NCERT Textbook: Handloom And Handicrafts Revival (Introduction to Indian Art) Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

UPSC: NCERT Textbook: Handloom And Handicrafts Revival (Introduction to Indian Art) Notes | Study Must Read (Old & New) NCERTs for IAS Preparation - UPSC

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 Page 1


HANDLOOM AND HANDICRAFTS
REVIVAL 4
AFTER Independence the newly elected government chose
the road to industrialisation. This emphasis on industry
and development further aggravated the damage to the
crafts community caused by 200 years of colonial rule.
However, after Gandhiji’s death, several of his followers
initiated and nurtured government schemes and
programmes to protect the welfare of the crafts
community in India.
The Central and State Governments recognised that
handicrafts, with its labour-intensive character and
wide dispersal through the length and breadth of the
country, constitutes a crucial economic activity. It
would, if supported, bring wealth to the country through
trade and exports. The objective of government schemes
was to provide economic and
social benefits to the
craftsmen of the country and
to promote their work in
domestic and foreign markets.
The four major goals of the
handicrafts development
programmes run by the
government were
1. promotion of handicrafts;
2. research and design
development;
3. technical development;
4. marketing.
Page 2


HANDLOOM AND HANDICRAFTS
REVIVAL 4
AFTER Independence the newly elected government chose
the road to industrialisation. This emphasis on industry
and development further aggravated the damage to the
crafts community caused by 200 years of colonial rule.
However, after Gandhiji’s death, several of his followers
initiated and nurtured government schemes and
programmes to protect the welfare of the crafts
community in India.
The Central and State Governments recognised that
handicrafts, with its labour-intensive character and
wide dispersal through the length and breadth of the
country, constitutes a crucial economic activity. It
would, if supported, bring wealth to the country through
trade and exports. The objective of government schemes
was to provide economic and
social benefits to the
craftsmen of the country and
to promote their work in
domestic and foreign markets.
The four major goals of the
handicrafts development
programmes run by the
government were
1. promotion of handicrafts;
2. research and design
development;
3. technical development;
4. marketing.
CRAFT TRADITIONS OF INDIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE 44
1. PROMOTION OF HANDICRAFTS
In the 1950s and 60s, the Khadi and Village Industries
Commission (KVIC), Central Cottage Industries
Emporium, Handlooms and Handicrafts Export
Corporation, Regional State Handicraft and Handloom
Development Corporations, All India Handicrafts Board,
the Weavers’ Service Centres and Design Centres, and
the Weavers’ Cooperative Apex Societies, were set up in
every state to protect and promote Indian craft producers.
Page 3


