NCERT Textbook - Executive Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Executive Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


78
Indian Constitution at Work
Chapter Four
EXECUTIVE
INTRODUCTION
Legislature, executive and judiciary are the three organs of government.  Together,
they perform the functions of the government, maintain law and order and look
after the welfare of the people. The Constitution ensures that they work in
coordination with each other and maintain a balance among themselves. In a
parliamentary system, executive and the legislature are interdependent: the
legislature controls the executive, and, in turn, is controlled by the executive.
In this chapter we shall discuss the composition, structure and function of the
executive organ of the government. This chapter will also tell you about the
changes that have occurred in recent times due to political practice. After reading
this chapter, you will be able to
± make a distinction between the parliamentary and the presidential executive;
± understand the constitutional position of the President of India;
± know the composition and functioning of the Council of Ministers and the
importance of the Prime Minister; and
± understand the importance and functioning of the administrative machinery.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 2


78
Indian Constitution at Work
Chapter Four
EXECUTIVE
INTRODUCTION
Legislature, executive and judiciary are the three organs of government.  Together,
they perform the functions of the government, maintain law and order and look
after the welfare of the people. The Constitution ensures that they work in
coordination with each other and maintain a balance among themselves. In a
parliamentary system, executive and the legislature are interdependent: the
legislature controls the executive, and, in turn, is controlled by the executive.
In this chapter we shall discuss the composition, structure and function of the
executive organ of the government. This chapter will also tell you about the
changes that have occurred in recent times due to political practice. After reading
this chapter, you will be able to
± make a distinction between the parliamentary and the presidential executive;
± understand the constitutional position of the President of India;
± know the composition and functioning of the Council of Ministers and the
importance of the Prime Minister; and
± understand the importance and functioning of the administrative machinery.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
79
Chapter 4: Executive
WHAT IS AN EXECUTIVE?
Who is in charge of the administration of your school?
Who takes important decisions in a school or a university?
In any organisation, some office holder has to take
decisions and implement those decisions. We call this
activity administration or management. But
administration requires a body at the top that will take
policy decisions or the big decisions and supervise and
coordinate the routine administrative functioning. You
may have heard about the executives of big companies,
banks or industrial units. Every formal group has a body
of those who function as the chief administrators or the
executives of that organisation. Some office holders decide
the policies and rules and regulations and then some office
holders implement those decisions in actual day-to-day
functioning of the organisation. The word executive means
a body of persons that looks after the implementation of
rules and regulations in actual practice.
In the case of government also, one body may take
policy decisions and decide about rules and regulations,
while the other one would be in charge of implementing
those rules. The organ of government that primarily looks
after the function of implementation and administration
is called the executive.
What are the principal functions of the executive?
Executive is the branch of government responsible for the
implementation of laws and policies adopted by the
legislature. The executive is often involved in framing of
policy. The official designations of the executive vary from
country to country. Some countries have presidents, while
others have chancellors. The executive branch is not just
about presidents, prime ministers and ministers. It also
extends to the administrative machinery (civil servants).
While the heads of government and their ministers, saddled
with the overall responsibility of government policy, are
together known as the political executive, those
responsible for day to day administration are called the
permanent executive.
I remember somebody saying
that the executive in a democracy
is accountable to people. Is that
also true of executives in big
companies? Aren’t they called
CEOs? Who are they
accountable to?
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 3


78
Indian Constitution at Work
Chapter Four
EXECUTIVE
INTRODUCTION
Legislature, executive and judiciary are the three organs of government.  Together,
they perform the functions of the government, maintain law and order and look
after the welfare of the people. The Constitution ensures that they work in
coordination with each other and maintain a balance among themselves. In a
parliamentary system, executive and the legislature are interdependent: the
legislature controls the executive, and, in turn, is controlled by the executive.
In this chapter we shall discuss the composition, structure and function of the
executive organ of the government. This chapter will also tell you about the
changes that have occurred in recent times due to political practice. After reading
this chapter, you will be able to
± make a distinction between the parliamentary and the presidential executive;
± understand the constitutional position of the President of India;
± know the composition and functioning of the Council of Ministers and the
importance of the Prime Minister; and
± understand the importance and functioning of the administrative machinery.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
79
Chapter 4: Executive
WHAT IS AN EXECUTIVE?
Who is in charge of the administration of your school?
