NCERT Textbook - Human Development Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography Class 12

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Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Human Development Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Unit-II
Chapter-4
Human Development
The words ‘growth’ and ‘development’ are not
new to you. Look around you, almost everything
that you can see (and many that you cannot)
grows and develops. These may be plants, cities,
ideas, nations, relationships or even you
yourself! What does this mean?
Do growth and development mean
the same thing?
Do they accompany each other?
This chapter discusses the concept of
human development as it pertains to nations
and communities.
GRO GRO GRO GRO GROWTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
Both growth and development refer to changes
over a period of time.  The difference is that
growth is quantitative and value neutral. It may
have a positive or a negative sign. This means
that the change may be either positive (showing
an increase) or negative (indicating a decrease).
Development means a qualitative change
which is always value positive. This means that
development cannot take place unless there is
an increment or addition to the existing
conditions. Development occurs when positive
growth takes place. Yet, positive growth does
not always lead to development. Development
occurs when there is a positive change in
quality.
For example, if the population of a city
grows from one lakh to two lakhs over a period
of time, we say the city has grown. However, if a
facilities like housing, provision of basic services
and other characteristics remain the same, then
this growth has not been accompanied by
development.
Can you think of a few more examples to
differentiate between growth and development?
Write a short essay or draw a set of pictures illustrating
growth without development and growth with
development.
For many decades, a country’s level of
development was measured only in terms of its
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Unit-II
Chapter-4
Human Development
The words ‘growth’ and ‘development’ are not
new to you. Look around you, almost everything
that you can see (and many that you cannot)
grows and develops. These may be plants, cities,
ideas, nations, relationships or even you
yourself! What does this mean?
Do growth and development mean
the same thing?
Do they accompany each other?
This chapter discusses the concept of
human development as it pertains to nations
and communities.
GRO GRO GRO GRO GROWTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
Both growth and development refer to changes
over a period of time.  The difference is that
growth is quantitative and value neutral. It may
have a positive or a negative sign. This means
that the change may be either positive (showing
an increase) or negative (indicating a decrease).
Development means a qualitative change
which is always value positive. This means that
development cannot take place unless there is
an increment or addition to the existing
conditions. Development occurs when positive
growth takes place. Yet, positive growth does
not always lead to development. Development
occurs when there is a positive change in
quality.
For example, if the population of a city
grows from one lakh to two lakhs over a period
of time, we say the city has grown. However, if a
facilities like housing, provision of basic services
and other characteristics remain the same, then
this growth has not been accompanied by
development.
Can you think of a few more examples to
differentiate between growth and development?
Write a short essay or draw a set of pictures illustrating
growth without development and growth with
development.
For many decades, a country’s level of
development was measured only in terms of its
© NCERT
not to be republished
economic growth. This meant that the bigger
the economy of the country, the more developed
it was considered, even though this growth did
not really mean much change in the lives of most
people.
The idea that the quality of life people enjoy
in a country, the opportunities they have and
freedoms they enjoy, are important aspects of
development, is not new.
These ideas were clearly spelt out for the
first time in the late eighties and early nineties.
The works of two South Asian economists,
Mahbub-ul-Haq and Amartya Sen are
important in this regard.
The concept of human development was
introduced by Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq.  Dr Haq has
described human development as development
that enlarges people’s choices and improves
their lives. People are central to all development
under this concept. These choices are not fixed
but keep on changing. The basic goal of
development is to create conditions where
people can live meaningful lives.
A meaningful life is not just a long one. It
must be a life with some purpose. This means
that people must be healthy, be able to develop
their talents, participate in society and be free
to achieve their goals.
Do you know that cities can also grow negatively? Look at the photographs of this tsunami
affected city. Are natural disasters the only reasons for negative growth in a city’s size?
Band Aceh, June, 2004 Band Aceh, December, 2004
Human Development     23
Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq and Prof Amartya Sen were close friends and have worked together under the leadership of Dr
Haq to bring out the initial Human Development Reports. Both these South Asian economists have been able to
provide an alternative view of development.
