NCERT Textbook - Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic Class 6 Notes | EduRev

History for UPSC CSE

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - Kingdoms, Kings and an Early Republic Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


n 46
OUR PASTS–I
Election da Election da Election da Election da Election day y y y y
Shankaran woke up to see his grandparents all ready to
go and vote. They wanted to be the first to reach the
polling booth. Why, Shankaran wanted to know, were
they so excited? Somewhat impatiently, his grandfather
explained: “We can choose our own rulers today.”
Ho Ho Ho Ho How some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers
Choosing leaders or rulers by voting is something
that has become common during the last fifty
years or so. How did men become rulers in the
past? Some of the rajas we read about in Chapter
4 were probably chosen by the jana, the people.
But, around 3000 years ago, we find some
changes taking place in the ways in which rajas
were chosen. Some men now became recognised
as rajas by performing very big sacrifices.
The ashvamedha or horse sacrifice was one
such ritual. A horse was let loose to wander freely
and it was guarded by the raja’s men. If the horse
wandered into the kingdoms of other rajas and
they stopped it, they had to fight. If they allowed
the horse to pass, it meant that they accepted
that the raja who wanted to perform the sacrifice
was stronger than them. These rajas were then
invited to the sacrifice, which was performed by
specially trained priests, who were rewarded with
gifts. The raja who organised the sacrifice was
recognised as being very powerful, and all those
who came brought gifts for him.
The raja was a central figure in these rituals.
He often had a special seat, a throne or a tiger
skin. His charioteer, who was his companion in
CHAPTER 5
KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN
EARL EARL EARL EARL EARLY REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 2


n 46
OUR PASTS–I
Election da Election da Election da Election da Election day y y y y
Shankaran woke up to see his grandparents all ready to
go and vote. They wanted to be the first to reach the
polling booth. Why, Shankaran wanted to know, were
they so excited? Somewhat impatiently, his grandfather
explained: “We can choose our own rulers today.”
Ho Ho Ho Ho How some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers
Choosing leaders or rulers by voting is something
that has become common during the last fifty
years or so. How did men become rulers in the
past? Some of the rajas we read about in Chapter
4 were probably chosen by the jana, the people.
But, around 3000 years ago, we find some
changes taking place in the ways in which rajas
were chosen. Some men now became recognised
as rajas by performing very big sacrifices.
The ashvamedha or horse sacrifice was one
such ritual. A horse was let loose to wander freely
and it was guarded by the raja’s men. If the horse
wandered into the kingdoms of other rajas and
they stopped it, they had to fight. If they allowed
the horse to pass, it meant that they accepted
that the raja who wanted to perform the sacrifice
was stronger than them. These rajas were then
invited to the sacrifice, which was performed by
specially trained priests, who were rewarded with
gifts. The raja who organised the sacrifice was
recognised as being very powerful, and all those
who came brought gifts for him.
The raja was a central figure in these rituals.
He often had a special seat, a throne or a tiger
skin. His charioteer, who was his companion in
CHAPTER 5
KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN
EARL EARL EARL EARL EARLY REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
47 n
the battle field and witnessed his exploits,
chanted tales of his glory. His relatives, especially
his wives and sons, had to perform a variety of
minor rituals. The other rajas were simply
spectators who had to sit and watch the
performance of the sacrifice. Priests performed
the rituals including the sprinkling of sacred water
on the king. The ordinary people, the vish or
vaishya, also brought gifts. However, some people,
such as those who were regarded as shudras by
the priests, were excluded from many rituals.
Make a list of all those who would be present
at the sacrifice. Which are the categories that are
described in terms of their occupation?
KINGDOMS, KINGS AND
AN EARLY REPUBLIC
V V V V Varnas arnas arnas arnas arnas
We have many books that were composed in north India, especially in
the areas drained by the Ganga and the Yamuna, during this period.
These books are often called later Vedic, because they were composed
after the Rigveda about which you learnt in Chapter 4. These include
the Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda, as well as other books.
These were composed by priests, and described how rituals were to be
performed. They also contained rules about society.
There were several different groups in society at this time — priests
and warriors, farmers, herders, traders, crafts persons, labourers, fishing
folk, and forest people. Some priests and warriors were rich, as were
some farmers and traders. Others, including many herders, crafts
persons, labourers, fishing folk and hunters and gatherers, were poor.
The priests divided people into four groups, called varnas. According
to them, each varna had a different set of functions.
The first varna was that of the brahmin. Brahmins were expected to
study (and teach) the Vedas, perform sacrifices and receive gifts.
In the second place were the rulers, also known as kshatriyas. They
were expected to fight battles and protect people.
Third were the vish or the vaishyas. They were expected to be farmers,
herders, and traders. Both the kshatriyas and the vaishyas could
perform sacrifices.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 3


