NCERT Textbook - Environment Class 7 Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

Created by: Rohini Seth

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Environment Class 7 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


After the long vacation, when Ravi started going to school
again, he noticed that the only playground next to his school
was dug up. People said that a huge building with many
flats will be constructed there. Ravi was almost in tears,
when he realised that the big playground with its soft
grass, marigolds and butterflies is gone for ever. He shared
his feelings with his classmates. In the assembly, the
Principal too sadly observed, “See how our environment
is changing.”
In the class Ravi asked his teacher, “What is
environment?” “Whatever you see in your surroundings,”
said the teacher.
Ravi thought aloud, “That means, the school building,
tables, chairs in the classroom, even that open field, the
road, the garbage, my friends – all are parts of our
environment”!
“Yes” said the teacher, “but wait….. Some objects are
created by nature – for example, mountains, rivers, trees,
animals. Others are made by people – for example roads,
cars, clothes, books”.
Now work in pairs. Make a list with your classmate
sitting next to you, of the creations of nature and by
human beings.
Environment is our
basic life support
system. It provides
the air we breath, the
water we drink, the
food we eat and the
land where we live.
How do human
beings modify this
natural environment?
The car fumes pollute
the air, water is
collected in a pot,
food is served in
vessels and land is
used to build
factories.
Human beings
make cars, mills,
factories and
manufacture
containers. This is
how human beings
modify natural
environment.
1 Environment
Ravi, Paramjeet, Jessy, Mustafa, Asha were all excited
about making the list. “Why is our environment changing?”
asked Iqbal. “It’s all because of our needs. They are
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


After the long vacation, when Ravi started going to school
again, he noticed that the only playground next to his school
was dug up. People said that a huge building with many
flats will be constructed there. Ravi was almost in tears,
when he realised that the big playground with its soft
grass, marigolds and butterflies is gone for ever. He shared
his feelings with his classmates. In the assembly, the
Principal too sadly observed, “See how our environment
is changing.”
In the class Ravi asked his teacher, “What is
environment?” “Whatever you see in your surroundings,”
said the teacher.
Ravi thought aloud, “That means, the school building,
tables, chairs in the classroom, even that open field, the
road, the garbage, my friends – all are parts of our
environment”!
“Yes” said the teacher, “but wait….. Some objects are
created by nature – for example, mountains, rivers, trees,
animals. Others are made by people – for example roads,
cars, clothes, books”.
Now work in pairs. Make a list with your classmate
sitting next to you, of the creations of nature and by
human beings.
Environment is our
basic life support
system. It provides
the air we breath, the
water we drink, the
food we eat and the
land where we live.
How do human
beings modify this
natural environment?
The car fumes pollute
the air, water is
collected in a pot,
food is served in
vessels and land is
used to build
factories.
Human beings
make cars, mills,
factories and
manufacture
containers. This is
how human beings
modify natural
environment.
1 Environment
Ravi, Paramjeet, Jessy, Mustafa, Asha were all excited
about making the list. “Why is our environment changing?”
asked Iqbal. “It’s all because of our needs. They are
© NCERT
not to be republished
2 OUR ENVIRONMENT
Natural
Human
made Human
made
Human
Components
of
Environment
Water
(Hydrosphere)
Air
(Atmosphere)
Land
(Lithosphere)
Living Things
(Biosphere)
Parks
Buildings
Bridges
Roads
Industries Monuments
Individual
Family
Community
Religion Educational
Economic
Political
Situation
Fig. 1.1: Components of Environment
increasing day by day; we are therefore modifying and
at times even destroying our natural surroundings”, the
teacher replied.
From the above conversation you
understand that the place, people, things and
nature that surround any living organism is
called environment. It is a combination of
natural and human made phenomena. While
the natural environment refers to both biotic
and abiotic conditions existing on the earth,
Biotic
The world of
living
organisms.
e.g. plants
and animals.
