NCERT Textbook - Crop Production And Management Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Science Class 8

Created by: Divey Sethi

Class 8 : NCERT Textbook - Crop Production And Management Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
P
aheli and Boojho went to their
uncle’s house during the summer
vacation. Their uncle is a farmer.
One day they saw some tools like khurpi,
sickle, shovel, plough, etc., in the field.
In order to provide food for a large
population— regular production, proper
management and distribution of food is
necessary.
1.1Agricultural Practices
Till 10,000 B.C. people were nomadic.
They were wandering in groups from
place to place in search of food and
shelter. They ate raw fruits and
vegetables and started hunting for
animals for food. Later, they could
cultivate land and produce rice, wheat
and other food crops. Thus, was born
‘Agriculture’.
When plants of the same kind are grown
and cultivated at one place on a large
scale, it is called a crop. For example,
crop of wheat means that all the plants
grown in a field are that of wheat.
You already know that crops are of
different types like cereals, vegetables
and fruits. These can be classified on the
basis of the season in which they grow.
India is a vast country. The climatic
conditions like temperature, humidity
and rainfall vary from one region to
another. Accordingly, there is a rich
You have learnt that all living
organisms require food. Plants can make
their food themselves. Can you recall
how green plants synthesise their own
food? Animals including humans can
not make their own food. So, where do
animals get their food from?
But, first of all why do we have to eat
food?
You already know that the energy
from food is utilised by organisms for
carrying out their various body
functions, such as digestion, respiration
and excretion. We get our food from
plants, or animals, or both.
Since we all need food,
how can we provide
food to a large number
of people in our
country?
Food has to be
produced on a large
scale.
I want to know
where and how we
use these tools.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
P
aheli and Boojho went to their
uncle’s house during the summer
vacation. Their uncle is a farmer.
One day they saw some tools like khurpi,
sickle, shovel, plough, etc., in the field.
In order to provide food for a large
population— regular production, proper
management and distribution of food is
necessary.
1.1Agricultural Practices
Till 10,000 B.C. people were nomadic.
They were wandering in groups from
place to place in search of food and
shelter. They ate raw fruits and
vegetables and started hunting for
animals for food. Later, they could
cultivate land and produce rice, wheat
and other food crops. Thus, was born
‘Agriculture’.
When plants of the same kind are grown
and cultivated at one place on a large
scale, it is called a crop. For example,
crop of wheat means that all the plants
grown in a field are that of wheat.
You already know that crops are of
different types like cereals, vegetables
and fruits. These can be classified on the
basis of the season in which they grow.
India is a vast country. The climatic
conditions like temperature, humidity
and rainfall vary from one region to
another. Accordingly, there is a rich
You have learnt that all living
organisms require food. Plants can make
their food themselves. Can you recall
how green plants synthesise their own
food? Animals including humans can
not make their own food. So, where do
animals get their food from?
But, first of all why do we have to eat
food?
You already know that the energy
from food is utilised by organisms for
carrying out their various body
functions, such as digestion, respiration
and excretion. We get our food from
plants, or animals, or both.
Since we all need food,
how can we provide
food to a large number
of people in our
country?
Food has to be
produced on a large
scale.
I want to know
where and how we
use these tools.
© NCERT
not to be republished
SCIENCE 2
variety of crops grown in different parts
of the country. Despite this diversity,
two broad cropping patterns can be
identified. These are:
(i) Kharif Crops : The crops which are
sown in the rainy season are called
kharif crops. The rainy season in India
is generally from June to September.
Paddy, maize, soyabean, groundnut,
cotton, etc., are kharif crops.
(ii) Rabi Crops : The crops grown in the
winter season are called rabi crops.
Their time period is generally from
October to March. Examples of rabi
crops are wheat, gram, pea, mustard
and linseed.
Besides these, pulses and vegetables
are grown during summer at many
places.
1.2Basic Practices of Crop
Production
to as agricultural practices. These
activities are listed below.
(i) Preparation of soil
(ii) Sowing
(iii) Adding manure and fertilisers
(iv) Irrigation
(v) Protecting from weeds
(vi) Harvesting
(vii) Storage
1.3 Preparation of Soil
The preparation of soil is the first step
before growing a crop. One of the most
important tasks in agriculture is to turn
the soil and loosen it. This allows the
roots to penetrate deep into the soil. The
loose soil allows the roots to breathe
easily even when they go deep into the
soil. Why does the loosening of soil allow
the roots to breathe easily?