Who takes important decisions in a school or a university?
In any organisation, some office holder has to take
decisions and implement those decisions. We call this
activity administration or management. But
administration requires a body at the top that will take
policy decisions or the big decisions and supervise and
coordinate the routine administrative functioning. You
may have heard about the executives of big companies,
banks or industrial units. Every formal group has a body
of those who function as the chief administrators or the
executives of that organisation. Some office holders decide
the policies and rules and regulations and then some office
holders implement those decisions in actual day-to-day
functioning of the organisation. The word executive means
a body of persons that looks after the implementation of
rules and regulations in actual practice.
In the case of government also, one body may take
policy decisions and decide about rules and regulations,
while the other one would be in charge of implementing
those rules. The organ of government that primarily looks
after the function of implementation and administration
is called the executive.
What are the principal functions of the executive?
Executive is the branch of government responsible for the
implementation of laws and policies adopted by the
legislature. The executive is often involved in framing of
policy. The official designations of the executive vary from
country to country. Some countries have presidents, while
others have chancellors. The executive branch is not just
about presidents, prime ministers and ministers. It also
extends to the administrative machinery (civil servants).
While the heads of government and their ministers, saddled
with the overall responsibility of government policy, are
together known as the political executive, those
responsible for day to day administration are called the
permanent executive.
I remember somebody saying
that the executive in a democracy
is accountable to people. Is that
also true of executives in big
companies? Aren’t they called
CEOs? Who are they
accountable to?
2015-16(20/01/2015)
80
Indian Constitution at Work
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF EXECUTIVE?
Every country may not have the same type of executive. You may
have heard about the President of the USA and the Queen of England.
But the powers and functions of the President of the USA are very
different from the powers of the President of India. Similarly, the
powers of the Queen of England are different from the powers of the
King of Nepal. Both India and France have prime ministers, but their
roles are different from each other. Why is this so?
Activity
Procure a photograph of the SAARC summit
meeting or the meeting of G-8 countries and list
those who attended the meeting. Can you imagine
why those people and not some others are attending
the meeting?
To answer this question we will briefly outline the nature of
executive existing in some of these countries. The USA has a
presidential system and executive powers are in the hands of the
president. Canada has a parliamentary democracy with a
constitutional monarchy where Queen Elizabeth II is the formal chief
of state and the prime minister is the head of government. In France,
both the president and the prime minister are a part of the semi-
presidential system. The president appoints the prime minister as
well as the ministers but cannot dismiss them as they are responsible
to the parliament. Japan has a parliamentary system with the
Emperor as the head of the state and the prime minister as the head
of government. Italy has a parliamentary system with the president
as the formal head of state and the prime minister as the head of
government. Russia has a semi-presidential system where president
is the head of state and prime minister, who is appointed by the
president, is the head of government. Germany has a parliamentary
system in which president is the ceremonial head of state and the
chancellor is the head of government.
In a presidential system, the president is the Head of state as well
as head of government. In this system the office of president is very
powerful, both in theory and practice. Countries with such a system
include the United States, Brazil and most nations in Latin America.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 4


78
Indian Constitution at Work
Chapter Four
EXECUTIVE
INTRODUCTION
Legislature, executive and judiciary are the three organs of government.  Together,
they perform the functions of the government, maintain law and order and look
after the welfare of the people. The Constitution ensures that they work in
coordination with each other and maintain a balance among themselves. In a
parliamentary system, executive and the legislature are interdependent: the
legislature controls the executive, and, in turn, is controlled by the executive.
In this chapter we shall discuss the composition, structure and function of the
executive organ of the government. This chapter will also tell you about the
changes that have occurred in recent times due to political practice. After reading
this chapter, you will be able to
± make a distinction between the parliamentary and the presidential executive;
± understand the constitutional position of the President of India;
± know the composition and functioning of the Council of Ministers and the
importance of the Prime Minister; and
± understand the importance and functioning of the administrative machinery.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
79
Chapter 4: Executive
WHAT IS AN EXECUTIVE?
Who is in charge of the administration of your school?
Who takes important decisions in a school or a university?