n 46
OUR PASTS–I
Election da Election da Election da Election da Election day y y y y
Shankaran woke up to see his grandparents all ready to
go and vote. They wanted to be the first to reach the
polling booth. Why, Shankaran wanted to know, were
they so excited? Somewhat impatiently, his grandfather
explained: “We can choose our own rulers today.”
Ho Ho Ho Ho How some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers
Choosing leaders or rulers by voting is something
that has become common during the last fifty
years or so. How did men become rulers in the
past? Some of the rajas we read about in Chapter
4 were probably chosen by the jana, the people.
But, around 3000 years ago, we find some
changes taking place in the ways in which rajas
were chosen. Some men now became recognised
as rajas by performing very big sacrifices.
The ashvamedha or horse sacrifice was one
such ritual. A horse was let loose to wander freely
and it was guarded by the raja’s men. If the horse
wandered into the kingdoms of other rajas and
they stopped it, they had to fight. If they allowed
the horse to pass, it meant that they accepted
that the raja who wanted to perform the sacrifice
was stronger than them. These rajas were then
invited to the sacrifice, which was performed by
specially trained priests, who were rewarded with
gifts. The raja who organised the sacrifice was
recognised as being very powerful, and all those
who came brought gifts for him.
The raja was a central figure in these rituals.
He often had a special seat, a throne or a tiger
skin. His charioteer, who was his companion in
CHAPTER 5
KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN
EARL EARL EARL EARL EARLY REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
47 n
the battle field and witnessed his exploits,
chanted tales of his glory. His relatives, especially
his wives and sons, had to perform a variety of
minor rituals. The other rajas were simply
spectators who had to sit and watch the
performance of the sacrifice. Priests performed
the rituals including the sprinkling of sacred water
on the king. The ordinary people, the vish or
vaishya, also brought gifts. However, some people,
such as those who were regarded as shudras by
the priests, were excluded from many rituals.
Make a list of all those who would be present
at the sacrifice. Which are the categories that are
described in terms of their occupation?
KINGDOMS, KINGS AND
AN EARLY REPUBLIC
V V V V Varnas arnas arnas arnas arnas
We have many books that were composed in north India, especially in
the areas drained by the Ganga and the Yamuna, during this period.
These books are often called later Vedic, because they were composed
after the Rigveda about which you learnt in Chapter 4. These include
the Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda, as well as other books.
These were composed by priests, and described how rituals were to be
performed. They also contained rules about society.
There were several different groups in society at this time — priests
and warriors, farmers, herders, traders, crafts persons, labourers, fishing
folk, and forest people. Some priests and warriors were rich, as were
some farmers and traders. Others, including many herders, crafts
persons, labourers, fishing folk and hunters and gatherers, were poor.
The priests divided people into four groups, called varnas. According
to them, each varna had a different set of functions.
The first varna was that of the brahmin. Brahmins were expected to
study (and teach) the Vedas, perform sacrifices and receive gifts.
In the second place were the rulers, also known as kshatriyas. They
were expected to fight battles and protect people.
Third were the vish or the vaishyas. They were expected to be farmers,
herders, and traders. Both the kshatriyas and the vaishyas could
perform sacrifices.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 48
OUR PASTS–I
Painted Grey Ware.
Plates and bowls are the
most common vessels
made out of Painted
Grey Ware. These are
extremely fine to touch,
with a nice, smooth
surface. Perhaps these
were used on special
occasions, for important
people, and to serve
special food.
Janapadas Janapadas Janapadas Janapadas Janapadas
The rajas who performed these big sacrifices were
now recognised as being rajas of janapadas rather
than janas. The word janapada literally means
the land where the jana set its foot, and settled
down. Some important janapadas are shown on
Map 4 (page 49).
Archaeologists have excavated a number of
settlements in these janapadas, such as Purana
Qila in Delhi, Hastinapura near Meerut,
and Atranjikhera, near Etah (the last two
are in Uttar Pradesh). They found that
people lived in huts, and kept cattle as well
as other animals. They also grew a variety
of crops — rice, wheat, barley, pulses,
sugarcane, sesame and mustard.
Is there a crop in this list that was not
mentioned in Chapter 3?
Last were the shudras, who had to serve the other three groups and
could not perform any rituals. Often, women were also grouped with the
shudras. Both women and shudras were not allowed to study the Vedas.
The priests also said that these groups were decided on the basis of
birth. For example, if one’s father and mother were brahmins one would
automatically become a brahmin, and so on. Later, they classified some
people as untouchable. These included some crafts persons, hunters
and gatherers, as well as people who helped perform burials and
cremations. The priests said that contact with these groups was polluting.
Many people did not accept the system of varna laid down by the
brahmins. Some kings thought they were superior to the priests. Others
felt that birth could not be a basis for deciding which varna people
belonged to. Besides, some people felt that there should be no differences
amongst people based on occupation. Others felt that everybody should
be able to perform rituals. And others condemned the practice of
untouchability. Also, there were many areas in the subcontinent, such
as the north-east, where social and economic differences were not very
sharp, and where the influence of the priests was limited.
Why did people oppose the system of varnas?
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 4