The loosened soil helps in the growth
of earthworms and microbes present in
the soil. These organisms are friends of
the farmer since they further turn and
loosen the soil and add humus to it.
But why does the soil need to be turned
and loosened?
You have learnt  in the previous
classes that soil contains minerals,
water, air and some living organisms.
In addition, dead plants and animals
get decomposed by soil organisms. In
this way, various nutrients held in the
dead organisms are released back into
the soil. These nutrients are again
absorbed by plants.
Since only a few centimetres of the
top layer of soil supports plant growth,
turning and loosening of soil brings the
nutrient-rich soil to the top so that
plants can use these nutrients. Thus,
Why can paddy not be
grown in the winter season?
Paddy requires a lot of
water. Therefore, it is grown
only in the rainy season.
Cultivation of crops involves several
activities undertaken by farmers over a
period of time. You may find that these
activities are similar to those carried out
by a gardener or even by you when you
grow ornamental plants in your house.
These activities or tasks are referred
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
P
aheli and Boojho went to their
uncle’s house during the summer
vacation. Their uncle is a farmer.
One day they saw some tools like khurpi,
sickle, shovel, plough, etc., in the field.
In order to provide food for a large
population— regular production, proper
management and distribution of food is
necessary.
1.1Agricultural Practices
Till 10,000 B.C. people were nomadic.
They were wandering in groups from
place to place in search of food and
shelter. They ate raw fruits and
vegetables and started hunting for
animals for food. Later, they could
cultivate land and produce rice, wheat
and other food crops. Thus, was born
‘Agriculture’.
When plants of the same kind are grown
and cultivated at one place on a large
scale, it is called a crop. For example,
crop of wheat means that all the plants
grown in a field are that of wheat.
You already know that crops are of
different types like cereals, vegetables
and fruits. These can be classified on the
basis of the season in which they grow.
India is a vast country. The climatic
conditions like temperature, humidity
and rainfall vary from one region to
another. Accordingly, there is a rich
You have learnt that all living
organisms require food. Plants can make
their food themselves. Can you recall
how green plants synthesise their own
food? Animals including humans can
not make their own food. So, where do
animals get their food from?
But, first of all why do we have to eat
food?
You already know that the energy
from food is utilised by organisms for
carrying out their various body
functions, such as digestion, respiration
and excretion. We get our food from
plants, or animals, or both.
Since we all need food,
how can we provide
food to a large number
of people in our
country?
Food has to be
produced on a large
scale.
I want to know
where and how we
use these tools.
© NCERT
not to be republished
SCIENCE 2
variety of crops grown in different parts
of the country. Despite this diversity,
two broad cropping patterns can be
identified. These are:
(i) Kharif Crops : The crops which are
sown in the rainy season are called
kharif crops. The rainy season in India
is generally from June to September.
Paddy, maize, soyabean, groundnut,
cotton, etc., are kharif crops.
(ii) Rabi Crops : The crops grown in the
winter season are called rabi crops.
Their time period is generally from
October to March. Examples of rabi
crops are wheat, gram, pea, mustard
and linseed.
Besides these, pulses and vegetables
are grown during summer at many
places.
1.2Basic Practices of Crop
Production
to as agricultural practices. These
activities are listed below.
(i) Preparation of soil
(ii) Sowing
(iii) Adding manure and fertilisers
(iv) Irrigation
(v) Protecting from weeds
(vi) Harvesting
(vii) Storage
1.3 Preparation of Soil
The preparation of soil is the first step
before growing a crop. One of the most
important tasks in agriculture is to turn
the soil and loosen it. This allows the
roots to penetrate deep into the soil. The
loose soil allows the roots to breathe
easily even when they go deep into the
soil. Why does the loosening of soil allow
the roots to breathe easily?
The loosened soil helps in the growth
of earthworms and microbes present in
the soil. These organisms are friends of
the farmer since they further turn and
loosen the soil and add humus to it.
But why does the soil need to be turned
and loosened?
You have learnt  in the previous
classes that soil contains minerals,
water, air and some living organisms.
In addition, dead plants and animals
get decomposed by soil organisms. In
this way, various nutrients held in the
dead organisms are released back into
the soil. These nutrients are again
absorbed by plants.
Since only a few centimetres of the
top layer of soil supports plant growth,
turning and loosening of soil brings the
nutrient-rich soil to the top so that
plants can use these nutrients. Thus,
Why can paddy not be
grown in the winter season?
Paddy requires a lot of
water. Therefore, it is grown
only in the rainy season.