In any organisation, some office holder has to take
decisions and implement those decisions. We call this
activity administration or management. But
administration requires a body at the top that will take
policy decisions or the big decisions and supervise and
coordinate the routine administrative functioning. You
may have heard about the executives of big companies,
banks or industrial units. Every formal group has a body
of those who function as the chief administrators or the
executives of that organisation. Some office holders decide
the policies and rules and regulations and then some office
holders implement those decisions in actual day-to-day
functioning of the organisation. The word executive means
a body of persons that looks after the implementation of
rules and regulations in actual practice.
In the case of government also, one body may take
policy decisions and decide about rules and regulations,
while the other one would be in charge of implementing
those rules. The organ of government that primarily looks
after the function of implementation and administration
is called the executive.
What are the principal functions of the executive?
Executive is the branch of government responsible for the
implementation of laws and policies adopted by the
legislature. The executive is often involved in framing of
policy. The official designations of the executive vary from
country to country. Some countries have presidents, while
others have chancellors. The executive branch is not just
about presidents, prime ministers and ministers. It also
extends to the administrative machinery (civil servants).
While the heads of government and their ministers, saddled
with the overall responsibility of government policy, are
together known as the political executive, those
responsible for day to day administration are called the
permanent executive.
I remember somebody saying
that the executive in a democracy
is accountable to people. Is that
also true of executives in big
companies? Aren’t they called
CEOs? Who are they
accountable to?
2015-16(20/01/2015)
80
Indian Constitution at Work
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF EXECUTIVE?
Every country may not have the same type of executive. You may
have heard about the President of the USA and the Queen of England.
But the powers and functions of the President of the USA are very
different from the powers of the President of India. Similarly, the
powers of the Queen of England are different from the powers of the
King of Nepal. Both India and France have prime ministers, but their
roles are different from each other. Why is this so?
Activity
Procure a photograph of the SAARC summit
meeting or the meeting of G-8 countries and list
those who attended the meeting. Can you imagine
why those people and not some others are attending
the meeting?
To answer this question we will briefly outline the nature of
executive existing in some of these countries. The USA has a
presidential system and executive powers are in the hands of the
president. Canada has a parliamentary democracy with a
constitutional monarchy where Queen Elizabeth II is the formal chief
of state and the prime minister is the head of government. In France,
both the president and the prime minister are a part of the semi-
presidential system. The president appoints the prime minister as
well as the ministers but cannot dismiss them as they are responsible
to the parliament. Japan has a parliamentary system with the
Emperor as the head of the state and the prime minister as the head
of government. Italy has a parliamentary system with the president
as the formal head of state and the prime minister as the head of
government. Russia has a semi-presidential system where president
is the head of state and prime minister, who is appointed by the
president, is the head of government. Germany has a parliamentary
system in which president is the ceremonial head of state and the
chancellor is the head of government.
In a presidential system, the president is the Head of state as well
as head of government. In this system the office of president is very
powerful, both in theory and practice. Countries with such a system
include the United States, Brazil and most nations in Latin America.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
81
Chapter 4: Executive
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 5


78
Indian Constitution at Work
Chapter Four
EXECUTIVE
INTRODUCTION
Legislature, executive and judiciary are the three organs of government.  Together,
they perform the functions of the government, maintain law and order and look
after the welfare of the people. The Constitution ensures that they work in
coordination with each other and maintain a balance among themselves. In a
parliamentary system, executive and the legislature are interdependent: the
legislature controls the executive, and, in turn, is controlled by the executive.
In this chapter we shall discuss the composition, structure and function of the
executive organ of the government. This chapter will also tell you about the
changes that have occurred in recent times due to political practice. After reading
this chapter, you will be able to
± make a distinction between the parliamentary and the presidential executive;
± understand the constitutional position of the President of India;
± know the composition and functioning of the Council of Ministers and the
importance of the Prime Minister; and
± understand the importance and functioning of the administrative machinery.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
79
Chapter 4: Executive
WHAT IS AN EXECUTIVE?
Who is in charge of the administration of your school?
Who takes important decisions in a school or a university?
In any organisation, some office holder has to take
decisions and implement those decisions. We call this
activity administration or management. But
administration requires a body at the top that will take
policy decisions or the big decisions and supervise and
coordinate the routine administrative functioning. You
may have heard about the executives of big companies,
banks or industrial units. Every formal group has a body
of those who function as the chief administrators or the
executives of that organisation. Some office holders decide
the policies and rules and regulations and then some office
holders implement those decisions in actual day-to-day
functioning of the organisation. The word executive means
a body of persons that looks after the implementation of
rules and regulations in actual practice.