A man of vision and compassion, Pakistani economist Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq created the Human Development
Index in 1990. According to him, development is all about enlarging people’s choices in order to lead long,
healthy lives with dignity . The United Nations Development Programme has used his concept of human development
to publish the Human Development Report annually since 1990.
Dr Haq’s flexibility of mind and ability to think out of the box can be illustrated from one of his speeches where
he quoted Shaw saying, “‘You see things that are, and ask why? I dream of things that never were, and ask why
not?’
Nobel Laureate Prof Amartya Sen saw an increase in freedom (or decrease in unfreedom) as the main objective
of development. Interestingly, increasing freedoms is also one of the most effective ways of bringing about
development. His work explores the role of social and political institutions and processes in increasing freedom.
The works of these economists are path breaking and have succeeded in bringing people to the centre of any
discussion on development.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Unit-II
Chapter-4
Human Development
The words ‘growth’ and ‘development’ are not
new to you. Look around you, almost everything
that you can see (and many that you cannot)
grows and develops. These may be plants, cities,
ideas, nations, relationships or even you
yourself! What does this mean?
Do growth and development mean
the same thing?
Do they accompany each other?
This chapter discusses the concept of
human development as it pertains to nations
and communities.
GRO GRO GRO GRO GROWTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
Both growth and development refer to changes
over a period of time.  The difference is that
growth is quantitative and value neutral. It may
have a positive or a negative sign. This means
that the change may be either positive (showing
an increase) or negative (indicating a decrease).
Development means a qualitative change
which is always value positive. This means that
development cannot take place unless there is
an increment or addition to the existing
conditions. Development occurs when positive
growth takes place. Yet, positive growth does
not always lead to development. Development
occurs when there is a positive change in
quality.
For example, if the population of a city
grows from one lakh to two lakhs over a period
of time, we say the city has grown. However, if a
facilities like housing, provision of basic services
and other characteristics remain the same, then
this growth has not been accompanied by
development.
Can you think of a few more examples to
differentiate between growth and development?
Write a short essay or draw a set of pictures illustrating
growth without development and growth with
development.
For many decades, a country’s level of
development was measured only in terms of its
© NCERT
not to be republished
economic growth. This meant that the bigger
the economy of the country, the more developed
it was considered, even though this growth did
not really mean much change in the lives of most
people.
The idea that the quality of life people enjoy
in a country, the opportunities they have and
freedoms they enjoy, are important aspects of
development, is not new.
These ideas were clearly spelt out for the
first time in the late eighties and early nineties.
The works of two South Asian economists,
Mahbub-ul-Haq and Amartya Sen are
important in this regard.
The concept of human development was
introduced by Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq.  Dr Haq has
described human development as development
that enlarges people’s choices and improves
their lives. People are central to all development
under this concept. These choices are not fixed
but keep on changing. The basic goal of
development is to create conditions where
people can live meaningful lives.
A meaningful life is not just a long one. It
must be a life with some purpose. This means
that people must be healthy, be able to develop
their talents, participate in society and be free
to achieve their goals.
Do you know that cities can also grow negatively? Look at the photographs of this tsunami
affected city. Are natural disasters the only reasons for negative growth in a city’s size?
Band Aceh, June, 2004 Band Aceh, December, 2004
Human Development     23
Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq and Prof Amartya Sen were close friends and have worked together under the leadership of Dr
Haq to bring out the initial Human Development Reports. Both these South Asian economists have been able to
provide an alternative view of development.
A man of vision and compassion, Pakistani economist Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq created the Human Development
Index in 1990. According to him, development is all about enlarging people’s choices in order to lead long,
healthy lives with dignity . The United Nations Development Programme has used his concept of human development
to publish the Human Development Report annually since 1990.
Dr Haq’s flexibility of mind and ability to think out of the box can be illustrated from one of his speeches where
he quoted Shaw saying, “‘You see things that are, and ask why? I dream of things that never were, and ask why
not?’
Nobel Laureate Prof Amartya Sen saw an increase in freedom (or decrease in unfreedom) as the main objective
of development. Interestingly, increasing freedoms is also one of the most effective ways of bringing about
development. His work explores the role of social and political institutions and processes in increasing freedom.