Cultivation of crops involves several
activities undertaken by farmers over a
period of time. You may find that these
activities are similar to those carried out
by a gardener or even by you when you
grow ornamental plants in your house.
These activities or tasks are referred
© NCERT
not to be republished
CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT 3
turning and loosening of soil is very
important for cultivation of crops.
The process of loosening and turning
of the soil is called tilling or ploughing.
This is done by using a plough. Ploughs
are made of wood or iron. If the soil is
very dry, it may need watering before
ploughing. The ploughed field may have
big pieces of soil called crumbs. It is
necessary to break these crumbs with a
plank. The field is levelled for sowing as
well as for irrigation purposes. The
levelling of soil is done with the help of
a leveller.
Sometimes, manure is added to the
soil before tilling. This helps in proper
mixing of manure with soil. The soil is
watered before sowing.
Agricultural Implements
Before sowing the seeds, it is necessary to
break soil to the size of grains to get better
yield. This is done with the help of
various tools. The main tools used for this
purpose are the plough, hoe and cultivator .
Plough : This is being used since
ancient times for tilling the soil, adding
fertilisers to the crop, removing the
weeds, scraping of soil, etc. This
implement is made of wood and is drawn
by a pair of bulls or other animals
(horses, camels, etc.). It contains a
strong triangular iron strip called
ploughshare. The main part of the
plough is a long log of wood which is
called a ploughshaft. There is a handle
at one end of the shaft. The other end is
attached to a beam which is placed on
the bulls’ necks. One pair of bulls and a
man can easily operate the plough
[Fig. 1.1 (a)].
The indigenous wooden plough is
increasingly being replaced by iron
ploughs nowadays.
Hoe : It is a simple tool which is used
for removing weeds and for loosening
the soil. It has a long rod of wood or
iron. A strong, broad and bent plate of
iron is fixed to one of its ends and
Fig. 1.1 (a) : The plough
ploughshaft
ploughshare
beam
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
P
aheli and Boojho went to their
uncle’s house during the summer
vacation. Their uncle is a farmer.
One day they saw some tools like khurpi,
sickle, shovel, plough, etc., in the field.
In order to provide food for a large
population— regular production, proper
management and distribution of food is
necessary.
1.1Agricultural Practices
Till 10,000 B.C. people were nomadic.
They were wandering in groups from
place to place in search of food and
shelter. They ate raw fruits and
vegetables and started hunting for
animals for food. Later, they could
cultivate land and produce rice, wheat
and other food crops. Thus, was born
‘Agriculture’.
When plants of the same kind are grown
and cultivated at one place on a large
scale, it is called a crop. For example,
crop of wheat means that all the plants
grown in a field are that of wheat.
You already know that crops are of
different types like cereals, vegetables
and fruits. These can be classified on the
basis of the season in which they grow.
India is a vast country. The climatic
conditions like temperature, humidity
and rainfall vary from one region to
another. Accordingly, there is a rich
You have learnt that all living
organisms require food. Plants can make
their food themselves. Can you recall
how green plants synthesise their own
food? Animals including humans can
not make their own food. So, where do
animals get their food from?
But, first of all why do we have to eat
food?
You already know that the energy
from food is utilised by organisms for
carrying out their various body
functions, such as digestion, respiration
and excretion. We get our food from
plants, or animals, or both.
Since we all need food,
how can we provide
food to a large number
of people in our
country?
Food has to be
produced on a large
scale.
I want to know
where and how we
use these tools.
© NCERT
not to be republished
SCIENCE 2
variety of crops grown in different parts
of the country. Despite this diversity,
two broad cropping patterns can be
identified. These are:
(i) Kharif Crops : The crops which are
sown in the rainy season are called
kharif crops. The rainy season in India
is generally from June to September.
Paddy, maize, soyabean, groundnut,
cotton, etc., are kharif crops.
(ii) Rabi Crops : The crops grown in the
winter season are called rabi crops.
Their time period is generally from
October to March. Examples of rabi
crops are wheat, gram, pea, mustard
and linseed.
Besides these, pulses and vegetables
are grown during summer at many
places.
1.2Basic Practices of Crop
Production
to as agricultural practices. These
activities are listed below.
(i) Preparation of soil
(ii) Sowing
(iii) Adding manure and fertilisers
(iv) Irrigation
(v) Protecting from weeds
(vi) Harvesting
(vii) Storage
1.3 Preparation of Soil
The preparation of soil is the first step
before growing a crop. One of the most
important tasks in agriculture is to turn
the soil and loosen it. This allows the
roots to penetrate deep into the soil. The
loose soil allows the roots to breathe
easily even when they go deep into the
soil. Why does the loosening of soil allow
the roots to breathe easily?