Abiotic
The world of
non-living
elements.
e.g. land.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


After the long vacation, when Ravi started going to school
again, he noticed that the only playground next to his school
was dug up. People said that a huge building with many
flats will be constructed there. Ravi was almost in tears,
when he realised that the big playground with its soft
grass, marigolds and butterflies is gone for ever. He shared
his feelings with his classmates. In the assembly, the
Principal too sadly observed, “See how our environment
is changing.”
In the class Ravi asked his teacher, “What is
environment?” “Whatever you see in your surroundings,”
said the teacher.
Ravi thought aloud, “That means, the school building,
tables, chairs in the classroom, even that open field, the
road, the garbage, my friends – all are parts of our
environment”!
“Yes” said the teacher, “but wait….. Some objects are
created by nature – for example, mountains, rivers, trees,
animals. Others are made by people – for example roads,
cars, clothes, books”.
Now work in pairs. Make a list with your classmate
sitting next to you, of the creations of nature and by
human beings.
Environment is our
basic life support
system. It provides
the air we breath, the
water we drink, the
food we eat and the
land where we live.
How do human
beings modify this
natural environment?
The car fumes pollute
the air, water is
collected in a pot,
food is served in
vessels and land is
used to build
factories.
Human beings
make cars, mills,
factories and
manufacture
containers. This is
how human beings
modify natural
environment.
1 Environment
Ravi, Paramjeet, Jessy, Mustafa, Asha were all excited
about making the list. “Why is our environment changing?”
asked Iqbal. “It’s all because of our needs. They are
© NCERT
not to be republished
2 OUR ENVIRONMENT
Natural
Human
made Human
made
Human
Components
of
Environment
Water
(Hydrosphere)
Air
(Atmosphere)
Land
(Lithosphere)
Living Things
(Biosphere)
Parks
Buildings
Bridges
Roads
Industries Monuments
Individual
Family
Community
Religion Educational
Economic
Political
Situation
Fig. 1.1: Components of Environment
increasing day by day; we are therefore modifying and
at times even destroying our natural surroundings”, the
teacher replied.
From the above conversation you
understand that the place, people, things and
nature that surround any living organism is
called environment. It is a combination of
natural and human made phenomena. While
the natural environment refers to both biotic
and abiotic conditions existing on the earth,
Biotic
The world of
living
organisms.
e.g. plants
and animals.
Abiotic
The world of
non-living
elements.
e.g. land.
© NCERT
not to be republished
ENVIRONMENT 3
Let’s do
Fig. 1.2: Domains of the Environment
Hydrosphere
Lithosphere
Biosphere
Atmosphere
Let’s do
human environment reveals the activities, creations and
interactions among human beings.
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
Land, water, air, plants and animals comprise the natural
environment. You are familiar with the meaning of
lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere
from your previous class. Let us learn some more facts
about these domains.
Lithosphere is the solid crust or the hard top layer of
the earth. It is made up of rocks and minerals and covered
by a thin layer of soil. It is an irregular surface with
various landforms such as mountains, plateaus, plains,
valleys, etc. Landforms are found over the continents
and also on the ocean floors.
Lithosphere is the domain that provides us forests,
grasslands for grazing, land for agriculture and human
settlements. It is also a source of mineral wealth.
Look at your
surroundings. Make a
list of uses that the
land in your
neighbourhood is
being put to.
Let’s do
Where does the water
you use in your home
and school come
from? Make a list of
different uses of
water in our daily life.
Have you seen anyone
wasting water? How?
Observe the sky while
coming to school.
Make a note whether
the day is cloudy,
rainy, sunny, foggy etc.
The domain of water is referred to as hydrosphere. It
comprises various sources of water and different types of
water bodies like rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, etc. It is
essential for all living organisms.
The atmosphere is the thin layer of air that
surrounds the earth. The gravitational force of the
earth holds the atmosphere around it. It protects us
Word Origin
Environment: French
word Environer/
Environner meaning
“neighbourhood”.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


After the long vacation, when Ravi started going to school
again, he noticed that the only playground next to his school
was dug up. People said that a huge building with many
flats will be constructed there. Ravi was almost in tears,
when he realised that the big playground with its soft
grass, marigolds and butterflies is gone for ever. He shared
his feelings with his classmates. In the assembly, the
Principal too sadly observed, “See how our environment
is changing.”
