NCERT Textbook - Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography Class 12

Created by: Mehtab Ahmed

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit V Unit V Unit V Unit V Unit V
Chapter 12
GEOGRAPHICAL
PERSPECTIVE ON
SELECTED ISSUES
AND PROBLEMS
En En En En Envir vir vir vir vironmental P onmental P onmental P onmental P onmental Pollution ollution ollution ollution ollution
Environmental pollution results from ‘the
release of substances and energy from waste
products of human activities. There are many
types of pollution. They are classified on the
basis of medium through which pollutants are
transported and diffused. Pollution can be
classified into (i) air pollution, (ii) water
pollution, (iii) land pollution and (iv) noise
pollution.
Water Pollution
Indiscriminate use of water by increasing
population and industrial expansion has led
degradation of the quality of water considerably.
Surface water available from rivers, canals,
lakes, etc. is never pure. It contains small
quantities of suspended particles, organic and
inorganic substances. When concentration of
these substances increases, the water becomes
polluted, and hence becomes unfit for use. In
such a situation, the self-purifying capacity of
water is unable to purify the water.
Though water pollutants are also created
from natural sources (erosion, landslides,
decay and decomposition of plants and
animals, etc.) pollutants from human sources
are the real causes of concern. Human beings
pollute the water through industrial,
agricultural and cultural activities. Among
these activities, industry is the most significant
contributor.
Fig.12.1 : Cutting Through Effluent : Rowing
through a pervasive layer of foam on the heavily
polluted Yamuna on the outskirts of New Delhi
2015-16
Page 2


Unit V Unit V Unit V Unit V Unit V
Chapter 12
GEOGRAPHICAL
PERSPECTIVE ON
SELECTED ISSUES
AND PROBLEMS
En En En En Envir vir vir vir vironmental P onmental P onmental P onmental P onmental Pollution ollution ollution ollution ollution
Environmental pollution results from ‘the
release of substances and energy from waste
products of human activities. There are many
types of pollution. They are classified on the
basis of medium through which pollutants are
transported and diffused. Pollution can be
classified into (i) air pollution, (ii) water
pollution, (iii) land pollution and (iv) noise
pollution.
Water Pollution
Indiscriminate use of water by increasing
population and industrial expansion has led
degradation of the quality of water considerably.
Surface water available from rivers, canals,
lakes, etc. is never pure. It contains small
quantities of suspended particles, organic and
inorganic substances. When concentration of
these substances increases, the water becomes
polluted, and hence becomes unfit for use. In
such a situation, the self-purifying capacity of
water is unable to purify the water.
Though water pollutants are also created
from natural sources (erosion, landslides,
decay and decomposition of plants and
animals, etc.) pollutants from human sources
are the real causes of concern. Human beings
pollute the water through industrial,
agricultural and cultural activities. Among
these activities, industry is the most significant
contributor.
Fig.12.1 : Cutting Through Effluent : Rowing
through a pervasive layer of foam on the heavily
polluted Yamuna on the outskirts of New Delhi
2015-16
136 India : People and Economy
Pollution Types Pollution Involved Sources of Pollution
Air Pollution Oxides of sulphur (SO
2
, SO
3
), Oxides of
nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydro-carbon,
ammonia, lead, aldehydes asbestos and beryllium.
Combustion of coal, petrol and diesel,
industrial processes, solid waste disposal,
sewage disposal, etc.
Water Pollution Odour, dissolved and suspended solids,
ammonia and urea, nitrate and nitrites,
chloride, fluoride, carbonates, oil and grease,
insecticide and pesticide residue, tannin,
coliform MPM (bacterial count) sulphates and
sulphides, heavy metals e.g. lead, aresenic,
mercury, manganese, etc., radioactive
substances.
Sewage disposal, urban run-off, toxic
effluents from industries, run-off over
cultivated lands and nuclear power plants.
Land Pollution Human and animal excreta viruses and
bacteria, garbage and vectors therein,
pesticides and fertiliser-residue alkalinity,
fluorides, radio-active substances.
Improper human activities, disposal of
untreated industrial waste, use of pesticides
and fertilisers.
Noise Pollution High level of noise above tolerance level. Aircrafts, automobiles, trains, industrial
processing and advertising media.