The works of these economists are path breaking and have succeeded in bringing people to the centre of any
discussion on development.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 24
What is a Meaningful Life?
Which of these lives is a meaningful life?
Who do you think leads more meaningful life? What makes one of these more meaningful than the other?
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Unit-II
Chapter-4
Human Development
The words ‘growth’ and ‘development’ are not
new to you. Look around you, almost everything
that you can see (and many that you cannot)
grows and develops. These may be plants, cities,
ideas, nations, relationships or even you
yourself! What does this mean?
Do growth and development mean
the same thing?
Do they accompany each other?
This chapter discusses the concept of
human development as it pertains to nations
and communities.
GRO GRO GRO GRO GROWTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
Both growth and development refer to changes
over a period of time.  The difference is that
growth is quantitative and value neutral. It may
have a positive or a negative sign. This means
that the change may be either positive (showing
an increase) or negative (indicating a decrease).
Development means a qualitative change
which is always value positive. This means that
development cannot take place unless there is
an increment or addition to the existing
conditions. Development occurs when positive
growth takes place. Yet, positive growth does
not always lead to development. Development
occurs when there is a positive change in
quality.
For example, if the population of a city
grows from one lakh to two lakhs over a period
of time, we say the city has grown. However, if a
facilities like housing, provision of basic services
and other characteristics remain the same, then
this growth has not been accompanied by
development.
Can you think of a few more examples to
differentiate between growth and development?
Write a short essay or draw a set of pictures illustrating
growth without development and growth with
development.
For many decades, a country’s level of
development was measured only in terms of its
© NCERT
not to be republished
economic growth. This meant that the bigger
the economy of the country, the more developed
it was considered, even though this growth did
not really mean much change in the lives of most
people.
The idea that the quality of life people enjoy
in a country, the opportunities they have and
freedoms they enjoy, are important aspects of
development, is not new.
These ideas were clearly spelt out for the
first time in the late eighties and early nineties.
The works of two South Asian economists,
Mahbub-ul-Haq and Amartya Sen are
important in this regard.
The concept of human development was
introduced by Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq.  Dr Haq has
described human development as development
that enlarges people’s choices and improves
their lives. People are central to all development
under this concept. These choices are not fixed
but keep on changing. The basic goal of
development is to create conditions where
people can live meaningful lives.
A meaningful life is not just a long one. It
must be a life with some purpose. This means
that people must be healthy, be able to develop
their talents, participate in society and be free
to achieve their goals.
Do you know that cities can also grow negatively? Look at the photographs of this tsunami
affected city. Are natural disasters the only reasons for negative growth in a city’s size?
Band Aceh, June, 2004 Band Aceh, December, 2004
Human Development     23
Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq and Prof Amartya Sen were close friends and have worked together under the leadership of Dr
Haq to bring out the initial Human Development Reports. Both these South Asian economists have been able to
provide an alternative view of development.
A man of vision and compassion, Pakistani economist Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq created the Human Development
Index in 1990. According to him, development is all about enlarging people’s choices in order to lead long,
healthy lives with dignity . The United Nations Development Programme has used his concept of human development
to publish the Human Development Report annually since 1990.
Dr Haq’s flexibility of mind and ability to think out of the box can be illustrated from one of his speeches where
he quoted Shaw saying, “‘You see things that are, and ask why? I dream of things that never were, and ask why
not?’
Nobel Laureate Prof Amartya Sen saw an increase in freedom (or decrease in unfreedom) as the main objective
of development. Interestingly, increasing freedoms is also one of the most effective ways of bringing about
development. His work explores the role of social and political institutions and processes in increasing freedom.
The works of these economists are path breaking and have succeeded in bringing people to the centre of any
discussion on development.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 24
What is a Meaningful Life?
Which of these lives is a meaningful life?
Who do you think leads more meaningful life? What makes one of these more meaningful than the other?
© NCERT
not to be republished
Human Development     25
 Leading a long and healthy life, being able
to gain knowledge and having enough means
to be able to live a decent life are the most
important aspects of human development.
