NCERT Textbook - Federalism Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Federalism Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


150
Indian Constitution at Work
Chapter Seven
FEDERALISM
INTRODUCTION
Look at the political maps (on next two pages) of India 1947 and 2001. They
have changed dramatically over the years. Boundaries of States have changed,
names of States have changed, and the number of States has changed. When
India became independent, we had a number of provinces that the British
government had organised only for administrative convenience. Then a number
of princely states merged with the newly independent Indian union. These
were joined to the existing provinces. This is what you see in the first map.
Since then boundaries of States have been reorganised many times. During this
entire period, not only did boundaries of State change, but in some cases, even
their names changed according to the wishes of the people of those States. Thus,
Mysore changed to Karnataka and Madras became Tamil Nadu. The maps show
these large scale changes that have taken place in the span of over fifty years.  In
a way, these maps also tell us the story of functioning of federalism in India.
After studying this chapter you will be able to understand the following:
± what is Federalism;
± the federal provisions in the Indian Constitution;
± the issues involved  in the relations between the centre and the States; and
± the special provisions for certain States having a distinct composition and
historical features.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 2


150
Indian Constitution at Work
Chapter Seven
FEDERALISM
INTRODUCTION
Look at the political maps (on next two pages) of India 1947 and 2001. They
have changed dramatically over the years. Boundaries of States have changed,
names of States have changed, and the number of States has changed. When
India became independent, we had a number of provinces that the British
government had organised only for administrative convenience. Then a number
of princely states merged with the newly independent Indian union. These
were joined to the existing provinces. This is what you see in the first map.
Since then boundaries of States have been reorganised many times. During this
entire period, not only did boundaries of State change, but in some cases, even
their names changed according to the wishes of the people of those States. Thus,
Mysore changed to Karnataka and Madras became Tamil Nadu. The maps show
these large scale changes that have taken place in the span of over fifty years.  In
a way, these maps also tell us the story of functioning of federalism in India.
After studying this chapter you will be able to understand the following:
± what is Federalism;
± the federal provisions in the Indian Constitution;
± the issues involved  in the relations between the centre and the States; and
± the special provisions for certain States having a distinct composition and
historical features.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
151
Chapter 7: Federalism
INDIA IN 1947
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 3


150
Indian Constitution at Work
Chapter Seven
FEDERALISM
INTRODUCTION
Look at the political maps (on next two pages) of India 1947 and 2001. They
have changed dramatically over the years. Boundaries of States have changed,
names of States have changed, and the number of States has changed. When
India became independent, we had a number of provinces that the British
government had organised only for administrative convenience. Then a number
of princely states merged with the newly independent Indian union. These
were joined to the existing provinces. This is what you see in the first map.
Since then boundaries of States have been reorganised many times. During this
entire period, not only did boundaries of State change, but in some cases, even
their names changed according to the wishes of the people of those States. Thus,
Mysore changed to Karnataka and Madras became Tamil Nadu. The maps show
these large scale changes that have taken place in the span of over fifty years.  In
a way, these maps also tell us the story of functioning of federalism in India.
After studying this chapter you will be able to understand the following:
± what is Federalism;
± the federal provisions in the Indian Constitution;
± the issues involved  in the relations between the centre and the States; and
± the special provisions for certain States having a distinct composition and
historical features.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
151
Chapter 7: Federalism
INDIA IN 1947
2015-16(20/01/2015)
152
Indian Constitution at Work
INDIA
2001
Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India on the 2nd June, 2014 after
reorganisation of the State of Andhra Pradesh.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 4


150
Indian Constitution at Work
Chapter Seven
FEDERALISM
INTRODUCTION
Look at the political maps (on next two pages) of India 1947 and 2001. They
have changed dramatically over the years. Boundaries of States have changed,
names of States have changed, and the number of States has changed. When
India became independent, we had a number of provinces that the British
government had organised only for administrative convenience. Then a number
of princely states merged with the newly independent Indian union. These
were joined to the existing provinces. This is what you see in the first map.
Since then boundaries of States have been reorganised many times. During this
entire period, not only did boundaries of State change, but in some cases, even
their names changed according to the wishes of the people of those States. Thus,
Mysore changed to Karnataka and Madras became Tamil Nadu. The maps show
these large scale changes that have taken place in the span of over fifty years.  In
a way, these maps also tell us the story of functioning of federalism in India.
After studying this chapter you will be able to understand the following:
± what is Federalism;
± the federal provisions in the Indian Constitution;
± the issues involved  in the relations between the centre and the States; and
± the special provisions for certain States having a distinct composition and
historical features.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
151
Chapter 7: Federalism
INDIA IN 1947
2015-16(20/01/2015)
152
Indian Constitution at Work
INDIA
2001
Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India on the 2nd June, 2014 after
reorganisation of the State of Andhra Pradesh.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
153
Chapter 7: Federalism
WHAT IS FEDERALISM?
USSR was one of the world’s super
powers, but after 1989 it simply
broke up into several independent
countries. One of the major
reasons for its break up was the
excessive centralisation and
concentration of power, and the
domination of Russia over other
regions with independent
languages and cultures of their
own e.g. Uzbekistan. Some other
countries like Czechoslovakia,
Yugoslavia, and Pakistan also had
to face a division of the country.
Canada came very close to a break
up between the English–speaking
and the French-speaking regions
of that country. Isn’t it a great
achievement that India, which
emerged as an independent
nation-state in 1947 after a painful
partition, has remained united over
six decades of its independent
existence? What accounts for
this achievement? Can we attribute
it to the federal structure
of governance that we in
India adopted through our
Constitution? All the countries
mentioned above, were federations.
Yet they could not remain united.
Therefore, apart from adopting a
federal constitution, the nature of
that federal system and the
practice of federalism must also be
important factors.
Federalism in West Indies
You may have heard about
the cricket team of West
Indies. But is there a country
called West Indies?
Like India, West Indies
was also colonised by the
British. In 1958, the
federation of West Indies
came into being. It had a
weak central government
and the economy of each unit
was independent. These
features and political
competition among the units
led to the formal dissolution
of the federation in
1962. Later, in 1973 by
Treaty of Chiguaramas
the independent islands
established joint authorities
in the form of a common
legislature, supreme court, a
common currency, and, to a
degree, a common market
known as the Caribbean
Community. The Caribbean
Community has even a
common executive, and
Heads of the governments of
member countries are
members of this executive.
Thus, the units could
neither live together as one
country, nor can they live
separately!
2015-16(20/01/2015)
Page 5