The loosened soil helps in the growth
of earthworms and microbes present in
the soil. These organisms are friends of
the farmer since they further turn and
loosen the soil and add humus to it.
But why does the soil need to be turned
and loosened?
You have learnt  in the previous
classes that soil contains minerals,
water, air and some living organisms.
In addition, dead plants and animals
get decomposed by soil organisms. In
this way, various nutrients held in the
dead organisms are released back into
the soil. These nutrients are again
absorbed by plants.
Since only a few centimetres of the
top layer of soil supports plant growth,
turning and loosening of soil brings the
nutrient-rich soil to the top so that
plants can use these nutrients. Thus,
Why can paddy not be
grown in the winter season?
Paddy requires a lot of
water. Therefore, it is grown
only in the rainy season.
Cultivation of crops involves several
activities undertaken by farmers over a
period of time. You may find that these
activities are similar to those carried out
by a gardener or even by you when you
grow ornamental plants in your house.
These activities or tasks are referred
© NCERT
not to be republished
CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT 3
turning and loosening of soil is very
important for cultivation of crops.
The process of loosening and turning
of the soil is called tilling or ploughing.
This is done by using a plough. Ploughs
are made of wood or iron. If the soil is
very dry, it may need watering before
ploughing. The ploughed field may have
big pieces of soil called crumbs. It is
necessary to break these crumbs with a
plank. The field is levelled for sowing as
well as for irrigation purposes. The
levelling of soil is done with the help of
a leveller.
Sometimes, manure is added to the
soil before tilling. This helps in proper
mixing of manure with soil. The soil is
watered before sowing.
Agricultural Implements
Before sowing the seeds, it is necessary to
break soil to the size of grains to get better
yield. This is done with the help of
various tools. The main tools used for this
purpose are the plough, hoe and cultivator .
Plough : This is being used since
ancient times for tilling the soil, adding
fertilisers to the crop, removing the
weeds, scraping of soil, etc. This
implement is made of wood and is drawn
by a pair of bulls or other animals
(horses, camels, etc.). It contains a
strong triangular iron strip called
ploughshare. The main part of the
plough is a long log of wood which is
called a ploughshaft. There is a handle
at one end of the shaft. The other end is
attached to a beam which is placed on
the bulls’ necks. One pair of bulls and a
man can easily operate the plough
[Fig. 1.1 (a)].
The indigenous wooden plough is
increasingly being replaced by iron
ploughs nowadays.
Hoe : It is a simple tool which is used
for removing weeds and for loosening
the soil. It has a long rod of wood or
iron. A strong, broad and bent plate of
iron is fixed to one of its ends and
Fig. 1.1 (a) : The plough
ploughshaft
ploughshare
beam
© NCERT
not to be republished
SCIENCE 4
Activity 1.1
Take a beaker and fill half of it
with water. Put a handful of wheat
seeds and stir well. Wait for some
time.
Are there seeds which float on
water? Would those be lighter or
heavier than those which sink? Why
would they be lighter? Damaged seeds
become hollow and are thus lighter.
Therefore, they float on water.
This is a good method for
separating good, healthy seeds from
the damaged ones.
Before sowing, one of the important
tasks is to know about the tools used
for sowing seeds [Fig. 1.2 (a), (b)].
Traditional tool : The tool used
traditionally for sowing seeds is
shaped like a funnel [Fig. 1.2 (a)]. The
seeds are filled into the funnel,
passed down through two or three
pipes having sharp ends. These
ends pierce into the soil and place
seeds there.
Cultivator : Nowadays ploughing is
done by tractor driven cultivator. The
use of cultivator saves labour and time.
[Fig. 1.1 (c)].
Fig. 1.1 (b) : A hoe
Fig. 1.2 (a) : Traditional method of sowing
Fig.  1.1 (c) : Cultivator driven by a tractor
1.4 Sowing
Sowing is the most important part of
crop production. Before sowing, good
quality seeds are selected. Good quality
seeds are clean and healthy seeds of a
good variety. Farmers prefer to use seeds
which give a high yield.
Selection of Seeds
grip beam
bent plate
rod
handle
One day I saw my mother put
some gram seeds in a vessel
and pour some water on
them. After a few minutes
some seeds started to float
on top. I wonder why some
seeds float on water!
works like a blade. It is pulled by
animals [Fig. 1.1 (b)].