Therefore, access to resources, health and
education are the key areas in human
development. Suitable indicators have been
developed to measure each of these aspects. Can
you think of some?
Very often, people do not have the
capability and freedom to make even basic
choices. This may be due to their inability to
acquire knowledge, their material poverty,
social discrimination, inefficiency of institutions
and other reasons. This prevents them from
leading healthy lives, being able to get educated
or to have the means to live a decent life.
Building people’s capabilities in the areas
of health, education and access to resources is
therefore, important in enlarging their choices.
If people do not have capabilities in these areas,
their choices also get limited.
For example, an uneducated child cannot
make the choice to be a doctor because her
choice has got limited by her lack of education.
Similarly, very often poor people cannot choose
to take medical treatment for disease because
their choice is limited by their lack of resources.
Enact a five-minute play with your classmates showing
how choices are limited due to lack of capability in the
areas of either income, education or health.
THE FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN THE FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN THE FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN THE FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN THE FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN
DEVEL DEVEL DEVEL DEVEL DEVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
Just as any building is supported by pillars,
the idea of human development is supported
by the concepts of equity, sustainability,
productivity and empowerment.
Equity refers to making equal access to
opportunities available to everybody. The
opportunities available to people must be equal
irrespective of their gender, race, income and
in the Indian case, caste. Yet this is very often
not the case and happens in almost every
society.
For example, in any country, it is interesting
to see which group the most of the school
dropouts belong to. This should then lead to an
understanding of the reasons for such behaviour .
In India, a large number of women and persons
belonging to socially and economically
backward groups drop out of school. This shows
how the choices of these groups get limited by
not having access to knowledge.
Sustainability means continuity in the
availability of opportunities. To have
sustainable human development, each
generation must have the same opportunities.
All environmental, financial and human
resources must be used keeping in mind the
future. Misuse of any of these resources will
lead to fewer opportunities for future
generations.
A good example is about the importance
of sending girls to school.  If a community does
not stress the importance of sending its girl
children to school, many opportunities will be
lost to these young women when they grow up.
Their career choices will be severely curtailed
and this would affect other aspects of their lives.
So each generation must ensure the availability
of choices and opportunities to its future
generations.
Productivity here means human labour
productivity or productivity in terms of human
work. Such productivity must be constantly
enriched by building capabilities in people.
Ultimately, it is people who are the real wealth
of nations. Therefore, efforts to increase their
knowledge, or provide better health facilities
ultimately leads to better work efficiency.
Empowerment means to have the power
to make choices. Such power comes from
increasing freedom and capability. Good
governance and people-oriented policies are
required to empower people. The empowerment
of socially and economically disadvantaged
groups is of special importance.
T alk to the vegetable vendor in your neighbourhood and
find out if she has gone to school. Did she drop out of
school? Why? What does this tell you about her choices
and the freedom she has? Note how her opportunities
were limited because of her gender, caste and income.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Unit-II
Chapter-4
Human Development
The words ‘growth’ and ‘development’ are not
new to you. Look around you, almost everything
that you can see (and many that you cannot)
grows and develops. These may be plants, cities,
ideas, nations, relationships or even you
yourself! What does this mean?
Do growth and development mean
the same thing?
Do they accompany each other?
This chapter discusses the concept of
human development as it pertains to nations
and communities.
GRO GRO GRO GRO GROWTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVEL WTH AND DEVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
Both growth and development refer to changes
over a period of time.  The difference is that
growth is quantitative and value neutral. It may
have a positive or a negative sign. This means
that the change may be either positive (showing
an increase) or negative (indicating a decrease).
Development means a qualitative change
which is always value positive. This means that
development cannot take place unless there is
an increment or addition to the existing
conditions. Development occurs when positive
growth takes place. Yet, positive growth does
not always lead to development. Development
occurs when there is a positive change in
quality.
For example, if the population of a city
grows from one lakh to two lakhs over a period
of time, we say the city has grown. However, if a
facilities like housing, provision of basic services
and other characteristics remain the same, then
this growth has not been accompanied by
development.