HANDLOOM AND HANDICRAFTS
REVIVAL 4
AFTER Independence the newly elected government chose
the road to industrialisation. This emphasis on industry
and development further aggravated the damage to the
crafts community caused by 200 years of colonial rule.
However, after Gandhiji’s death, several of his followers
initiated and nurtured government schemes and
programmes to protect the welfare of the crafts
community in India.
The Central and State Governments recognised that
handicrafts, with its labour-intensive character and
wide dispersal through the length and breadth of the
country, constitutes a crucial economic activity. It
would, if supported, bring wealth to the country through
trade and exports. The objective of government schemes
was to provide economic and
social benefits to the
craftsmen of the country and
to promote their work in
domestic and foreign markets.
The four major goals of the
handicrafts development
programmes run by the
government were
1. promotion of handicrafts;
2. research and design
development;
3. technical development;
4. marketing.
CRAFT TRADITIONS OF INDIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE 44
1. PROMOTION OF HANDICRAFTS
In the 1950s and 60s, the Khadi and Village Industries
Commission (KVIC), Central Cottage Industries
Emporium, Handlooms and Handicrafts Export
Corporation, Regional State Handicraft and Handloom
Development Corporations, All India Handicrafts Board,
the Weavers’ Service Centres and Design Centres, and
the Weavers’ Cooperative Apex Societies, were set up in
every state to protect and promote Indian craft producers.
 45
HANDLOOM AND HANDICRAFTS REVIVAL
Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay
Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay (1903–1988) devoted her life to
the preservation and development of handicrafts and the
dignity and uplift of India’s craftspeople. She was also a
freedom fighter, theatre personality and human rights activist
who worked closely with Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma
Gandhi. In the freedom movement she was one of the
prominent personalities in the Congress Party and later in
the Socialist Party.
She was Chairperson of the All India Handicrafts Board
and President of the Indian Cooperative Union. She was the Vice-President of the World
Crafts Council. She championed the cause of India’s great crafts traditions from every
platform and initiated the national awards for excellence in handicrafts. Travelling to every
corner and village of India, she discovered crafts severely damaged by neglect and lack of
patronage, and crafts that needed protection from extinction.  She received the Magasaysay
Award and the Watamull Award and was conferred the Deshikottama degree by
Vishwabharati University, Shantiniketan. She wrote many books and articles and her
book titled The Handicrafts of India was the first detailed documentation of the major and
minor crafts of India.
But for her, many crafts threatened under British rule would have disappeared forever
and India’s craft heritage would have been lost. She is truly the mother of Independent
India’s craftspeople.
Today, there are 1,5431 sales outlets, out of which 7,050 are
owned by the KVIC. These are spread all over India. The
products are also sold internationally through exhibitions
arranged by the Commission.
All India Handicrafts Board
The All India Handicrafts Board was set up in 1952 to
advise the Government on problems of handicrafts and
to suggest measures for improvement and development.
According to the Indian Constitution the development
of handicrafts is a State subject. Therefore, the primary
initiative in the handicrafts sector was to emanate from
the states and the Union Territories.
The Board took up a number of new schemes for
imparting training in selected crafts and design
development, dovetailing training and design efforts, for
improvement of tools and techniques used by the
craftsmen, expansion of facilities, and for extending the
marketing network in both internal and external
markets.
Page 4