Table 12.1 : Types and Sources of Pollution
Industries produce several undesirable
products including industrial wastes, polluted
waste water, poisonous gases, chemical
residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust,
smoke, etc. Most of the industrial wastes are
disposed off in running water or lakes.
Consequently, poisonous elements reach the
reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies, which
destroy the bio-system of these waters. Major
water polluting industries are leather, pulp and
paper, textiles and chemicals.
River and State Polluted Stretches Nature of Pollution Main Polluters
Ganga
(Uttar Pradesh)
Bihar
and
West Bengal
(a) Downstream of Kanpur
(b) Downstream of Varanasi
(c) Farrakka Barrage
1. Industrial pollution from
towns like Kanpur
2. Domestic wastes from
urban centres
3. Dumping of carcasses in
the river
Table 12.2 : Sources of Pollution in the Ganga and the Yamuna Rivers
Cities of Kanpur, Allahabad,
Varanasi, Patna and Kolkata
release domestic waste into the
river
Yamuna
(Delhi)
and
(Uttar Pradesh)
(a) Delhi to confluence with
Chambal
(b)   Mathura and Agra
1. Extraction of water by
Haryana and Uttar
Pradesh for irrigation
2. Agricultural run off
resulting in high levels of
micro-pollutants in the
Yamuna
3. Domestic and industrial
waste of Delhi flowing
into the river
Delhi dumping its domestic
waste
Various types of chemicals used in modern
agriculture such as inorganic fertilisers,
pesticides and herbicides are also pollution
generating components. These chemicals are
washed down to rivers, lakes and tanks. These
chemicals also infiltrate the soil to reach the
ground water. Fertiliser induces an increase in
the nitrate content of surface waters. Cultural
activities such as pilgrimage, religious fairs,
tourism, etc. also cause water pollution. In
India, almost all surface water sources are
2015-16
Page 3


Unit V Unit V Unit V Unit V Unit V
Chapter 12
GEOGRAPHICAL
PERSPECTIVE ON
SELECTED ISSUES
AND PROBLEMS
En En En En Envir vir vir vir vironmental P onmental P onmental P onmental P onmental Pollution ollution ollution ollution ollution
Environmental pollution results from ‘the
release of substances and energy from waste
products of human activities. There are many
types of pollution. They are classified on the
basis of medium through which pollutants are
transported and diffused. Pollution can be
classified into (i) air pollution, (ii) water
pollution, (iii) land pollution and (iv) noise
pollution.
Water Pollution
Indiscriminate use of water by increasing
population and industrial expansion has led
degradation of the quality of water considerably.
Surface water available from rivers, canals,
lakes, etc. is never pure. It contains small
quantities of suspended particles, organic and
inorganic substances. When concentration of
these substances increases, the water becomes
polluted, and hence becomes unfit for use. In
such a situation, the self-purifying capacity of
water is unable to purify the water.
Though water pollutants are also created
from natural sources (erosion, landslides,
decay and decomposition of plants and
animals, etc.) pollutants from human sources
are the real causes of concern. Human beings
pollute the water through industrial,
agricultural and cultural activities. Among
these activities, industry is the most significant
contributor.
Fig.12.1 : Cutting Through Effluent : Rowing
through a pervasive layer of foam on the heavily
polluted Yamuna on the outskirts of New Delhi
2015-16
136 India : People and Economy
Pollution Types Pollution Involved Sources of Pollution
Air Pollution Oxides of sulphur (SO
2
, SO
3
), Oxides of
nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydro-carbon,
ammonia, lead, aldehydes asbestos and beryllium.
Combustion of coal, petrol and diesel,
industrial processes, solid waste disposal,
sewage disposal, etc.
Water Pollution Odour, dissolved and suspended solids,
ammonia and urea, nitrate and nitrites,
chloride, fluoride, carbonates, oil and grease,
insecticide and pesticide residue, tannin,
coliform MPM (bacterial count) sulphates and
sulphides, heavy metals e.g. lead, aresenic,
mercury, manganese, etc., radioactive
substances.
Sewage disposal, urban run-off, toxic
effluents from industries, run-off over
cultivated lands and nuclear power plants.
Land Pollution Human and animal excreta viruses and
bacteria, garbage and vectors therein,
pesticides and fertiliser-residue alkalinity,
fluorides, radio-active substances.
Improper human activities, disposal of
untreated industrial waste, use of pesticides
and fertilisers.