Can you think of a few more examples to
differentiate between growth and development?
Write a short essay or draw a set of pictures illustrating
growth without development and growth with
development.
For many decades, a country’s level of
development was measured only in terms of its
© NCERT
not to be republished
economic growth. This meant that the bigger
the economy of the country, the more developed
it was considered, even though this growth did
not really mean much change in the lives of most
people.
The idea that the quality of life people enjoy
in a country, the opportunities they have and
freedoms they enjoy, are important aspects of
development, is not new.
These ideas were clearly spelt out for the
first time in the late eighties and early nineties.
The works of two South Asian economists,
Mahbub-ul-Haq and Amartya Sen are
important in this regard.
The concept of human development was
introduced by Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq.  Dr Haq has
described human development as development
that enlarges people’s choices and improves
their lives. People are central to all development
under this concept. These choices are not fixed
but keep on changing. The basic goal of
development is to create conditions where
people can live meaningful lives.
A meaningful life is not just a long one. It
must be a life with some purpose. This means
that people must be healthy, be able to develop
their talents, participate in society and be free
to achieve their goals.
Do you know that cities can also grow negatively? Look at the photographs of this tsunami
affected city. Are natural disasters the only reasons for negative growth in a city’s size?
Band Aceh, June, 2004 Band Aceh, December, 2004
Human Development     23
Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq and Prof Amartya Sen were close friends and have worked together under the leadership of Dr
Haq to bring out the initial Human Development Reports. Both these South Asian economists have been able to
provide an alternative view of development.
A man of vision and compassion, Pakistani economist Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq created the Human Development
Index in 1990. According to him, development is all about enlarging people’s choices in order to lead long,
healthy lives with dignity . The United Nations Development Programme has used his concept of human development
to publish the Human Development Report annually since 1990.
Dr Haq’s flexibility of mind and ability to think out of the box can be illustrated from one of his speeches where
he quoted Shaw saying, “‘You see things that are, and ask why? I dream of things that never were, and ask why
not?’
Nobel Laureate Prof Amartya Sen saw an increase in freedom (or decrease in unfreedom) as the main objective
of development. Interestingly, increasing freedoms is also one of the most effective ways of bringing about
development. His work explores the role of social and political institutions and processes in increasing freedom.
The works of these economists are path breaking and have succeeded in bringing people to the centre of any
discussion on development.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 24
What is a Meaningful Life?
Which of these lives is a meaningful life?
Who do you think leads more meaningful life? What makes one of these more meaningful than the other?
© NCERT
not to be republished
Human Development     25
 Leading a long and healthy life, being able
to gain knowledge and having enough means
to be able to live a decent life are the most
important aspects of human development.
Therefore, access to resources, health and
education are the key areas in human
development. Suitable indicators have been
developed to measure each of these aspects. Can
you think of some?
Very often, people do not have the
capability and freedom to make even basic
choices. This may be due to their inability to
acquire knowledge, their material poverty,
social discrimination, inefficiency of institutions
and other reasons. This prevents them from
leading healthy lives, being able to get educated
or to have the means to live a decent life.
Building people’s capabilities in the areas
of health, education and access to resources is
therefore, important in enlarging their choices.
If people do not have capabilities in these areas,
their choices also get limited.
For example, an uneducated child cannot
make the choice to be a doctor because her
choice has got limited by her lack of education.
Similarly, very often poor people cannot choose
to take medical treatment for disease because
their choice is limited by their lack of resources.
Enact a five-minute play with your classmates showing
how choices are limited due to lack of capability in the
areas of either income, education or health.
THE FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN THE FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN THE FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN THE FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN THE FOUR PILLARS OF HUMAN
DEVEL DEVEL DEVEL DEVEL DEVELOPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT OPMENT
Just as any building is supported by pillars,
the idea of human development is supported
by the concepts of equity, sustainability,
productivity and empowerment.
Equity refers to making equal access to
opportunities available to everybody. The
opportunities available to people must be equal
irrespective of their gender, race, income and
in the Indian case, caste. Yet this is very often
not the case and happens in almost every
society.
