NCERT Textbook: Conservation of Plants & Animals Notes | Study Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - Class 8

Class 8: NCERT Textbook: Conservation of Plants & Animals Notes | Study Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - Class 8

The document NCERT Textbook: Conservation of Plants & Animals Notes | Study Science & Technology for UPSC CSE - Class 8 is a part of the Class 8 Course Science & Technology for UPSC CSE.
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 Page 1


CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
W
e saw in Class VII that
Paheli  and  Boojho  had visited
the forest along with Professor
Ahmad and Tibu. They were eager to
share their experiences with their
classmates. Other children in the class
were also eager to share their experiences
as some of them had visited Bharatpur
Sanctuary. Some others had heard
about  Kaziranga National Park,
Lockchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Great
Nicobar Biosphere Reserve and Tiger
Reserve, etc.
Some natural causes of deforestation
are forest fires and severe droughts.
Activity 7.1
Add more causes of deforestation to
your list and classify them into
natural and man-made.
7.2Consequences of
Deforestation
Paheli and Boojho recalled the
consequences of deforestation. They
remembered that deforestation increases
the temperature and pollution level on
the earth. It increases the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water
level also gets lowered. They know that
deforestation disturbs the balance in
nature. They were told by Professor
Ahmad that if cutting of trees continues,
rainfall and the  fertility of the soil will
7.1 Deforestation and Its
Causes
A great variety of plants and animals
exist on earth. They are essential for the
well-being and survival of mankind.
Today, a major threat to survival of these
organisms is deforestation. We know
that deforestation means clearing of
forests and using that land for other
purposes. Trees in the forest are cut for
some of the purposes mentioned below:
l Procuring land for cultivation.
l Building houses and factories.
l Making furniture or using wood as
fuel.
How does deforestation reduce
rainfall on the one hand and
lead to floods on the other?
decrease. Moreover, there will be
increased chances of natural calamities
such as floods and droughts.
Recall that plants need carbon
dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees
would mean that less carbon dioxide will
be used up resulting in its increased
What is the purpose of
making national parks,
wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves?
2020-21
Page 2


CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
W
e saw in Class VII that
Paheli  and  Boojho  had visited
the forest along with Professor
Ahmad and Tibu. They were eager to
share their experiences with their
classmates. Other children in the class
were also eager to share their experiences
as some of them had visited Bharatpur
Sanctuary. Some others had heard
about  Kaziranga National Park,
Lockchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Great
Nicobar Biosphere Reserve and Tiger
Reserve, etc.
Some natural causes of deforestation
are forest fires and severe droughts.
Activity 7.1
Add more causes of deforestation to
your list and classify them into
natural and man-made.
7.2Consequences of
Deforestation
Paheli and Boojho recalled the
consequences of deforestation. They
remembered that deforestation increases
the temperature and pollution level on
the earth. It increases the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water
level also gets lowered. They know that
deforestation disturbs the balance in
nature. They were told by Professor
Ahmad that if cutting of trees continues,
rainfall and the  fertility of the soil will
7.1 Deforestation and Its
Causes
A great variety of plants and animals
exist on earth. They are essential for the
well-being and survival of mankind.
Today, a major threat to survival of these
organisms is deforestation. We know
that deforestation means clearing of
forests and using that land for other
purposes. Trees in the forest are cut for
some of the purposes mentioned below:
l Procuring land for cultivation.
l Building houses and factories.
l Making furniture or using wood as
fuel.
How does deforestation reduce
rainfall on the one hand and
lead to floods on the other?
decrease. Moreover, there will be
increased chances of natural calamities
such as floods and droughts.
Recall that plants need carbon
dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees
would mean that less carbon dioxide will
be used up resulting in its increased
What is the purpose of
making national parks,
wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves?
2020-21
SCIENCE 78
amount in the atmosphere. This will lead
to global warming as carbon dioxide
traps the heat rays reflected by the earth.