Noise Pollution High level of noise above tolerance level. Aircrafts, automobiles, trains, industrial
processing and advertising media.
Table 12.1 : Types and Sources of Pollution
Industries produce several undesirable
products including industrial wastes, polluted
waste water, poisonous gases, chemical
residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust,
smoke, etc. Most of the industrial wastes are
disposed off in running water or lakes.
Consequently, poisonous elements reach the
reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies, which
destroy the bio-system of these waters. Major
water polluting industries are leather, pulp and
paper, textiles and chemicals.
River and State Polluted Stretches Nature of Pollution Main Polluters
Ganga
(Uttar Pradesh)
Bihar
and
West Bengal
(a) Downstream of Kanpur
(b) Downstream of Varanasi
(c) Farrakka Barrage
1. Industrial pollution from
towns like Kanpur
2. Domestic wastes from
urban centres
3. Dumping of carcasses in
the river
Table 12.2 : Sources of Pollution in the Ganga and the Yamuna Rivers
Cities of Kanpur, Allahabad,
Varanasi, Patna and Kolkata
release domestic waste into the
river
Yamuna
(Delhi)
and
(Uttar Pradesh)
(a) Delhi to confluence with
Chambal
(b)   Mathura and Agra
1. Extraction of water by
Haryana and Uttar
Pradesh for irrigation
2. Agricultural run off
resulting in high levels of
micro-pollutants in the
Yamuna
3. Domestic and industrial
waste of Delhi flowing
into the river
Delhi dumping its domestic
waste
Various types of chemicals used in modern
agriculture such as inorganic fertilisers,
pesticides and herbicides are also pollution
generating components. These chemicals are
washed down to rivers, lakes and tanks. These
chemicals also infiltrate the soil to reach the
ground water. Fertiliser induces an increase in
the nitrate content of surface waters. Cultural
activities such as pilgrimage, religious fairs,
tourism, etc. also cause water pollution. In
India, almost all surface water sources are
2015-16
Geographical perspective on selected issues and problems     137
contaminated and unfit for human
consumption.
Water pollution is a source of various
water borne diseases. The diseases commonly
caused due to contaminated water are
diarrhoea, intestinal worms, hepatitis, etc. World
Health Organisation shows that about one-
fourth of the communicable diseases in India
are water-borne.
Air Pollution
Air pollution is taken as addition of
contaminants like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odour,
smoke or vapour to the air in substantial
proportion and duration that may be harmful
to flora and fauna and to property. With
increasing use of varieties of fuels as source of
energy, there is a marked increase in emission
of toxic gases into the atmosphere resulting in
the pollution of air. Combustion of fossil fuels,
mining and industries are the main sources of
air pollution. These processes release oxides
of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons,
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and
asbestos.
Air pollution causes various diseases
related to respiratory, nervous and circulatory
systems.
Smoky fog over cities called as urban smog
is caused by atmospheric pollution. It proves
very harmful to human health. Air pollution can
also cause acid rains. Rainwater analysis of
urban environment has indicated that pH value
of the first rain after summer is always lower
than the subsequent rains.
Smog in Mumbai
2015-16
Page 4


Unit V Unit V Unit V Unit V Unit V
Chapter 12
GEOGRAPHICAL
PERSPECTIVE ON
SELECTED ISSUES
AND PROBLEMS
En En En En Envir vir vir vir vironmental P onmental P onmental P onmental P onmental Pollution ollution ollution ollution ollution
Environmental pollution results from ‘the
release of substances and energy from waste
products of human activities. There are many
types of pollution. They are classified on the
basis of medium through which pollutants are
transported and diffused. Pollution can be
classified into (i) air pollution, (ii) water
pollution, (iii) land pollution and (iv) noise
pollution.
Water Pollution
Indiscriminate use of water by increasing
population and industrial expansion has led
degradation of the quality of water considerably.
Surface water available from rivers, canals,
lakes, etc. is never pure. It contains small
quantities of suspended particles, organic and
inorganic substances. When concentration of
these substances increases, the water becomes
polluted, and hence becomes unfit for use. In
such a situation, the self-purifying capacity of
water is unable to purify the water.
Though water pollutants are also created
from natural sources (erosion, landslides,
decay and decomposition of plants and
animals, etc.) pollutants from human sources
are the real causes of concern. Human beings
pollute the water through industrial,
agricultural and cultural activities. Among
these activities, industry is the most significant
contributor.