In the class Ravi asked his teacher, “What is
environment?” “Whatever you see in your surroundings,”
said the teacher.
Ravi thought aloud, “That means, the school building,
tables, chairs in the classroom, even that open field, the
road, the garbage, my friends – all are parts of our
environment”!
“Yes” said the teacher, “but wait….. Some objects are
created by nature – for example, mountains, rivers, trees,
animals. Others are made by people – for example roads,
cars, clothes, books”.
Now work in pairs. Make a list with your classmate
sitting next to you, of the creations of nature and by
human beings.
Environment is our
basic life support
system. It provides
the air we breath, the
water we drink, the
food we eat and the
land where we live.
How do human
beings modify this
natural environment?
The car fumes pollute
the air, water is
collected in a pot,
food is served in
vessels and land is
used to build
factories.
Human beings
make cars, mills,
factories and
manufacture
containers. This is
how human beings
modify natural
environment.
1 Environment
Ravi, Paramjeet, Jessy, Mustafa, Asha were all excited
about making the list. “Why is our environment changing?”
asked Iqbal. “It’s all because of our needs. They are
© NCERT
not to be republished
2 OUR ENVIRONMENT
Natural
Human
made Human
made
Human
Components
of
Environment
Water
(Hydrosphere)
Air
(Atmosphere)
Land
(Lithosphere)
Living Things
(Biosphere)
Parks
Buildings
Bridges
Roads
Industries Monuments
Individual
Family
Community
Religion Educational
Economic
Political
Situation
Fig. 1.1: Components of Environment
increasing day by day; we are therefore modifying and
at times even destroying our natural surroundings”, the
teacher replied.
From the above conversation you
understand that the place, people, things and
nature that surround any living organism is
called environment. It is a combination of
natural and human made phenomena. While
the natural environment refers to both biotic
and abiotic conditions existing on the earth,
Biotic
The world of
living
organisms.
e.g. plants
and animals.
Abiotic
The world of
non-living
elements.
e.g. land.
© NCERT
not to be republished
ENVIRONMENT 3
Let’s do
Fig. 1.2: Domains of the Environment
Hydrosphere
Lithosphere
Biosphere
Atmosphere
Let’s do
human environment reveals the activities, creations and
interactions among human beings.
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
Land, water, air, plants and animals comprise the natural
environment. You are familiar with the meaning of
lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere
from your previous class. Let us learn some more facts
about these domains.
Lithosphere is the solid crust or the hard top layer of
the earth. It is made up of rocks and minerals and covered
by a thin layer of soil. It is an irregular surface with
various landforms such as mountains, plateaus, plains,
valleys, etc. Landforms are found over the continents
and also on the ocean floors.
Lithosphere is the domain that provides us forests,
grasslands for grazing, land for agriculture and human
settlements. It is also a source of mineral wealth.
Look at your
surroundings. Make a
list of uses that the
land in your
neighbourhood is
being put to.
Let’s do
Where does the water
you use in your home
and school come
from? Make a list of
different uses of
water in our daily life.
Have you seen anyone
wasting water? How?
Observe the sky while
coming to school.
Make a note whether
the day is cloudy,
rainy, sunny, foggy etc.
The domain of water is referred to as hydrosphere. It
comprises various sources of water and different types of
water bodies like rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, etc. It is
essential for all living organisms.
The atmosphere is the thin layer of air that
surrounds the earth. The gravitational force of the
earth holds the atmosphere around it. It protects us
Word Origin
Environment: French
word Environer/
Environner meaning
“neighbourhood”.
© NCERT
not to be republished
4 OUR ENVIRONMENT
Glossary
Fig. 1.3: A Pond Ecosystem
from the harmful rays and scorching heat of the sun.
It consists of a number of gases, dust and water vapour.
The changes in the atmosphere produce changes in
the weather and climate.