The increase in temperature on the earth
disturbs the water cycle and may reduce
rainfall. This could cause droughts.
Deforestation is a major cause which
leads to the change in soil properties.
Physical properties of the soil get affected
by plantation and vegetation. Recall from
Class VII how trees prevent soil erosion.
Fewer trees result in more soil erosion.
Removal of the top layer of the soil exposes
the lower, hard and rocky layers. This soil
has less humus and is less fertile.
Gradually the fertile land gets converted
into deserts. It is called desertification.
Deforestation also leads to a decrease
in the water holding capacity of the soil.
The movement of water from the soil
surface into the ground (infiltration rate)
is reduced. So, there are floods. The
other properties of the soil like nutrient
content, texture etc., also change
because of deforestation.
We have studied in Class VII that we
get many products from forests. List these
products. Will we face shortage of these
products if we continue cutting trees?
Activity 7.2
Animal life is also affected by
deforestation. How? List the points
and discuss them in your class.
7.3 Conservation of Forest
and Wildlife
Having become aware of the effects of
deforestation, Paheli and Boojho are
worried. They go to Professor Ahmad
and ask him how forests and wildlife
can be saved.
Biosphere is that part of the earth in
which living organisms exist or which
supports life. Biological diversity or
biodiversity, refers  to the variety of
organisms existing on the earth, their
interrelationships and their
relationship with the environment.
Professor Ahmad organises a visit to
a biosphere reserve for Paheli, Boojho and
their classmates. He selects a place
named Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. He
knows that the plants and animals found
here are similar to those of the upper
Himalayan peaks and to those belonging
to the lower western ghats. Professor
Ahmad believes that the biodiversity
found here is unique. He requests
Madhavji, a forest employee, to guide the
children inside the biosphere reserve. He
explains that preserving areas of such
biological importance make them a part
of our national heritage.
Madhavji explains to the children
that apart from our personal efforts and
efforts of the society, government
To protect our flora and fauna and their
habitats, protected areas called
wildlife sanctuaries, national parks
and biosphere reserves have been
earmarked. Plantation, cultivation,
grazing, felling trees, hunting and
poaching are prohibited there.
Wildlife Sanctuary :  Areas where
animals are protected from any
disturbance to them and their habitat.
National Park : Areas reserved for
wild life where they can freely use the
habitats and natural resources.
Biosphere Reserve : Large areas of
protected land for conservation of wild
life, plant and animal resources and
traditional life of the tribals living in
the area.
2020-21
Page 3


CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
W
e saw in Class VII that
Paheli  and  Boojho  had visited
the forest along with Professor
Ahmad and Tibu. They were eager to
share their experiences with their
classmates. Other children in the class
were also eager to share their experiences
as some of them had visited Bharatpur
Sanctuary. Some others had heard
about  Kaziranga National Park,
Lockchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Great
Nicobar Biosphere Reserve and Tiger
Reserve, etc.
Some natural causes of deforestation
are forest fires and severe droughts.
Activity 7.1
Add more causes of deforestation to
your list and classify them into
natural and man-made.
7.2Consequences of
Deforestation
Paheli and Boojho recalled the
consequences of deforestation. They
remembered that deforestation increases
the temperature and pollution level on
the earth. It increases the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water
level also gets lowered. They know that
deforestation disturbs the balance in
nature. They were told by Professor
Ahmad that if cutting of trees continues,
rainfall and the  fertility of the soil will
7.1 Deforestation and Its
Causes
A great variety of plants and animals
exist on earth. They are essential for the
well-being and survival of mankind.
Today, a major threat to survival of these
organisms is deforestation. We know
that deforestation means clearing of
forests and using that land for other
purposes. Trees in the forest are cut for
some of the purposes mentioned below:
l Procuring land for cultivation.
l Building houses and factories.
l Making furniture or using wood as
fuel.
How does deforestation reduce
rainfall on the one hand and
lead to floods on the other?
decrease. Moreover, there will be
increased chances of natural calamities
such as floods and droughts.