Fig.12.1 : Cutting Through Effluent : Rowing
through a pervasive layer of foam on the heavily
polluted Yamuna on the outskirts of New Delhi
2015-16
136 India : People and Economy
Pollution Types Pollution Involved Sources of Pollution
Air Pollution Oxides of sulphur (SO
2
, SO
3
), Oxides of
nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydro-carbon,
ammonia, lead, aldehydes asbestos and beryllium.
Combustion of coal, petrol and diesel,
industrial processes, solid waste disposal,
sewage disposal, etc.
Water Pollution Odour, dissolved and suspended solids,
ammonia and urea, nitrate and nitrites,
chloride, fluoride, carbonates, oil and grease,
insecticide and pesticide residue, tannin,
coliform MPM (bacterial count) sulphates and
sulphides, heavy metals e.g. lead, aresenic,
mercury, manganese, etc., radioactive
substances.
Sewage disposal, urban run-off, toxic
effluents from industries, run-off over
cultivated lands and nuclear power plants.
Land Pollution Human and animal excreta viruses and
bacteria, garbage and vectors therein,
pesticides and fertiliser-residue alkalinity,
fluorides, radio-active substances.
Improper human activities, disposal of
untreated industrial waste, use of pesticides
and fertilisers.
Noise Pollution High level of noise above tolerance level. Aircrafts, automobiles, trains, industrial
processing and advertising media.
Table 12.1 : Types and Sources of Pollution
Industries produce several undesirable
products including industrial wastes, polluted
waste water, poisonous gases, chemical
residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust,
smoke, etc. Most of the industrial wastes are
disposed off in running water or lakes.
Consequently, poisonous elements reach the
reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies, which
destroy the bio-system of these waters. Major
water polluting industries are leather, pulp and
paper, textiles and chemicals.
River and State Polluted Stretches Nature of Pollution Main Polluters
Ganga
(Uttar Pradesh)
Bihar
and
West Bengal
(a) Downstream of Kanpur
(b) Downstream of Varanasi
(c) Farrakka Barrage
1. Industrial pollution from
towns like Kanpur
2. Domestic wastes from
urban centres
3. Dumping of carcasses in
the river
Table 12.2 : Sources of Pollution in the Ganga and the Yamuna Rivers
Cities of Kanpur, Allahabad,
Varanasi, Patna and Kolkata
release domestic waste into the
river
Yamuna
(Delhi)
and
(Uttar Pradesh)
(a) Delhi to confluence with
Chambal
(b)   Mathura and Agra
1. Extraction of water by
Haryana and Uttar
Pradesh for irrigation
2. Agricultural run off
resulting in high levels of
micro-pollutants in the
Yamuna
3. Domestic and industrial
waste of Delhi flowing
into the river
Delhi dumping its domestic
waste
Various types of chemicals used in modern
agriculture such as inorganic fertilisers,
pesticides and herbicides are also pollution
generating components. These chemicals are
washed down to rivers, lakes and tanks. These
chemicals also infiltrate the soil to reach the
ground water. Fertiliser induces an increase in
the nitrate content of surface waters. Cultural
activities such as pilgrimage, religious fairs,
tourism, etc. also cause water pollution. In
India, almost all surface water sources are
2015-16
Geographical perspective on selected issues and problems     137
contaminated and unfit for human
consumption.
Water pollution is a source of various
water borne diseases. The diseases commonly
caused due to contaminated water are
diarrhoea, intestinal worms, hepatitis, etc. World
Health Organisation shows that about one-
fourth of the communicable diseases in India
are water-borne.
Air Pollution
Air pollution is taken as addition of
contaminants like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odour,
smoke or vapour to the air in substantial
proportion and duration that may be harmful
to flora and fauna and to property. With
increasing use of varieties of fuels as source of
energy, there is a marked increase in emission
of toxic gases into the atmosphere resulting in
the pollution of air. Combustion of fossil fuels,
mining and industries are the main sources of
air pollution. These processes release oxides
of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons,
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and
asbestos.
Air pollution causes various diseases
related to respiratory, nervous and circulatory
systems.