HANDLOOM AND HANDICRAFTS
REVIVAL 4
AFTER Independence the newly elected government chose
the road to industrialisation. This emphasis on industry
and development further aggravated the damage to the
crafts community caused by 200 years of colonial rule.
However, after Gandhiji’s death, several of his followers
initiated and nurtured government schemes and
programmes to protect the welfare of the crafts
community in India.
The Central and State Governments recognised that
handicrafts, with its labour-intensive character and
wide dispersal through the length and breadth of the
country, constitutes a crucial economic activity. It
would, if supported, bring wealth to the country through
trade and exports. The objective of government schemes
was to provide economic and
social benefits to the
craftsmen of the country and
to promote their work in
domestic and foreign markets.
The four major goals of the
handicrafts development
programmes run by the
government were
1. promotion of handicrafts;
2. research and design
development;
3. technical development;
4. marketing.
CRAFT TRADITIONS OF INDIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE 44
1. PROMOTION OF HANDICRAFTS
In the 1950s and 60s, the Khadi and Village Industries
Commission (KVIC), Central Cottage Industries
Emporium, Handlooms and Handicrafts Export
Corporation, Regional State Handicraft and Handloom
Development Corporations, All India Handicrafts Board,
the Weavers’ Service Centres and Design Centres, and
the Weavers’ Cooperative Apex Societies, were set up in
every state to protect and promote Indian craft producers.
 45
HANDLOOM AND HANDICRAFTS REVIVAL
Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay
Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay (1903–1988) devoted her life to
the preservation and development of handicrafts and the
dignity and uplift of India’s craftspeople. She was also a
freedom fighter, theatre personality and human rights activist
who worked closely with Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma
Gandhi. In the freedom movement she was one of the
prominent personalities in the Congress Party and later in
the Socialist Party.
She was Chairperson of the All India Handicrafts Board
and President of the Indian Cooperative Union. She was the Vice-President of the World
Crafts Council. She championed the cause of India’s great crafts traditions from every
platform and initiated the national awards for excellence in handicrafts. Travelling to every
corner and village of India, she discovered crafts severely damaged by neglect and lack of
patronage, and crafts that needed protection from extinction.  She received the Magasaysay
Award and the Watamull Award and was conferred the Deshikottama degree by
Vishwabharati University, Shantiniketan. She wrote many books and articles and her
book titled The Handicrafts of India was the first detailed documentation of the major and
minor crafts of India.
But for her, many crafts threatened under British rule would have disappeared forever
and India’s craft heritage would have been lost. She is truly the mother of Independent
India’s craftspeople.
Today, there are 1,5431 sales outlets, out of which 7,050 are
owned by the KVIC. These are spread all over India. The
products are also sold internationally through exhibitions
arranged by the Commission.
All India Handicrafts Board
The All India Handicrafts Board was set up in 1952 to
advise the Government on problems of handicrafts and
to suggest measures for improvement and development.
According to the Indian Constitution the development
of handicrafts is a State subject. Therefore, the primary
initiative in the handicrafts sector was to emanate from
the states and the Union Territories.
The Board took up a number of new schemes for
imparting training in selected crafts and design
development, dovetailing training and design efforts, for
improvement of tools and techniques used by the
craftsmen, expansion of facilities, and for extending the
marketing network in both internal and external
markets.
CRAFT TRADITIONS OF INDIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE 46
Central Corporations
The Handicrafts and Handlooms Export Corporation of
India (HHEC) is a subsidiary of the State Trading
Corporation of India, and came into existence in 1962.
The Corporation’s policy in the field of direct exports
was designed to develop new markets and expand
traditional ones and to introduce new products suitable
to the consumers’ demands abroad.
The Central Cottage Industries Corporation Private
Limited, a registered society, runs the Central Cottage
Industries Emporium (CCIE), New Delhi, the premier retail
sales organisation in Indian handicrafts. The CCIE has
branches in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Jaipur.
Voluntary Social Organisations
The government supports a number of social
organisations including non-profit-making registered
societies and cooperatives operating in the field of
handicrafts. Their principal object is to provide work to
poor artisans. Many of them run training-cum-production
Page 5