Plant and animal kingdom together make biosphere
or the living world. It is a narrow zone of the earth
where land, water and air interact with each other to
support life.
What is ecosystem?
At an NCC camp that Ravi’s class was attending, Jessy
exclaimed, “What a heavy downpour.  It reminds me of
my home in Kerala. You should come and see how it
pours and pours and pours over the lush green fields
and coconut plantations.”
Heera from Jaisalmer exclaimed, “We get no rains.
We see only ‘kikar’ and sand, as far as the eyes can
see.” “But you also find camels”, said Ravi.
Let’s do
Sketch or bring
photographs of your
place like the
students in the story.
Ecosystem: It is a
system formed by the
interaction of all
living organisms with
each other and with
the physical and
chemical factors of
the environment in
which they live, all
linked by transfer of
energy and material.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


After the long vacation, when Ravi started going to school
again, he noticed that the only playground next to his school
was dug up. People said that a huge building with many
flats will be constructed there. Ravi was almost in tears,
when he realised that the big playground with its soft
grass, marigolds and butterflies is gone for ever. He shared
his feelings with his classmates. In the assembly, the
Principal too sadly observed, “See how our environment
is changing.”
In the class Ravi asked his teacher, “What is
environment?” “Whatever you see in your surroundings,”
said the teacher.
Ravi thought aloud, “That means, the school building,
tables, chairs in the classroom, even that open field, the
road, the garbage, my friends – all are parts of our
environment”!
“Yes” said the teacher, “but wait….. Some objects are
created by nature – for example, mountains, rivers, trees,
animals. Others are made by people – for example roads,
cars, clothes, books”.
Now work in pairs. Make a list with your classmate
sitting next to you, of the creations of nature and by
human beings.
Environment is our
basic life support
system. It provides
the air we breath, the
water we drink, the
food we eat and the
land where we live.
How do human
beings modify this
natural environment?
The car fumes pollute
the air, water is
collected in a pot,
food is served in
vessels and land is
used to build
factories.
Human beings
make cars, mills,
factories and
manufacture
containers. This is
how human beings
modify natural
environment.
1 Environment
Ravi, Paramjeet, Jessy, Mustafa, Asha were all excited
about making the list. “Why is our environment changing?”
asked Iqbal. “It’s all because of our needs. They are
© NCERT
not to be republished
2 OUR ENVIRONMENT
Natural
Human
made Human
made
Human
Components
of
Environment
Water
(Hydrosphere)
Air
(Atmosphere)
Land
(Lithosphere)
Living Things
(Biosphere)
Parks
Buildings
Bridges
Roads
Industries Monuments
Individual
Family
Community
Religion Educational
Economic
Political
Situation
Fig. 1.1: Components of Environment
increasing day by day; we are therefore modifying and
at times even destroying our natural surroundings”, the
teacher replied.
From the above conversation you
understand that the place, people, things and
nature that surround any living organism is
called environment. It is a combination of
natural and human made phenomena. While
the natural environment refers to both biotic
and abiotic conditions existing on the earth,
Biotic
The world of
living
organisms.
e.g. plants
and animals.
Abiotic
The world of
non-living
elements.
e.g. land.
© NCERT
not to be republished
ENVIRONMENT 3
Let’s do
Fig. 1.2: Domains of the Environment
Hydrosphere
Lithosphere
Biosphere
Atmosphere
Let’s do
human environment reveals the activities, creations and
interactions among human beings.
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
Land, water, air, plants and animals comprise the natural
environment. You are familiar with the meaning of
lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere
from your previous class. Let us learn some more facts
about these domains.
Lithosphere is the solid crust or the hard top layer of
the earth. It is made up of rocks and minerals and covered
by a thin layer of soil. It is an irregular surface with
various landforms such as mountains, plateaus, plains,
valleys, etc. Landforms are found over the continents
and also on the ocean floors.
Lithosphere is the domain that provides us forests,
grasslands for grazing, land for agriculture and human
settlements. It is also a source of mineral wealth.
Look at your
surroundings. Make a
list of uses that the
land in your
neighbourhood is
being put to.