Smoky fog over cities called as urban smog
is caused by atmospheric pollution. It proves
very harmful to human health. Air pollution can
also cause acid rains. Rainwater analysis of
urban environment has indicated that pH value
of the first rain after summer is always lower
than the subsequent rains.
Smog in Mumbai
2015-16
138 India : People and Economy
Urban Waste Disposal Urban Waste Disposal Urban Waste Disposal Urban Waste Disposal Urban Waste Disposal
Urban areas are generally marked by
overcrowding, congestion, inadequate
facilities to support the fast growing
population and consequent poor sanitary
conditions and foul air. Environmental
pollution by solid wastes has now got
significance because of enormous growth in
the quantity of wastes generated from various
sources. Solid waste refers to a variety of old
and used articles, For example stained small
pieces of metals, broken glasswares, plastic
containers, polythene bags, ashes, floppies,
CDs, etc. dumped at different places. These
discarded materials are also termed as
refuse, garbage and rubbish, etc. and are
disposed of from two sources : (i) household
or domestic establishments, and (ii)
industrial or commercial establishments. The
household wastes is disposed off either on
public lands or on private contractors’ sites,
whereas the solid wastes of industrial units
Noise Pollution
Noise pollution refers to the state of unbearable
and uncomfortable to human beings which is
caused by noise from different sources. This
matter has become a serious concern only in
recent years due to a variety of technological
innovations.
The main sources of noise pollution are
various factories, mechanised construction
and demolition works, automobiles and
aircrafts, etc. There may be added periodical
but polluting noise from sirens, loudspeakers
used in various festivals, programmes
associated with community activities. The level
of steady noise is measured by sound level
expressed in terms of decibels (dB).
Of all these sources, the biggest nuisance
is the noise produced by traffic, because its
intensity and nature depend upon such factors
Fig. 12.2 : Noise monitoring at Panchpatmalai
Bauxite Mine
as the type of aircraft, vehicle, train and the
condition of road as well as that of vehicle (in
case of automobiles). In sea traffic, the noise
pollution is confined to the harbour due to
loading and unloading activities being carried.
Industries cause noise pollution but with
varying intensity depending upon the type of
industry.
Noise pollution is location specific and its
intensity declines with increase in distance from
the source of pollution, i.e. industrial areas,
arteries of transportation, airport, etc. Noise
pollution is hazardous in many metropolitan
and big cities in India.
2015-16
Page 5


Unit V Unit V Unit V Unit V Unit V
Chapter 12
GEOGRAPHICAL
PERSPECTIVE ON
SELECTED ISSUES
AND PROBLEMS
En En En En Envir vir vir vir vironmental P onmental P onmental P onmental P onmental Pollution ollution ollution ollution ollution
Environmental pollution results from ‘the
release of substances and energy from waste
products of human activities. There are many
types of pollution. They are classified on the
basis of medium through which pollutants are
transported and diffused. Pollution can be
classified into (i) air pollution, (ii) water
pollution, (iii) land pollution and (iv) noise
pollution.
Water Pollution
Indiscriminate use of water by increasing
population and industrial expansion has led
degradation of the quality of water considerably.
Surface water available from rivers, canals,
lakes, etc. is never pure. It contains small
quantities of suspended particles, organic and
inorganic substances. When concentration of
these substances increases, the water becomes
polluted, and hence becomes unfit for use. In
such a situation, the self-purifying capacity of
water is unable to purify the water.
Though water pollutants are also created
from natural sources (erosion, landslides,
decay and decomposition of plants and
animals, etc.) pollutants from human sources
are the real causes of concern. Human beings
pollute the water through industrial,
agricultural and cultural activities. Among
these activities, industry is the most significant
contributor.
Fig.12.1 : Cutting Through Effluent : Rowing
through a pervasive layer of foam on the heavily
polluted Yamuna on the outskirts of New Delhi
2015-16
136 India : People and Economy
Pollution Types Pollution Involved Sources of Pollution
Air Pollution Oxides of sulphur (SO
2
, SO
3
), Oxides of
nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydro-carbon,
ammonia, lead, aldehydes asbestos and beryllium.
Combustion of coal, petrol and diesel,
industrial processes, solid waste disposal,
sewage disposal, etc.
Water Pollution Odour, dissolved and suspended solids,
ammonia and urea, nitrate and nitrites,
chloride, fluoride, carbonates, oil and grease,
insecticide and pesticide residue, tannin,
coliform MPM (bacterial count) sulphates and
sulphides, heavy metals e.g. lead, aresenic,
mercury, manganese, etc., radioactive
substances.