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
P
aheli and Boojho went to their
uncle’s house during the summer
vacation. Their uncle is a farmer.
One day they saw some tools like khurpi,
sickle, shovel, plough, etc., in the field.
In order to provide food for a large
population— regular production, proper
management and distribution of food is
necessary.
1.1Agricultural Practices
Till 10,000 B.C. people were nomadic.
They were wandering in groups from
place to place in search of food and
shelter. They ate raw fruits and
vegetables and started hunting for
animals for food. Later, they could
cultivate land and produce rice, wheat
and other food crops. Thus, was born
‘Agriculture’.
When plants of the same kind are grown
and cultivated at one place on a large
scale, it is called a crop. For example,
crop of wheat means that all the plants
grown in a field are that of wheat.
You already know that crops are of
different types like cereals, vegetables
and fruits. These can be classified on the
basis of the season in which they grow.
India is a vast country. The climatic
conditions like temperature, humidity
and rainfall vary from one region to
another. Accordingly, there is a rich
You have learnt that all living
organisms require food. Plants can make
their food themselves. Can you recall
how green plants synthesise their own
food? Animals including humans can
not make their own food. So, where do
animals get their food from?
But, first of all why do we have to eat
food?
You already know that the energy
from food is utilised by organisms for
carrying out their various body
functions, such as digestion, respiration
and excretion. We get our food from
plants, or animals, or both.
Since we all need food,
how can we provide
food to a large number
of people in our
country?
Food has to be
produced on a large
scale.
I want to know
where and how we
use these tools.
© NCERT
not to be republished
SCIENCE 2
variety of crops grown in different parts
of the country. Despite this diversity,
two broad cropping patterns can be
identified. These are:
(i) Kharif Crops : The crops which are
sown in the rainy season are called
kharif crops. The rainy season in India
is generally from June to September.
Paddy, maize, soyabean, groundnut,
cotton, etc., are kharif crops.
(ii) Rabi Crops : The crops grown in the
winter season are called rabi crops.
Their time period is generally from
October to March. Examples of rabi
crops are wheat, gram, pea, mustard
and linseed.
Besides these, pulses and vegetables
are grown during summer at many
places.
1.2Basic Practices of Crop
Production
to as agricultural practices. These
activities are listed below.
(i) Preparation of soil
(ii) Sowing
(iii) Adding manure and fertilisers
(iv) Irrigation
(v) Protecting from weeds
(vi) Harvesting
(vii) Storage
1.3 Preparation of Soil
The preparation of soil is the first step
before growing a crop. One of the most
important tasks in agriculture is to turn
the soil and loosen it. This allows the
roots to penetrate deep into the soil. The
loose soil allows the roots to breathe
easily even when they go deep into the
soil. Why does the loosening of soil allow
the roots to breathe easily?
The loosened soil helps in the growth
of earthworms and microbes present in
the soil. These organisms are friends of
the farmer since they further turn and
loosen the soil and add humus to it.
But why does the soil need to be turned
and loosened?
You have learnt  in the previous
classes that soil contains minerals,
water, air and some living organisms.
In addition, dead plants and animals
get decomposed by soil organisms. In
this way, various nutrients held in the
dead organisms are released back into
the soil. These nutrients are again
absorbed by plants.
Since only a few centimetres of the
top layer of soil supports plant growth,
turning and loosening of soil brings the
nutrient-rich soil to the top so that
plants can use these nutrients. Thus,
Why can paddy not be
grown in the winter season?
Paddy requires a lot of
water. Therefore, it is grown
only in the rainy season.
Cultivation of crops involves several
activities undertaken by farmers over a
period of time. You may find that these
activities are similar to those carried out
by a gardener or even by you when you
grow ornamental plants in your house.
These activities or tasks are referred
© NCERT
not to be republished
CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT 3
turning and loosening of soil is very
important for cultivation of crops.
The process of loosening and turning
of the soil is called tilling or ploughing.
This is done by using a plough. Ploughs
are made of wood or iron. If the soil is
very dry, it may need watering before
ploughing. The ploughed field may have
big pieces of soil called crumbs. It is
necessary to break these crumbs with a
plank. The field is levelled for sowing as
well as for irrigation purposes. The
levelling of soil is done with the help of
a leveller.
Sometimes, manure is added to the
soil before tilling. This helps in proper
mixing of manure with soil. The soil is
watered before sowing.
Agricultural Implements
Before sowing the seeds, it is necessary to
break soil to the size of grains to get better
yield. This is done with the help of
various tools. The main tools used for this
purpose are the plough, hoe and cultivator .