HANDLOOM AND HANDICRAFTS
REVIVAL 4
AFTER Independence the newly elected government chose
the road to industrialisation. This emphasis on industry
and development further aggravated the damage to the
crafts community caused by 200 years of colonial rule.
However, after Gandhiji’s death, several of his followers
initiated and nurtured government schemes and
programmes to protect the welfare of the crafts
community in India.
The Central and State Governments recognised that
handicrafts, with its labour-intensive character and
wide dispersal through the length and breadth of the
country, constitutes a crucial economic activity. It
would, if supported, bring wealth to the country through
trade and exports. The objective of government schemes
was to provide economic and
social benefits to the
craftsmen of the country and
to promote their work in
domestic and foreign markets.
The four major goals of the
handicrafts development
programmes run by the
government were
1. promotion of handicrafts;
2. research and design
development;
3. technical development;
4. marketing.
CRAFT TRADITIONS OF INDIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE 44
1. PROMOTION OF HANDICRAFTS
In the 1950s and 60s, the Khadi and Village Industries
Commission (KVIC), Central Cottage Industries
Emporium, Handlooms and Handicrafts Export
Corporation, Regional State Handicraft and Handloom
Development Corporations, All India Handicrafts Board,
the Weavers’ Service Centres and Design Centres, and
the Weavers’ Cooperative Apex Societies, were set up in
every state to protect and promote Indian craft producers.
 45
HANDLOOM AND HANDICRAFTS REVIVAL
Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay
Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay (1903–1988) devoted her life to
the preservation and development of handicrafts and the
dignity and uplift of India’s craftspeople. She was also a
freedom fighter, theatre personality and human rights activist
who worked closely with Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma
Gandhi. In the freedom movement she was one of the
prominent personalities in the Congress Party and later in
the Socialist Party.
She was Chairperson of the All India Handicrafts Board
and President of the Indian Cooperative Union. She was the Vice-President of the World
Crafts Council. She championed the cause of India’s great crafts traditions from every
platform and initiated the national awards for excellence in handicrafts. Travelling to every
corner and village of India, she discovered crafts severely damaged by neglect and lack of
patronage, and crafts that needed protection from extinction.  She received the Magasaysay
Award and the Watamull Award and was conferred the Deshikottama degree by
Vishwabharati University, Shantiniketan. She wrote many books and articles and her
book titled The Handicrafts of India was the first detailed documentation of the major and
minor crafts of India.
But for her, many crafts threatened under British rule would have disappeared forever
and India’s craft heritage would have been lost. She is truly the mother of Independent
India’s craftspeople.
Today, there are 1,5431 sales outlets, out of which 7,050 are
owned by the KVIC. These are spread all over India. The
products are also sold internationally through exhibitions
arranged by the Commission.
All India Handicrafts Board
The All India Handicrafts Board was set up in 1952 to
advise the Government on problems of handicrafts and
to suggest measures for improvement and development.
According to the Indian Constitution the development
of handicrafts is a State subject. Therefore, the primary
initiative in the handicrafts sector was to emanate from
the states and the Union Territories.
The Board took up a number of new schemes for
imparting training in selected crafts and design
development, dovetailing training and design efforts, for
improvement of tools and techniques used by the
craftsmen, expansion of facilities, and for extending the
marketing network in both internal and external
markets.
CRAFT TRADITIONS OF INDIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE 46
Central Corporations
The Handicrafts and Handlooms Export Corporation of
India (HHEC) is a subsidiary of the State Trading
Corporation of India, and came into existence in 1962.
The Corporation’s policy in the field of direct exports
was designed to develop new markets and expand
traditional ones and to introduce new products suitable
to the consumers’ demands abroad.
The Central Cottage Industries Corporation Private
Limited, a registered society, runs the Central Cottage
Industries Emporium (CCIE), New Delhi, the premier retail
sales organisation in Indian handicrafts. The CCIE has
branches in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Jaipur.
Voluntary Social Organisations
The government supports a number of social
organisations including non-profit-making registered
societies and cooperatives operating in the field of
handicrafts. Their principal object is to provide work to
poor artisans. Many of them run training-cum-production
 47
HANDLOOM AND HANDICRAFTS REVIVAL
centres, while a few concern themselves principally
with marketing. In addition, India has a large voluntary
organisation called the Crafts Council with branches
in many states and is affiliated to the World Crafts
Council.
Pupul Jayakar
Pupul Jayakar (1916–97) began her life studying to become a
journalist, but later turned to development work in handicrafts
and handloom textiles. She served as Chairperson of the All
India Handicrafts and Handloom Board and the Indian National
Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage. She travelled extensively
and supported craftspersons and their traditions across the
country through festivals, emporia and her erudite writings.
2. RESEARCH AND DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
For any scheme of design development, it is necessary
to identify authentic resources and materials. In India
there are a number of museums that have beautiful
specimens of craft objects.
These museums provide a sound base for research
and study of the history of crafts that have developed in
different regions. The study of crafts provides an
invaluable record of the innovative spirit of the crafts
tradition in India, and how it changed and evolved and
responded to new challenges placed by environmental
conditions and historic constraints.
Promotion of Design
Soon after its establishment in 1952, the All India
Handicrafts Board recognised that among other
developmental measures that needed to be adopted, the
problem of design development would be of key
importance in rehabilitating the handicrafts industry.
Craftsmen required assistance with new design ideas
to suit the taste of consumers both in India and abroad.
The All India Handicrafts Board established Regional
Design Development Centres at Bangalore, Mumbai,
Kolkata and Delhi. A technical wing for research in tools,
techniques, and materials was also added to each of
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