Sewage disposal, urban run-off, toxic
effluents from industries, run-off over
cultivated lands and nuclear power plants.
Land Pollution Human and animal excreta viruses and
bacteria, garbage and vectors therein,
pesticides and fertiliser-residue alkalinity,
fluorides, radio-active substances.
Improper human activities, disposal of
untreated industrial waste, use of pesticides
and fertilisers.
Noise Pollution High level of noise above tolerance level. Aircrafts, automobiles, trains, industrial
processing and advertising media.
Table 12.1 : Types and Sources of Pollution
Industries produce several undesirable
products including industrial wastes, polluted
waste water, poisonous gases, chemical
residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust,
smoke, etc. Most of the industrial wastes are
disposed off in running water or lakes.
Consequently, poisonous elements reach the
reservoirs, rivers and other water bodies, which
destroy the bio-system of these waters. Major
water polluting industries are leather, pulp and
paper, textiles and chemicals.
River and State Polluted Stretches Nature of Pollution Main Polluters
Ganga
(Uttar Pradesh)
Bihar
and
West Bengal
(a) Downstream of Kanpur
(b) Downstream of Varanasi
(c) Farrakka Barrage
1. Industrial pollution from
towns like Kanpur
2. Domestic wastes from
urban centres
3. Dumping of carcasses in
the river
Table 12.2 : Sources of Pollution in the Ganga and the Yamuna Rivers
Cities of Kanpur, Allahabad,
Varanasi, Patna and Kolkata
release domestic waste into the
river
Yamuna
(Delhi)
and
(Uttar Pradesh)
(a) Delhi to confluence with
Chambal
(b)   Mathura and Agra
1. Extraction of water by
Haryana and Uttar
Pradesh for irrigation
2. Agricultural run off
resulting in high levels of
micro-pollutants in the
Yamuna
3. Domestic and industrial
waste of Delhi flowing
into the river
Delhi dumping its domestic
waste
Various types of chemicals used in modern
agriculture such as inorganic fertilisers,
pesticides and herbicides are also pollution
generating components. These chemicals are
washed down to rivers, lakes and tanks. These
chemicals also infiltrate the soil to reach the
ground water. Fertiliser induces an increase in
the nitrate content of surface waters. Cultural
activities such as pilgrimage, religious fairs,
tourism, etc. also cause water pollution. In
India, almost all surface water sources are
2015-16
Geographical perspective on selected issues and problems     137
contaminated and unfit for human
consumption.
Water pollution is a source of various
water borne diseases. The diseases commonly
caused due to contaminated water are
diarrhoea, intestinal worms, hepatitis, etc. World
Health Organisation shows that about one-
fourth of the communicable diseases in India
are water-borne.
Air Pollution
Air pollution is taken as addition of
contaminants like dust, fumes, gas, fog, odour,
smoke or vapour to the air in substantial
proportion and duration that may be harmful
to flora and fauna and to property. With
increasing use of varieties of fuels as source of
energy, there is a marked increase in emission
of toxic gases into the atmosphere resulting in
the pollution of air. Combustion of fossil fuels,
mining and industries are the main sources of
air pollution. These processes release oxides
of sulphur and nitrogen, hydrocarbons,
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and
asbestos.
Air pollution causes various diseases
related to respiratory, nervous and circulatory
systems.
Smoky fog over cities called as urban smog
is caused by atmospheric pollution. It proves
very harmful to human health. Air pollution can
also cause acid rains. Rainwater analysis of
urban environment has indicated that pH value
of the first rain after summer is always lower
than the subsequent rains.
Smog in Mumbai
2015-16
138 India : People and Economy
Urban Waste Disposal Urban Waste Disposal Urban Waste Disposal Urban Waste Disposal Urban Waste Disposal
Urban areas are generally marked by
overcrowding, congestion, inadequate
facilities to support the fast growing
population and consequent poor sanitary
conditions and foul air. Environmental
pollution by solid wastes has now got
significance because of enormous growth in
the quantity of wastes generated from various
sources. Solid waste refers to a variety of old
and used articles, For example stained small
pieces of metals, broken glasswares, plastic
containers, polythene bags, ashes, floppies,
CDs, etc. dumped at different places. These
discarded materials are also termed as
refuse, garbage and rubbish, etc. and are
disposed of from two sources : (i) household
or domestic establishments, and (ii)
industrial or commercial establishments. The
household wastes is disposed off either on
public lands or on private contractors’ sites,
whereas the solid wastes of industrial units
Noise Pollution
Noise pollution refers to the state of unbearable
and uncomfortable to human beings which is
caused by noise from different sources. This
matter has become a serious concern only in
recent years due to a variety of technological
innovations.
