. For these reasons, King argued
that these laws should be abolished. He gave a
call for peaceful and non-violent resistance
against the segregation laws. He said in one of
his speeches: “We must not allow our creative
protest to degenerate into physical violence.”
83
2020-21
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