NCERT Textbook - Globalization and Social Change Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Sociology Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Globalization and Social Change Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Globalisation and
Social Change
6
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 2


Globalisation and
Social Change
6
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
92
o discussion on social change in the twenty-first century can take place
without some reference to globalisation.  It is but natural that in this book on
social change and development, the terms globalisation and liberalisation have
already appeared in your earlier chapters. Recall the section on globalisation,
liberalisation, and rural society in chapter 4. Go back and read the section on
the Indian government’s policy of liberalisation and its impact on Indian
industries in chapter 5. It also came up when we discussed Vision Mumbai and
the new visions for global cities in chapter 3. Other than your school books,
you must have come across the term globalisation in newspapers, television
programmes or even in everyday conversation.
N
Read any newspaper regularly for two
weeks and note down how the term
‘globalisation’ is used. Compare your notes
with others in the class.
Note down references to the term
‘globalisation’ and ‘global’ in different kinds
of television programmes. You can focus
on news and discussions on political or
economic or cultural matters.
ACTIVITY 6.1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 3


Globalisation and
Social Change
6
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
92
o discussion on social change in the twenty-first century can take place
without some reference to globalisation.  It is but natural that in this book on
social change and development, the terms globalisation and liberalisation have
already appeared in your earlier chapters. Recall the section on globalisation,
liberalisation, and rural society in chapter 4. Go back and read the section on
the Indian government’s policy of liberalisation and its impact on Indian
industries in chapter 5. It also came up when we discussed Vision Mumbai and
the new visions for global cities in chapter 3. Other than your school books,
you must have come across the term globalisation in newspapers, television
programmes or even in everyday conversation.
N
Read any newspaper regularly for two
weeks and note down how the term
‘globalisation’ is used. Compare your notes
with others in the class.
Note down references to the term
‘globalisation’ and ‘global’ in different kinds
of television programmes. You can focus
on news and discussions on political or
economic or cultural matters.
ACTIVITY 6.1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Globalisation and Social Change
93
Activity 1 will help you notice the various ways the term is used. But we still
need to be clear about what exactly does the term means. In this chapter we
seek to understand the meaning of globalisation, its different dimensions and
their social consequences.
However, this does not mean that there can be only one definition of
globalisation and only one way of understanding it. Indeed you will find that
different subjects or academic disciplines may focus on different aspects of
globalisation. Economics may be dealing more with the economic dimensions
such as capital flows. Political science may focus on the changing role of
governments. However, the very process of globalisation is so far-reaching that
disciplines have to increasingly borrow from each other  to understand both the
causes and consequences of globalisation. Let us see how sociology seeks to
understand globalisation.
You will recall our early discussions on the scope of sociology and the
distinctive character of the sociological perspective. We go back a bit in order to
focus on the significance of the sociological perspective to understand
globalisation.
The scope of sociological study is extremely wide. It can focus its analysis of interactions
between individuals such as that of a shopkeeper with a customer, between teachers and
students, between two friends or family members.  It can likewise focus on national issues
such as unemployment or caste conflict or the effect of state policies on forest rights of the
tribal population or rural indebtedness. Or examine global social processes such as: the
impact of new flexible labour regulations on the working class; or that of the electronic media
on the young; or the entry of foreign universities on the education system of the country . What
defines the discipline of sociology is therefore not just what it studies (i.e. family or trade
unions or villages) but how it studies a chosen field. (NCERT BOOK 1, Class XI  2005)
You read the above paragraph carefully. You will realise that since sociology
is not defined by what it studies but how it studies, it would be not quite right
to state that sociology only studies the social or cultural consequences of
globalisation. What it does is use the sociological imagination to make sense of
the connections between the individual and society, the micro and the macro,
the local and the global. How is the peasant affected in a remote village? How is
s/he connected to global changes? How has it affected the chances of
employment for the middle class? How has it affected the possibilities of big
Indian corporations becoming transnational corporations? What does it mean
to the neighbourhood grocer if the retail sector is opened up to big transnational
companies? Why are there so many shopping malls in our cities and towns
today? How has it changed the way young people spend their leisure time?
These are just few examples of the wide ranging and different kinds of changes
that globalisation is bringing about. You will find many more instances whereby
global developments are affecting the lives of people. And thereby affecting the
way sociology has to study society.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 4