Recall that plants need carbon
dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees
would mean that less carbon dioxide will
be used up resulting in its increased
What is the purpose of
making national parks,
wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves?
2020-21
SCIENCE 78
amount in the atmosphere. This will lead
to global warming as carbon dioxide
traps the heat rays reflected by the earth.
The increase in temperature on the earth
disturbs the water cycle and may reduce
rainfall. This could cause droughts.
Deforestation is a major cause which
leads to the change in soil properties.
Physical properties of the soil get affected
by plantation and vegetation. Recall from
Class VII how trees prevent soil erosion.
Fewer trees result in more soil erosion.
Removal of the top layer of the soil exposes
the lower, hard and rocky layers. This soil
has less humus and is less fertile.
Gradually the fertile land gets converted
into deserts. It is called desertification.
Deforestation also leads to a decrease
in the water holding capacity of the soil.
The movement of water from the soil
surface into the ground (infiltration rate)
is reduced. So, there are floods. The
other properties of the soil like nutrient
content, texture etc., also change
because of deforestation.
We have studied in Class VII that we
get many products from forests. List these
products. Will we face shortage of these
products if we continue cutting trees?
Activity 7.2
Animal life is also affected by
deforestation. How? List the points
and discuss them in your class.
7.3 Conservation of Forest
and Wildlife
Having become aware of the effects of
deforestation, Paheli and Boojho are
worried. They go to Professor Ahmad
and ask him how forests and wildlife
can be saved.
Biosphere is that part of the earth in
which living organisms exist or which
supports life. Biological diversity or
biodiversity, refers  to the variety of
organisms existing on the earth, their
interrelationships and their
relationship with the environment.
Professor Ahmad organises a visit to
a biosphere reserve for Paheli, Boojho and
their classmates. He selects a place
named Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. He
knows that the plants and animals found
here are similar to those of the upper
Himalayan peaks and to those belonging
to the lower western ghats. Professor
Ahmad believes that the biodiversity
found here is unique. He requests
Madhavji, a forest employee, to guide the
children inside the biosphere reserve. He
explains that preserving areas of such
biological importance make them a part
of our national heritage.
Madhavji explains to the children
that apart from our personal efforts and
efforts of the society, government
To protect our flora and fauna and their
habitats, protected areas called
wildlife sanctuaries, national parks
and biosphere reserves have been
earmarked. Plantation, cultivation,
grazing, felling trees, hunting and
poaching are prohibited there.
Wildlife Sanctuary :  Areas where
animals are protected from any
disturbance to them and their habitat.
National Park : Areas reserved for
wild life where they can freely use the
habitats and natural resources.
Biosphere Reserve : Large areas of
protected land for conservation of wild
life, plant and animal resources and
traditional life of the tribals living in
the area.
2020-21
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 79
agencies also take care of the forests and
animals. The government lays down
rules, methods and policies to protect
and conserve them. Wildlife sanctuaries,
national parks, biosphere reserves etc.,
are protected areas for conservation
of plants and animals present in
that area.
Activity 7.3
Find out the number of national
parks, wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves in your district,
state and country. Record in  Table
7.1. Show these areas in an outline
map of your state and India.
Fig. 7.1 : Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
7.4Biosphere Reserve
Children along with Professor Ahmad
and Madhavji enter the biosphere
reserve area. Madhavji explains that
biosphere reserves are the areas meant
for conservation of biodiversity. As you
are aware that biodiversity is the variety
of plants, animals and microorganisms
generally found in an area.  The
biosphere reserves  help to maintain the
biodiversity and culture of that area. A
biosphere reserve may also contain
other protected areas in it. The
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve consists
of one national park named Satpura and
two wildlife sanctuaries named Bori and
Pachmarhi (Fig. 7.1).
PACHMARHI SANCTUARY
TO PIPARIYA
T AW A
RESERVIOR
CHURNA
BORI SANCTUARY
DHAIN
BORI
SATPURA NATIONAL PARK
NEEMGHAN
PANARPANI GATE
PACHMARHI
?