The main sources of noise pollution are
various factories, mechanised construction
and demolition works, automobiles and
aircrafts, etc. There may be added periodical
but polluting noise from sirens, loudspeakers
used in various festivals, programmes
associated with community activities. The level
of steady noise is measured by sound level
expressed in terms of decibels (dB).
Of all these sources, the biggest nuisance
is the noise produced by traffic, because its
intensity and nature depend upon such factors
Fig. 12.2 : Noise monitoring at Panchpatmalai
Bauxite Mine
as the type of aircraft, vehicle, train and the
condition of road as well as that of vehicle (in
case of automobiles). In sea traffic, the noise
pollution is confined to the harbour due to
loading and unloading activities being carried.
Industries cause noise pollution but with
varying intensity depending upon the type of
industry.
Noise pollution is location specific and its
intensity declines with increase in distance from
the source of pollution, i.e. industrial areas,
arteries of transportation, airport, etc. Noise
pollution is hazardous in many metropolitan
and big cities in India.
2015-16
Geographical perspective on selected issues and problems     139
are collected and disposed off through public
(municipal) facilities at low lying public
grounds (landfill areas). The huge turn out
of ashes and debris from industries, thermal
power houses and building constructions or
demolitions have posed problems of serious
consequences. Solid wastes cause health
hazard through creation of obnoxious smell,
and harbouring of flies and rodents, which
act as carriers of diseases like typhoid,
diphtheria, diarrhoea, malaria and cholera,
etc. These wastes cause frequent nuisance
as and when these are carelessly handled,
spread by wind and splittered through rain
water.
Concentration of industrial units in and
around urban centres gives rise to disposal
of industrial wastes. The dumping of
industrial waste into rivers leads to water
pollution. River pollution from city-based
industries and untreated sewage leads to
serious health problems downstream.
Urban waste disposal is a serious
problem in India. In metropolitan cities like
Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, etc.,
Case Study : Case Study : Case Study : Case Study : Case Study : A Role Model to Restore the Ecology and Safeguard A Role Model to Restore the Ecology and Safeguard A Role Model to Restore the Ecology and Safeguard A Role Model to Restore the Ecology and Safeguard A Role Model to Restore the Ecology and Safeguard
Human Health Human Health Human Health Human Health Human Health in Daurala in Daurala in Daurala in Daurala in Daurala
Based on the universal law “Polluter pays”, effort to restore the ecology and safeguard the human health with
people’s participation has taken place in Daurala near Meerut. These efforts are now bearing fruits after a
span of three years when Meerut based NGO had developed a model for ecological restoration. The meeting
of the Daurala Industries officials, NGOs, Government officials and other stakeholders at Meerut has brought
out results. The powerful logics, authentic studies and the pressure of people have brought a new lease of life
to the twelve thousand residents of this village. It was in the year 2003 that the pitiable condition of Dauralaites
drew the attention of the civil society. The groundwater of this village was contaminated with heavy metals.
The reason was that the untreated wastewater of Daurala industries was leaching to the groundwater table.
The NGO conducted a door to door survey of the health status of the residents and came out with a report.
The organisation, the village community and people’s representatives sat together to find out sustainable
solutions to the health problem. The industrialists showed a keen interest towards checking the deteriorating
ecology. The overhead water tank’ s capacity in the village was enhanced and a 900m extra pipeline was  laid
to supply potable water to the community. The silted pond of the village was cleaned and recharged by
desilting it. Large quantity of silt was removed paving way to large quantity of water so that it recharged the
aquifers. Rainwater harvesting structures have been constructed at different places which has helped in
diluting the contaminants of the groundwater after the monsoons. 1000 trees have also been planted which
have improved the environment.
about 90 per cent of the solid waste is
collected and disposed. But in most of other
cities and towns in the country, about 30
2015-16
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