Globalisation and
Social Change
6
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
92
o discussion on social change in the twenty-first century can take place
without some reference to globalisation.  It is but natural that in this book on
social change and development, the terms globalisation and liberalisation have
already appeared in your earlier chapters. Recall the section on globalisation,
liberalisation, and rural society in chapter 4. Go back and read the section on
the Indian government’s policy of liberalisation and its impact on Indian
industries in chapter 5. It also came up when we discussed Vision Mumbai and
the new visions for global cities in chapter 3. Other than your school books,
you must have come across the term globalisation in newspapers, television
programmes or even in everyday conversation.
N
Read any newspaper regularly for two
weeks and note down how the term
‘globalisation’ is used. Compare your notes
with others in the class.
Note down references to the term
‘globalisation’ and ‘global’ in different kinds
of television programmes. You can focus
on news and discussions on political or
economic or cultural matters.
ACTIVITY 6.1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Globalisation and Social Change
93
Activity 1 will help you notice the various ways the term is used. But we still
need to be clear about what exactly does the term means. In this chapter we
seek to understand the meaning of globalisation, its different dimensions and
their social consequences.
However, this does not mean that there can be only one definition of
globalisation and only one way of understanding it. Indeed you will find that
different subjects or academic disciplines may focus on different aspects of
globalisation. Economics may be dealing more with the economic dimensions
such as capital flows. Political science may focus on the changing role of
governments. However, the very process of globalisation is so far-reaching that
disciplines have to increasingly borrow from each other  to understand both the
causes and consequences of globalisation. Let us see how sociology seeks to
understand globalisation.
You will recall our early discussions on the scope of sociology and the
distinctive character of the sociological perspective. We go back a bit in order to
focus on the significance of the sociological perspective to understand
globalisation.
The scope of sociological study is extremely wide. It can focus its analysis of interactions
between individuals such as that of a shopkeeper with a customer, between teachers and
students, between two friends or family members.  It can likewise focus on national issues
such as unemployment or caste conflict or the effect of state policies on forest rights of the
tribal population or rural indebtedness. Or examine global social processes such as: the
impact of new flexible labour regulations on the working class; or that of the electronic media
on the young; or the entry of foreign universities on the education system of the country . What
defines the discipline of sociology is therefore not just what it studies (i.e. family or trade
unions or villages) but how it studies a chosen field. (NCERT BOOK 1, Class XI  2005)
You read the above paragraph carefully. You will realise that since sociology
is not defined by what it studies but how it studies, it would be not quite right
to state that sociology only studies the social or cultural consequences of
globalisation. What it does is use the sociological imagination to make sense of
the connections between the individual and society, the micro and the macro,
the local and the global. How is the peasant affected in a remote village? How is
s/he connected to global changes? How has it affected the chances of
employment for the middle class? How has it affected the possibilities of big
Indian corporations becoming transnational corporations? What does it mean
to the neighbourhood grocer if the retail sector is opened up to big transnational
companies? Why are there so many shopping malls in our cities and towns
today? How has it changed the way young people spend their leisure time?
These are just few examples of the wide ranging and different kinds of changes
that globalisation is bringing about. You will find many more instances whereby
global developments are affecting the lives of people. And thereby affecting the
way sociology has to study society.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
94
With the opening up of the market and removal of restrictions to the import
of many products we have many more products from different corners of the
world in our neighbourhood shops. Since April 1, 2001, all types of quantitative
restrictions (QR) on imports were withdrawn. It is no surprise now to find a
Chinese pear, an Australian apple vying for attention in the local fruit stall. The
neighbourhood store also has Australian orange juice and ready to fry chips in
frozen packets. What we eat and drink at home with our family and friends
slowly changes. The same set of policy changes affects consumers and producers
differently. What may mean greater choices for the urban, affluent consumer
may mean a crisis of livelihood for a farmer. These changes are personal because
they affect individuals’ lives and lifestyles. They are obviously also linked to
public policies adopted by the government and its agreement with the World
Trade Organisation (WTO). Likewise macro policy changes have meant that instead
of one television channel we have literally scores today. The dramatic changes in
the media are perhaps the most visible effect of globalisation. We will be discussing
this in greater detail in the next chapter. These are just few random examples
but they may help you to appreciate the close interconnection that exists between
your personal lives and the apparently remote policies of globalisation. As
mentioned earlier the sociological imagination enables to make this connection
between the micro and the macro, between the personal and public.
Sociology has been often defined as the discipline that studies ‘society’. You
would remember from your discussions in Book 1, Class XI that the boundaries
of ‘society’ are not easy to draw. A study of a village not only meant study of
different social groups and their ‘societies’ but would also have to take into
account, the ways the village society was linked to the outside world. This
linkage is more valid today than ever before. The sociologist or social
anthropologist cannot study society as though it was an isolated entity. The
compression of space and time has changed this. Sociologists have to study
villages, families, movements, child rearing practices, work and leisure,
bureaucratic organisations or castes taking this global interconnection into
account.  Studies will have to take into account the impact of WTO rules on
agriculture and therefore on the farmer.
The effect of globalisation is far reaching. It affects us all but affects us
differently. Thus, while for some it may mean new opportunities, for others the
loss of livelihood. Women silk spinners and twisters of Bihar lost their jobs once
the Chinese and Korean silk yarn entered the market. Weavers and consumers
prefer this yarn as it is somewhat cheaper and has a shine.  Similar displacements
have come with the entry of large fishing vessels into Indian waters. These
vessels take away the fish that used to be earlier collected by Indian fishing
vessels. The livelihood of women fish sorters, dryers, vendors and net makers
thereby get affected. In Gujarat, women gum collectors, who were picking from
the ‘julifera’ (Baval trees), lost their employment due to the import of cheaper
gum from Sudan. In almost all cities of India, the rag pickers lost some of their
employment due to import of waste paper from developed countries. We will see
later in the chapter how traditional entertainers are affected.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 5