N
Table 7.1 : Protected Areas for Conservation
Protected Areas — National Park Wildlife Sanctuary Biosphere Reserve
In my district
In my state
In my country
2020-21
Page 4


CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
W
e saw in Class VII that
Paheli  and  Boojho  had visited
the forest along with Professor
Ahmad and Tibu. They were eager to
share their experiences with their
classmates. Other children in the class
were also eager to share their experiences
as some of them had visited Bharatpur
Sanctuary. Some others had heard
about  Kaziranga National Park,
Lockchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Great
Nicobar Biosphere Reserve and Tiger
Reserve, etc.
Some natural causes of deforestation
are forest fires and severe droughts.
Activity 7.1
Add more causes of deforestation to
your list and classify them into
natural and man-made.
7.2Consequences of
Deforestation
Paheli and Boojho recalled the
consequences of deforestation. They
remembered that deforestation increases
the temperature and pollution level on
the earth. It increases the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water
level also gets lowered. They know that
deforestation disturbs the balance in
nature. They were told by Professor
Ahmad that if cutting of trees continues,
rainfall and the  fertility of the soil will
7.1 Deforestation and Its
Causes
A great variety of plants and animals
exist on earth. They are essential for the
well-being and survival of mankind.
Today, a major threat to survival of these
organisms is deforestation. We know
that deforestation means clearing of
forests and using that land for other
purposes. Trees in the forest are cut for
some of the purposes mentioned below:
l Procuring land for cultivation.
l Building houses and factories.
l Making furniture or using wood as
fuel.
How does deforestation reduce
rainfall on the one hand and
lead to floods on the other?
decrease. Moreover, there will be
increased chances of natural calamities
such as floods and droughts.
Recall that plants need carbon
dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees
would mean that less carbon dioxide will
be used up resulting in its increased
What is the purpose of
making national parks,
wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves?
2020-21
SCIENCE 78
amount in the atmosphere. This will lead
to global warming as carbon dioxide
traps the heat rays reflected by the earth.
The increase in temperature on the earth
disturbs the water cycle and may reduce
rainfall. This could cause droughts.
Deforestation is a major cause which
leads to the change in soil properties.
Physical properties of the soil get affected
by plantation and vegetation. Recall from
Class VII how trees prevent soil erosion.
Fewer trees result in more soil erosion.
Removal of the top layer of the soil exposes
the lower, hard and rocky layers. This soil
has less humus and is less fertile.
Gradually the fertile land gets converted
into deserts. It is called desertification.
Deforestation also leads to a decrease
in the water holding capacity of the soil.
The movement of water from the soil
surface into the ground (infiltration rate)
is reduced. So, there are floods. The
other properties of the soil like nutrient
content, texture etc., also change
because of deforestation.
We have studied in Class VII that we
get many products from forests. List these
products. Will we face shortage of these
products if we continue cutting trees?
Activity 7.2
Animal life is also affected by
deforestation. How? List the points
and discuss them in your class.
7.3 Conservation of Forest
and Wildlife
Having become aware of the effects of
deforestation, Paheli and Boojho are
worried. They go to Professor Ahmad
and ask him how forests and wildlife
can be saved.
Biosphere is that part of the earth in
which living organisms exist or which
supports life. Biological diversity or
biodiversity, refers  to the variety of
organisms existing on the earth, their
interrelationships and their
relationship with the environment.
Professor Ahmad organises a visit to
a biosphere reserve for Paheli, Boojho and
their classmates. He selects a place
named Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. He
knows that the plants and animals found
here are similar to those of the upper
Himalayan peaks and to those belonging
to the lower western ghats. Professor
Ahmad believes that the biodiversity
found here is unique. He requests
Madhavji, a forest employee, to guide the
children inside the biosphere reserve. He
explains that preserving areas of such
biological importance make them a part
of our national heritage.