In the case of government also, one body may take
policy decisions and decide about rules and regulations,
while the other one would be in charge of implementing
those rules. The organ of government that primarily looks
after the function of implementation and administration
is called the executive.
What are the principal functions of the executive?
Executive is the branch of government responsible for the
implementation of laws and policies adopted by the
legislature. The executive is often involved in framing of
policy. The official designations of the executive vary from
country to country. Some countries have presidents, while
others have chancellors. The executive branch is not just
about presidents, prime ministers and ministers. It also
extends to the administrative machinery (civil servants).
While the heads of government and their ministers, saddled
with the overall responsibility of government policy, are
together known as the political executive, those
responsible for day to day administration are called the
permanent executive.
I remember somebody saying
that the executive in a democracy
is accountable to people. Is that
also true of executives in big
companies? Aren’t they called
CEOs? Who are they
accountable to?
2015-16(20/01/2015)
80
Indian Constitution at Work
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF EXECUTIVE?
Every country may not have the same type of executive. You may
have heard about the President of the USA and the Queen of England.
But the powers and functions of the President of the USA are very
different from the powers of the President of India. Similarly, the
powers of the Queen of England are different from the powers of the
King of Nepal. Both India and France have prime ministers, but their
roles are different from each other. Why is this so?
Activity
Procure a photograph of the SAARC summit
meeting or the meeting of G-8 countries and list
those who attended the meeting. Can you imagine
why those people and not some others are attending
the meeting?
To answer this question we will briefly outline the nature of
executive existing in some of these countries. The USA has a
presidential system and executive powers are in the hands of the
president. Canada has a parliamentary democracy with a
constitutional monarchy where Queen Elizabeth II is the formal chief
of state and the prime minister is the head of government. In France,
both the president and the prime minister are a part of the semi-
presidential system. The president appoints the prime minister as
well as the ministers but cannot dismiss them as they are responsible
to the parliament. Japan has a parliamentary system with the
Emperor as the head of the state and the prime minister as the head
of government. Italy has a parliamentary system with the president
as the formal head of state and the prime minister as the head of
government. Russia has a semi-presidential system where president
is the head of state and prime minister, who is appointed by the
president, is the head of government. Germany has a parliamentary
system in which president is the ceremonial head of state and the
chancellor is the head of government.
In a presidential system, the president is the Head of state as well
as head of government. In this system the office of president is very
powerful, both in theory and practice. Countries with such a system
include the United States, Brazil and most nations in Latin America.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
81
Chapter 4: Executive
2015-16(20/01/2015)
82
Indian Constitution at Work
Semi-Presidential Executive in Sri Lanka
In 1978 the constitution of Sri Lanka was amended and the system of
Executive Presidency was introduced. Under the system of Executive
Presidency, people directly elect the President. It may happen that both
the President and the Prime Minister belong to the same political party
or to different political parties.
The President has vast powers under the constitution. The President
chooses the Prime Minister from the party that has a majority in the
Parliament. Though ministers must be members of the Parliament, the
President has the power to remove the Prime Minister, or ministers.
Apart from being the elected Head of State and the Commander-in-
Chief of the Armed Forces, the President is also the Head of the
Government.
Elected for a term of six years, the President cannot be removed
except by a resolution in the parliament passed by at least two-thirds
of the total number of Members of Parliament. If it is passed by not less
than one-half of the total number of Members of Parliament and the
Speaker is satisfied that such allegations merit inquiry then the Speaker
can report the matter to the Supreme Court.
How is the position of the President and Prime Minister in Sri Lanka
different from India? Compare the role of Supreme Court in the
impeachment of the President in India and Sri Lanka.
In a parliamentary system, the prime minister is the head of
government. Most parliamentary systems have a president or a
monarch who is the nominal Head of state. In such a system, the
role of president or monarch is primarily ceremonial and prime
minister along with the cabinet wields effective power. Countries with
such system include Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom as well
as Portugal. A semi-presidential system has both a president and a
prime minister but unlike the parliamentary system the president
may possess significant day-to-day powers. In this system, it is
possible that sometimes the president and the prime minister may
belong to the same party and at times they may belong to two different
parties and thus, would be opposed to each other. Countries with
such a system include France, Russia, Sri Lanka, etc.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
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