Let’s do
Where does the water
you use in your home
and school come
from? Make a list of
different uses of
water in our daily life.
Have you seen anyone
wasting water? How?
Observe the sky while
coming to school.
Make a note whether
the day is cloudy,
rainy, sunny, foggy etc.
The domain of water is referred to as hydrosphere. It
comprises various sources of water and different types of
water bodies like rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, etc. It is
essential for all living organisms.
The atmosphere is the thin layer of air that
surrounds the earth. The gravitational force of the
earth holds the atmosphere around it. It protects us
Word Origin
Environment: French
word Environer/
Environner meaning
“neighbourhood”.
© NCERT
not to be republished
4 OUR ENVIRONMENT
Glossary
Fig. 1.3: A Pond Ecosystem
from the harmful rays and scorching heat of the sun.
It consists of a number of gases, dust and water vapour.
The changes in the atmosphere produce changes in
the weather and climate.
Plant and animal kingdom together make biosphere
or the living world. It is a narrow zone of the earth
where land, water and air interact with each other to
support life.
What is ecosystem?
At an NCC camp that Ravi’s class was attending, Jessy
exclaimed, “What a heavy downpour.  It reminds me of
my home in Kerala. You should come and see how it
pours and pours and pours over the lush green fields
and coconut plantations.”
Heera from Jaisalmer exclaimed, “We get no rains.
We see only ‘kikar’ and sand, as far as the eyes can
see.” “But you also find camels”, said Ravi.
Let’s do
Sketch or bring
photographs of your
place like the
students in the story.
Ecosystem: It is a
system formed by the
interaction of all
living organisms with
each other and with
the physical and
chemical factors of
the environment in
which they live, all
linked by transfer of
energy and material.
© NCERT
not to be republished
ENVIRONMENT 5
Glossary
Let’s do
Barter System:
It is a trade in which
goods are exchanged
without the use of
money.
Talk to some elderly
person in your
neighbourhood and
collect information
about–
• The trees in his/
her neighbourhood
when he/ she was
your age.
• The indoor games
he/she played.
• His/her favourite
fruit at your age.
• How did they make
themselves
comfortable during
hot summers and
cold   winters?
Display your answers
on a wall/bulletin
board.
Heera says, “Not just camels. If you visit our desert,
you will see snakes, lizards and many insects too.”
 Ravi wondered, “Why do the animals, the vegetation
and the way people live vary from place to place? Are
they all related to each other?”
“Oh yes, very much so”, the teacher replied.
All plants, animals and human beings depend on
their immediate surroundings. Often they are also
interdependent on each other. This relation between the
living organisms, as well as the relation between the
organisms and their surroundings form an ecosystem.
There could be an ecosystem of large rain forest,
grassland, desert, mountains, lake, river, ocean and even
a small pond.
Do you think the park in which Ravi and his friends
played formed an ecosystem?
HUMAN ENVIRONMENT
Human beings interact with the environment and modify
it according to their need. Early humans adapted
themselves to the natural surroundings. They led a
simple life and fulfilled their requirements from the
nature around them. With time needs grew and became
more varied. Humans learn new ways to use and change
environment. They learn to grow crops, domesticate
animals and lead a settled life. The wheel was invented,
surplus food was produced, barter system emerged, trade
started and commerce developed. Industrial revolution
enabled large scale production. Transportation became
faster. Information revolution made communication
easier and speedy across the world.
Have you ever thought why you love eating a juicy
watermelon in summer and hot roasted peanuts in
winter? A perfect balance is necessary between the
natural and human environment. Humans must learn
to live and use their environment in a harmonious way.
Nurie, a girl from Mizoram from Ravi’s class often talks
about the lush green surroundings of her place. Seeing
Ravi upset at having lost his playground, Nurie invited
him to visit her home state during the coming vacation.
Ravi’s teacher asked the students to draw the landscape,
houses and activities of the people and places they visit
during the holidays.
Do you know?
On 5 June every year
the World Environment
Day is celebrated.
© NCERT
not to be republished
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