Madhavji explains to the children
that apart from our personal efforts and
efforts of the society, government
To protect our flora and fauna and their
habitats, protected areas called
wildlife sanctuaries, national parks
and biosphere reserves have been
earmarked. Plantation, cultivation,
grazing, felling trees, hunting and
poaching are prohibited there.
Wildlife Sanctuary :  Areas where
animals are protected from any
disturbance to them and their habitat.
National Park : Areas reserved for
wild life where they can freely use the
habitats and natural resources.
Biosphere Reserve : Large areas of
protected land for conservation of wild
life, plant and animal resources and
traditional life of the tribals living in
the area.
2020-21
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 79
agencies also take care of the forests and
animals. The government lays down
rules, methods and policies to protect
and conserve them. Wildlife sanctuaries,
national parks, biosphere reserves etc.,
are protected areas for conservation
of plants and animals present in
that area.
Activity 7.3
Find out the number of national
parks, wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves in your district,
state and country. Record in  Table
7.1. Show these areas in an outline
map of your state and India.
Fig. 7.1 : Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
7.4Biosphere Reserve
Children along with Professor Ahmad
and Madhavji enter the biosphere
reserve area. Madhavji explains that
biosphere reserves are the areas meant
for conservation of biodiversity. As you
are aware that biodiversity is the variety
of plants, animals and microorganisms
generally found in an area.  The
biosphere reserves  help to maintain the
biodiversity and culture of that area. A
biosphere reserve may also contain
other protected areas in it. The
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve consists
of one national park named Satpura and
two wildlife sanctuaries named Bori and
Pachmarhi (Fig. 7.1).
PACHMARHI SANCTUARY
TO PIPARIYA
T AW A
RESERVIOR
CHURNA
BORI SANCTUARY
DHAIN
BORI
SATPURA NATIONAL PARK
NEEMGHAN
PANARPANI GATE
PACHMARHI
?
N
Table 7.1 : Protected Areas for Conservation
Protected Areas — National Park Wildlife Sanctuary Biosphere Reserve
In my district
In my state
In my country
2020-21
SCIENCE 80
(d)            (e) (f)
Fig.  7.2 : (a) Wild dog (b) Cheetal (c) Wolf (d) Leopard (e) Fern (f) Jamun tree
Activity  7.4
List the factors disturbing the
biodiversity of your area. Some of
these factors and human activities
may disturb the biodiversity
unknowingly. List these human
activities. How can these be checked?
Discuss in your class and write a
brief report in your notebook.
7.5  Flora and Fauna
As the children walk around the
biosphere reserve they appreciate the
green wealth of the forest. They are
very happy to see tall teak trees and
animals inside the forest. Suddenly,
Paheli finds a rabbit and wants to
catch it. She starts running after it.
Professor Ahmad stops her. He
explains that animals are comfortable
and happy in their own habitat. We
should not disturb them. Madhavji
explains that some animals and plants
typically belong to a particular area.
The plants and animals found in a
particular area are termed flora and
fauna respectively of that area.
Sal, teak, mango, jamun, silver ferns, arjun, etc., are the flora and chinkara, blue-
bull, barking deer, cheetal, leopard, wild dog, wolf, etc. are examples of the fauna
of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve (Fig. 7.2).
(a) (b) (c)
2020-21
Page 5


CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS
W
e saw in Class VII that
Paheli  and  Boojho  had visited
the forest along with Professor
Ahmad and Tibu. They were eager to
share their experiences with their
classmates. Other children in the class
were also eager to share their experiences
as some of them had visited Bharatpur
Sanctuary. Some others had heard
about  Kaziranga National Park,
Lockchao Wildlife Sanctuary, Great
Nicobar Biosphere Reserve and Tiger
Reserve, etc.
Some natural causes of deforestation
are forest fires and severe droughts.
Activity 7.1
Add more causes of deforestation to
your list and classify them into
natural and man-made.