Globalisation and
Social Change
6
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
92
o discussion on social change in the twenty-first century can take place
without some reference to globalisation.  It is but natural that in this book on
social change and development, the terms globalisation and liberalisation have
already appeared in your earlier chapters. Recall the section on globalisation,
liberalisation, and rural society in chapter 4. Go back and read the section on
the Indian government’s policy of liberalisation and its impact on Indian
industries in chapter 5. It also came up when we discussed Vision Mumbai and
the new visions for global cities in chapter 3. Other than your school books,
you must have come across the term globalisation in newspapers, television
programmes or even in everyday conversation.
N
Read any newspaper regularly for two
weeks and note down how the term
‘globalisation’ is used. Compare your notes
with others in the class.
Note down references to the term
‘globalisation’ and ‘global’ in different kinds
of television programmes. You can focus
on news and discussions on political or
economic or cultural matters.
ACTIVITY 6.1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Globalisation and Social Change
93
Activity 1 will help you notice the various ways the term is used. But we still
need to be clear about what exactly does the term means. In this chapter we
seek to understand the meaning of globalisation, its different dimensions and
their social consequences.
However, this does not mean that there can be only one definition of
globalisation and only one way of understanding it. Indeed you will find that
different subjects or academic disciplines may focus on different aspects of
globalisation. Economics may be dealing more with the economic dimensions
such as capital flows. Political science may focus on the changing role of
governments. However, the very process of globalisation is so far-reaching that
disciplines have to increasingly borrow from each other  to understand both the
causes and consequences of globalisation. Let us see how sociology seeks to
understand globalisation.
You will recall our early discussions on the scope of sociology and the
distinctive character of the sociological perspective. We go back a bit in order to
focus on the significance of the sociological perspective to understand
globalisation.
The scope of sociological study is extremely wide. It can focus its analysis of interactions
between individuals such as that of a shopkeeper with a customer, between teachers and
students, between two friends or family members.  It can likewise focus on national issues
such as unemployment or caste conflict or the effect of state policies on forest rights of the
tribal population or rural indebtedness. Or examine global social processes such as: the
impact of new flexible labour regulations on the working class; or that of the electronic media
on the young; or the entry of foreign universities on the education system of the country . What
defines the discipline of sociology is therefore not just what it studies (i.e. family or trade
unions or villages) but how it studies a chosen field. (NCERT BOOK 1, Class XI  2005)
You read the above paragraph carefully. You will realise that since sociology
is not defined by what it studies but how it studies, it would be not quite right
to state that sociology only studies the social or cultural consequences of
globalisation. What it does is use the sociological imagination to make sense of
the connections between the individual and society, the micro and the macro,
the local and the global. How is the peasant affected in a remote village? How is
s/he connected to global changes? How has it affected the chances of
employment for the middle class? How has it affected the possibilities of big
Indian corporations becoming transnational corporations? What does it mean
to the neighbourhood grocer if the retail sector is opened up to big transnational
companies? Why are there so many shopping malls in our cities and towns
today? How has it changed the way young people spend their leisure time?
These are just few examples of the wide ranging and different kinds of changes
that globalisation is bringing about. You will find many more instances whereby
global developments are affecting the lives of people. And thereby affecting the
way sociology has to study society.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Social Change and Development in India
94
With the opening up of the market and removal of restrictions to the import
of many products we have many more products from different corners of the
world in our neighbourhood shops. Since April 1, 2001, all types of quantitative
restrictions (QR) on imports were withdrawn. It is no surprise now to find a
Chinese pear, an Australian apple vying for attention in the local fruit stall. The
neighbourhood store also has Australian orange juice and ready to fry chips in
frozen packets. What we eat and drink at home with our family and friends
slowly changes. The same set of policy changes affects consumers and producers
differently. What may mean greater choices for the urban, affluent consumer
may mean a crisis of livelihood for a farmer. These changes are personal because
they affect individuals’ lives and lifestyles. They are obviously also linked to
public policies adopted by the government and its agreement with the World
Trade Organisation (WTO). Likewise macro policy changes have meant that instead
of one television channel we have literally scores today. The dramatic changes in
the media are perhaps the most visible effect of globalisation. We will be discussing
this in greater detail in the next chapter. These are just few random examples
but they may help you to appreciate the close interconnection that exists between