Plough : This is being used since
ancient times for tilling the soil, adding
fertilisers to the crop, removing the
weeds, scraping of soil, etc. This
implement is made of wood and is drawn
by a pair of bulls or other animals
(horses, camels, etc.). It contains a
strong triangular iron strip called
ploughshare. The main part of the
plough is a long log of wood which is
called a ploughshaft. There is a handle
at one end of the shaft. The other end is
attached to a beam which is placed on
the bulls’ necks. One pair of bulls and a
man can easily operate the plough
[Fig. 1.1 (a)].
The indigenous wooden plough is
increasingly being replaced by iron
ploughs nowadays.
Hoe : It is a simple tool which is used
for removing weeds and for loosening
the soil. It has a long rod of wood or
iron. A strong, broad and bent plate of
iron is fixed to one of its ends and
Fig. 1.1 (a) : The plough
ploughshaft
ploughshare
beam
© NCERT
not to be republished
SCIENCE 4
Activity 1.1
Take a beaker and fill half of it
with water. Put a handful of wheat
seeds and stir well. Wait for some
time.
Are there seeds which float on
water? Would those be lighter or
heavier than those which sink? Why
would they be lighter? Damaged seeds
become hollow and are thus lighter.
Therefore, they float on water.
This is a good method for
separating good, healthy seeds from
the damaged ones.
Before sowing, one of the important
tasks is to know about the tools used
for sowing seeds [Fig. 1.2 (a), (b)].
Traditional tool : The tool used
traditionally for sowing seeds is
shaped like a funnel [Fig. 1.2 (a)]. The
seeds are filled into the funnel,
passed down through two or three
pipes having sharp ends. These
ends pierce into the soil and place
seeds there.
Cultivator : Nowadays ploughing is
done by tractor driven cultivator. The
use of cultivator saves labour and time.
[Fig. 1.1 (c)].
Fig. 1.1 (b) : A hoe
Fig. 1.2 (a) : Traditional method of sowing
Fig.  1.1 (c) : Cultivator driven by a tractor
1.4 Sowing
Sowing is the most important part of
crop production. Before sowing, good
quality seeds are selected. Good quality
seeds are clean and healthy seeds of a
good variety. Farmers prefer to use seeds
which give a high yield.
Selection of Seeds
grip beam
bent plate
rod
handle
One day I saw my mother put
some gram seeds in a vessel
and pour some water on
them. After a few minutes
some seeds started to float
on top. I wonder why some
seeds float on water!
works like a blade. It is pulled by
animals [Fig. 1.1 (b)].
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not to be republished
CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT 5
Seed drill : Nowadays the seed drill [Fig.
1.2 (b)] is used for sowing with the help
of tractors. This tool sows the seeds
uniformly at proper distances and
depths. It ensures that seeds get covered
by the soil after sowing. This prevents
damage caused by birds. Sowing by
using a seed drill saves time and labour.
Fig. 1.2 (b) : A seed drill
There is a nursery near my
school. I found that little
plants were kept in small
bags. Why are they
kept like this?
Seeds  of a few plants
such as paddy are first
grown in a nursery. When
they grow into plantlets,
they are transplanted in
the field manually. Some
forest plants and flowering
plants are also grown in
the nursery.
An appropriate distance between the
seeds is important to avoid overcrowding
of plants. This allows plants to get
I saw a healthy crop growing
in a farm. In the neighbouring
farm, the plants were weak.
Why do some plants grow
better than others?
sufficient sunlight, nutrients and water
from the soil. Sometimes a few plants
have to be removed to prevent
overcrowding.
1.5 Adding Manure  and
Fertilisers
The substances which are added to the
soil in the form of nutrients for the
healthy growth of plants are called
manure and fertilisers.
Soil supplies mineral nutrients to the
crop. These nutrients are essential for
the growth of plants. In certain areas,
farmers grow crop after crop in the same
field. The field is never left uncultivated
or fallow. Imagine what happens to the
nutrients?
Continuous growing of crops makes
the soil poorer in certain nutrients.
Therefore, farmers have to add manure
to the fields to replenish the soil with
nutrients. This process is called
manuring. Improper or insufficient
manuring results in weak plants.
Manure is an organic substance
obtained from the decomposition of
plant or animal wastes. Farmers dump
plant and animal waste in pits at open
places and allow it to decompose. The
decomposition is caused by some
microorganisms. The decomposed
matter is used as organic manure.
You have already learnt about
vermicomposting in Class VI.
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