7.2Consequences of
Deforestation
Paheli and Boojho recalled the
consequences of deforestation. They
remembered that deforestation increases
the temperature and pollution level on
the earth. It increases the level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. Ground water
level also gets lowered. They know that
deforestation disturbs the balance in
nature. They were told by Professor
Ahmad that if cutting of trees continues,
rainfall and the  fertility of the soil will
7.1 Deforestation and Its
Causes
A great variety of plants and animals
exist on earth. They are essential for the
well-being and survival of mankind.
Today, a major threat to survival of these
organisms is deforestation. We know
that deforestation means clearing of
forests and using that land for other
purposes. Trees in the forest are cut for
some of the purposes mentioned below:
l Procuring land for cultivation.
l Building houses and factories.
l Making furniture or using wood as
fuel.
How does deforestation reduce
rainfall on the one hand and
lead to floods on the other?
decrease. Moreover, there will be
increased chances of natural calamities
such as floods and droughts.
Recall that plants need carbon
dioxide for photosynthesis. Fewer trees
would mean that less carbon dioxide will
be used up resulting in its increased
What is the purpose of
making national parks,
wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves?
2020-21
SCIENCE 78
amount in the atmosphere. This will lead
to global warming as carbon dioxide
traps the heat rays reflected by the earth.
The increase in temperature on the earth
disturbs the water cycle and may reduce
rainfall. This could cause droughts.
Deforestation is a major cause which
leads to the change in soil properties.
Physical properties of the soil get affected
by plantation and vegetation. Recall from
Class VII how trees prevent soil erosion.
Fewer trees result in more soil erosion.
Removal of the top layer of the soil exposes
the lower, hard and rocky layers. This soil
has less humus and is less fertile.
Gradually the fertile land gets converted
into deserts. It is called desertification.
Deforestation also leads to a decrease
in the water holding capacity of the soil.
The movement of water from the soil
surface into the ground (infiltration rate)
is reduced. So, there are floods. The
other properties of the soil like nutrient
content, texture etc., also change
because of deforestation.
We have studied in Class VII that we
get many products from forests. List these
products. Will we face shortage of these
products if we continue cutting trees?
Activity 7.2
Animal life is also affected by
deforestation. How? List the points
and discuss them in your class.
7.3 Conservation of Forest
and Wildlife
Having become aware of the effects of
deforestation, Paheli and Boojho are
worried. They go to Professor Ahmad
and ask him how forests and wildlife
can be saved.
Biosphere is that part of the earth in
which living organisms exist or which
supports life. Biological diversity or
biodiversity, refers  to the variety of
organisms existing on the earth, their
interrelationships and their
relationship with the environment.
Professor Ahmad organises a visit to
a biosphere reserve for Paheli, Boojho and
their classmates. He selects a place
named Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. He
knows that the plants and animals found
here are similar to those of the upper
Himalayan peaks and to those belonging
to the lower western ghats. Professor
Ahmad believes that the biodiversity
found here is unique. He requests
Madhavji, a forest employee, to guide the
children inside the biosphere reserve. He
explains that preserving areas of such
biological importance make them a part
of our national heritage.
Madhavji explains to the children
that apart from our personal efforts and
efforts of the society, government
To protect our flora and fauna and their
habitats, protected areas called
wildlife sanctuaries, national parks
and biosphere reserves have been
earmarked. Plantation, cultivation,
grazing, felling trees, hunting and
poaching are prohibited there.
Wildlife Sanctuary :  Areas where
animals are protected from any
disturbance to them and their habitat.
National Park : Areas reserved for
wild life where they can freely use the
habitats and natural resources.
Biosphere Reserve : Large areas of
protected land for conservation of wild
life, plant and animal resources and
traditional life of the tribals living in
the area.
2020-21
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 79
agencies also take care of the forests and
animals. The government lays down
rules, methods and policies to protect
and conserve them. Wildlife sanctuaries,
national parks, biosphere reserves etc.,
are protected areas for conservation
of plants and animals present in
that area.