your personal lives and the apparently remote policies of globalisation. As
mentioned earlier the sociological imagination enables to make this connection
between the micro and the macro, between the personal and public.
Sociology has been often defined as the discipline that studies ‘society’. You
would remember from your discussions in Book 1, Class XI that the boundaries
of ‘society’ are not easy to draw. A study of a village not only meant study of
different social groups and their ‘societies’ but would also have to take into
account, the ways the village society was linked to the outside world. This
linkage is more valid today than ever before. The sociologist or social
anthropologist cannot study society as though it was an isolated entity. The
compression of space and time has changed this. Sociologists have to study
villages, families, movements, child rearing practices, work and leisure,
bureaucratic organisations or castes taking this global interconnection into
account.  Studies will have to take into account the impact of WTO rules on
agriculture and therefore on the farmer.
The effect of globalisation is far reaching. It affects us all but affects us
differently. Thus, while for some it may mean new opportunities, for others the
loss of livelihood. Women silk spinners and twisters of Bihar lost their jobs once
the Chinese and Korean silk yarn entered the market. Weavers and consumers
prefer this yarn as it is somewhat cheaper and has a shine.  Similar displacements
have come with the entry of large fishing vessels into Indian waters. These
vessels take away the fish that used to be earlier collected by Indian fishing
vessels. The livelihood of women fish sorters, dryers, vendors and net makers
thereby get affected. In Gujarat, women gum collectors, who were picking from
the ‘julifera’ (Baval trees), lost their employment due to the import of cheaper
gum from Sudan. In almost all cities of India, the rag pickers lost some of their
employment due to import of waste paper from developed countries. We will see
later in the chapter how traditional entertainers are affected.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Globalisation and Social Change
95
It is obvious that globalisation is of great social significance. But as you saw
its impact on different sections of society is very different. There are, therefore,
sharply divided views about the impact of globalisation regarding its effect.
Some believe that it is necessary to herald a better world. Others fear that the
impact of globalisation on different sections of people is vastly different. They
argue that while many in the more privileged section may benefit, the condition
of a large section of the already excluded population worsens. There are yet
others who argue that globalisation is not a new development at all. In the next
two sections we look at these issues. We find out a bit more about the kind of
global inter-connections that India had in the past. We also examine whether
indeed globalisation has some distinctive features and if so what is it.
6.1 ARE GLOBAL INTERCONNECTIONS
NEW TO WORLD AND TO INDIA
If globalisation is about global interconnections we can ask whether this is
really a new phenomenon.  Was India or the different parts of the world not
interacting with each other in earlier times?
THE EARLY YEARS
India was not isolated from the world even two thousand years ago.  We have
read in our history textbooks about the famous Silk route, which centuries ago
connected India to the great civilisations, which existed in China, Persia, Egypt
and Rome. We also know that through out India’s long past, people from different
parts came here, sometimes as traders, sometimes as conquerors, sometimes
as migrants in search of new lands and settled down here.  In remote Indian
villages often people ‘recall’ a time when their ancestors lived elsewhere, from
where they came and settled down where they now live.
It is interesting to note that the greatest grammarian in Sanskrit namely Panini,
who systematised and transformed Sanskrit grammar and phonetics around the
fourth century BCE, was of Afghan origin. …The seventh-century Chinese scholar  Yi Jing learned
his Sanskrit in Java (in the city of Shri Vijaya) on his way from China to India. The influence of
interactions is well reflected in languages and vocabularies throughout Asia from Thailand to
Malaya to Indo-China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Korea and Japan. …
We can find a warning against isolationism in a parable about a well-frog- the ‘kupamanduka’-
that persistently recurs in several old Sanskrit texts…The kupamanduka is a frog that lives its
whole life within a well, knows nothing else, and is suspicious of everything outside it. It talks to
no one, and argues with no one on anything. It merely harbours the deepest suspicion of the
outside world. The scientific, cultural and economic history of the world would have been very
limited indeed had we lived like well-frogs. (Sen 2005: 84-86)
BOX 6.1
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Complete Syllabus of Humanities/Arts

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

pdf

,

study material

,

Free

,

NCERT Textbook - Globalization and Social Change Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

Important questions

,

Semester Notes

,

Sample Paper

,

Objective type Questions

,

Exam

,

NCERT Textbook - Globalization and Social Change Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

mock tests for examination

,

practice quizzes

,

ppt

,

video lectures

,

Viva Questions

,

past year papers

,

NCERT Textbook - Globalization and Social Change Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

MCQs

,

Summary

,

Extra Questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

;