150
Indian Constitution at Work
Chapter Seven
FEDERALISM
INTRODUCTION
Look at the political maps (on next two pages) of India 1947 and 2001. They
have changed dramatically over the years. Boundaries of States have changed,
names of States have changed, and the number of States has changed. When
India became independent, we had a number of provinces that the British
government had organised only for administrative convenience. Then a number
of princely states merged with the newly independent Indian union. These
were joined to the existing provinces. This is what you see in the first map.
Since then boundaries of States have been reorganised many times. During this
entire period, not only did boundaries of State change, but in some cases, even
their names changed according to the wishes of the people of those States. Thus,
Mysore changed to Karnataka and Madras became Tamil Nadu. The maps show
these large scale changes that have taken place in the span of over fifty years.  In
a way, these maps also tell us the story of functioning of federalism in India.
After studying this chapter you will be able to understand the following:
± what is Federalism;
± the federal provisions in the Indian Constitution;
± the issues involved  in the relations between the centre and the States; and
± the special provisions for certain States having a distinct composition and
historical features.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
151
Chapter 7: Federalism
INDIA IN 1947
2015-16(20/01/2015)
152
Indian Constitution at Work
INDIA
2001
Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India on the 2nd June, 2014 after
reorganisation of the State of Andhra Pradesh.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
153
Chapter 7: Federalism
WHAT IS FEDERALISM?
USSR was one of the world’s super
powers, but after 1989 it simply
broke up into several independent
countries. One of the major
reasons for its break up was the
excessive centralisation and
concentration of power, and the
domination of Russia over other
regions with independent
languages and cultures of their
own e.g. Uzbekistan. Some other
countries like Czechoslovakia,
Yugoslavia, and Pakistan also had
to face a division of the country.
Canada came very close to a break
up between the English–speaking
and the French-speaking regions
of that country. Isn’t it a great
achievement that India, which
emerged as an independent
nation-state in 1947 after a painful
partition, has remained united over
six decades of its independent
existence? What accounts for
this achievement? Can we attribute
it to the federal structure
of governance that we in
India adopted through our
Constitution? All the countries
mentioned above, were federations.
Yet they could not remain united.
Therefore, apart from adopting a
federal constitution, the nature of
that federal system and the
practice of federalism must also be
important factors.
Federalism in West Indies
You may have heard about
the cricket team of West
Indies. But is there a country
called West Indies?
Like India, West Indies
was also colonised by the
British. In 1958, the
federation of West Indies
came into being. It had a
weak central government
and the economy of each unit
was independent. These
features and political
competition among the units
led to the formal dissolution
of the federation in
1962. Later, in 1973 by
Treaty of Chiguaramas
the independent islands
established joint authorities
in the form of a common
legislature, supreme court, a
common currency, and, to a
degree, a common market
known as the Caribbean
Community. The Caribbean
Community has even a
common executive, and
Heads of the governments of
member countries are
members of this executive.
Thus, the units could
neither live together as one
country, nor can they live
separately!
2015-16(20/01/2015)
154
Indian Constitution at Work
India is a land of continental proportions and immense
diversities. There are more than 20 major languages and
several hundred minor ones. It is the home of several major
religions. There are several million indigenous peoples
living in different parts of the country. In spite of all these
diversities we share a common land mass. We have also
participated in a common history, especially, when we
fought for independence. We also share many other
important features. This has led our national leaders to
visualise India as a country where there is unity in
diversity. Sometimes it is described as unity with diversity.
Federalism does not consist of a set of fixed principles,
which are applied, to different historical situations. Rather,
federalism as a principle of government has evolved
differently in different situations. American federalism –
one of the first major attempts to build a federal polity – is
different from German or Indian federalism. But there are
also a few key ideas and concepts associated with
federalism.
± Essentially, federalism is an institutional mechanism
to accommodate two sets of polities—one at the
regional level and the other at the national level. Each
government is autonomous in its own sphere. In some
federal countries, there is even a system of dual
citizenship. India has only a single citizenship.
± The people likewise, have two sets of identities and
loyalties—they belong to the region as well as the
nation, for example we are Gujaratis or Jharkhandis
as well as Indians. Each level of the polity has distinct
powers and responsibilities and has a separate system
of government.
± The details of this dual system of government are
generally spelt out in a written constitution, which is
considered to be supreme and which is also the source
of the power of both sets of government. Certain
subjects, which concern the nation as a whole, for
example, defence or currency, are the responsibility
of the union or central government. Regional or local
I get it! It’s like our school. We
have our identity as students
of class XI or XII and so on.
And we also have competition
among the various divisions.
But we all belong to the school
and are proud of it.
2015-16(20/01/2015)
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