Activity 7.3
Find out the number of national
parks, wildlife sanctuaries and
biosphere reserves in your district,
state and country. Record in  Table
7.1. Show these areas in an outline
map of your state and India.
Fig. 7.1 : Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
7.4Biosphere Reserve
Children along with Professor Ahmad
and Madhavji enter the biosphere
reserve area. Madhavji explains that
biosphere reserves are the areas meant
for conservation of biodiversity. As you
are aware that biodiversity is the variety
of plants, animals and microorganisms
generally found in an area.  The
biosphere reserves  help to maintain the
biodiversity and culture of that area. A
biosphere reserve may also contain
other protected areas in it. The
Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve consists
of one national park named Satpura and
two wildlife sanctuaries named Bori and
Pachmarhi (Fig. 7.1).
PACHMARHI SANCTUARY
TO PIPARIYA
T AW A
RESERVIOR
CHURNA
BORI SANCTUARY
DHAIN
BORI
SATPURA NATIONAL PARK
NEEMGHAN
PANARPANI GATE
PACHMARHI
?
N
Table 7.1 : Protected Areas for Conservation
Protected Areas — National Park Wildlife Sanctuary Biosphere Reserve
In my district
In my state
In my country
2020-21
SCIENCE 80
(d)            (e) (f)
Fig.  7.2 : (a) Wild dog (b) Cheetal (c) Wolf (d) Leopard (e) Fern (f) Jamun tree
Activity  7.4
List the factors disturbing the
biodiversity of your area. Some of
these factors and human activities
may disturb the biodiversity
unknowingly. List these human
activities. How can these be checked?
Discuss in your class and write a
brief report in your notebook.
7.5  Flora and Fauna
As the children walk around the
biosphere reserve they appreciate the
green wealth of the forest. They are
very happy to see tall teak trees and
animals inside the forest. Suddenly,
Paheli finds a rabbit and wants to
catch it. She starts running after it.
Professor Ahmad stops her. He
explains that animals are comfortable
and happy in their own habitat. We
should not disturb them. Madhavji
explains that some animals and plants
typically belong to a particular area.
The plants and animals found in a
particular area are termed flora and
fauna respectively of that area.
Sal, teak, mango, jamun, silver ferns, arjun, etc., are the flora and chinkara, blue-
bull, barking deer, cheetal, leopard, wild dog, wolf, etc. are examples of the fauna
of the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve (Fig. 7.2).
(a) (b) (c)
2020-21
CONSERVATION OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS 81
I have heard that some of the
endemic species may vanish.
Is it true?
Activity 7.5
Try to identify the flora and fauna
of your area and list them.
7.6 Endemic Species
Soon the group quietly enters the deep
forest. Children are surprised to see a
very big squirrel. This squirrel has a big
fluffy tail. They are very curious to know
about it. Madhavji tells them that this
is known as the giant squirrel and is
endemic to this area.
Endemic species are those species
of plants and animals which are found
exclusively in a particular area. They are
not naturally found anywhere else. A
particular type of animal or plant may
be endemic to a zone, a state or a country.
Madhavji shows sal  and wild mango
(Fig. 7.3 (a)] as two  examples of the
Fig. 7.3 (a) : Wild Mango
Fig. 7.3 (b) : Giant squirrel
endemic flora of the Pachmarhi
Biosphere Reserve. Bison, Indian giant
squirrel [Fig. 7.3 (b)] and flying squirrel
are endemic fauna of this area. Professor
Ahmad explains that the destruction of
their habitat,  increasing population and
introduction of new species may affect
the natural habitat of endemic species
and endanger their existence.
Species is a group of population
which are capable of interbreeding.
This means that the members of a
species can reproduce fertile offspring
only with the members of their own
species and not with members of
other species. Members of a species
have common characteristics.
Activity 7.6
Find out the endemic plants and
animals of the region where you live.
2020-21
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