For example, in any country, it is interesting
to see which group the most of the school
dropouts belong to. This should then lead to an
understanding of the reasons for such behaviour .
In India, a large number of women and persons
belonging to socially and economically
backward groups drop out of school. This shows
how the choices of these groups get limited by
not having access to knowledge.
Sustainability means continuity in the
availability of opportunities. To have
sustainable human development, each
generation must have the same opportunities.
All environmental, financial and human
resources must be used keeping in mind the
future. Misuse of any of these resources will
lead to fewer opportunities for future
generations.
A good example is about the importance
of sending girls to school.  If a community does
not stress the importance of sending its girl
children to school, many opportunities will be
lost to these young women when they grow up.
Their career choices will be severely curtailed
and this would affect other aspects of their lives.
So each generation must ensure the availability
of choices and opportunities to its future
generations.
Productivity here means human labour
productivity or productivity in terms of human
work. Such productivity must be constantly
enriched by building capabilities in people.
Ultimately, it is people who are the real wealth
of nations. Therefore, efforts to increase their
knowledge, or provide better health facilities
ultimately leads to better work efficiency.
Empowerment means to have the power
to make choices. Such power comes from
increasing freedom and capability. Good
governance and people-oriented policies are
required to empower people. The empowerment
of socially and economically disadvantaged
groups is of special importance.
T alk to the vegetable vendor in your neighbourhood and
find out if she has gone to school. Did she drop out of
school? Why? What does this tell you about her choices
and the freedom she has? Note how her opportunities
were limited because of her gender, caste and income.
© NCERT
not to be republished
Fundamentals of Human Geography 26
APPROACHES TO HUMAN
DEVELOPMENT
There are many ways of looking at the problem
of human development. Some of the important
approaches are: (a) The income approach; (b) The
welfare approach; (c) Minimum needs approach;
and (d) Capabilities approach (Table 4.1).
MEASURING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
The human development index (HDI) ranks the
countries based on their performance in the key
areas of health, education and access to
resources. These rankings are based on a score
between 0 to 1 that a country earns from its
record in the key areas of human development.
The indicator chosen to assess health is
the life expectancy at birth. A higher life
expectancy means that people have a greater
chance of living longer and healthier lives.
The adult literacy rate and the gross
enrolment ratio represent access to knowledge.
The number of adults who are able to read and
write and the number of children enrolled in
schools show how easy or difficult it is to access
knowledge in a particular country.
Access to resources is measured in terms
of purchasing power (in U.S. dollars).
Each of these dimensions is given a
weightage of 1/3. The human development
index is a sum total of the weights assigned to
all these dimensions.
The closer a score is to one, the greater is
the level of human development. Therefore, a
score of 0.983 would be considered very high
while 0.268 would mean a very low level of
human development.
The human development index measures
attainments in human development. It reflects
what has been achieved in the key areas of
human development. Yet it is not the most
reliable measure. This is because it does not
say anything about the distribution.
The human poverty index is related to the
human development index. This index
measures the shortfall in human development.
(a) Income Approach This is one of the oldest approaches to human
development. Human development is seen as being
linked to income. The idea is that the level of income
reflects the level of freedom an individual enjoys.
Higher the level of income, the higher is the level of
human development.
(b) Welfare Approach This approach looks at human beings as beneficiaries
or targets of all development activities. The approach
argues for higher government expenditure on
education, health, social secondary and amenities.
People are not participants in development but only
passive recipients. The government is responsible for
increasing levels of human development by
maximising expenditure on welfare.
(c) Basic Needs Approach This approach was initially proposed by the
International Labour Organisation (ILO). Six basic
needs i.e.: health, education, food, water supply,
sanitation, and housing were identified. The question
of human choices is ignored and the emphasis is on
the provision of basic needs of defined sections.
(d) Capability Approach This approach is associated with Prof. Amartya Sen.
Building human capabilities in the areas of health,
education and access to resources is the key to
increasing human development.
Table 4.1: Approaches to Human Development
© NCERT
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