n 46
OUR PASTS–I
Election da Election da Election da Election da Election day y y y y
Shankaran woke up to see his grandparents all ready to
go and vote. They wanted to be the first to reach the
polling booth. Why, Shankaran wanted to know, were
they so excited? Somewhat impatiently, his grandfather
explained: “We can choose our own rulers today.”
Ho Ho Ho Ho How some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers
Choosing leaders or rulers by voting is something
that has become common during the last fifty
years or so. How did men become rulers in the
past? Some of the rajas we read about in Chapter
4 were probably chosen by the jana, the people.
But, around 3000 years ago, we find some
changes taking place in the ways in which rajas
were chosen. Some men now became recognised
as rajas by performing very big sacrifices.
The ashvamedha or horse sacrifice was one
such ritual. A horse was let loose to wander freely
and it was guarded by the raja’s men. If the horse
wandered into the kingdoms of other rajas and
they stopped it, they had to fight. If they allowed
the horse to pass, it meant that they accepted
that the raja who wanted to perform the sacrifice
was stronger than them. These rajas were then
invited to the sacrifice, which was performed by
specially trained priests, who were rewarded with
gifts. The raja who organised the sacrifice was
recognised as being very powerful, and all those
who came brought gifts for him.
The raja was a central figure in these rituals.
He often had a special seat, a throne or a tiger
skin. His charioteer, who was his companion in
CHAPTER 5
KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN
EARL EARL EARL EARL EARLY REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
47 n
the battle field and witnessed his exploits,
chanted tales of his glory. His relatives, especially
his wives and sons, had to perform a variety of
minor rituals. The other rajas were simply
spectators who had to sit and watch the
performance of the sacrifice. Priests performed
the rituals including the sprinkling of sacred water
on the king. The ordinary people, the vish or
vaishya, also brought gifts. However, some people,
such as those who were regarded as shudras by
the priests, were excluded from many rituals.
Make a list of all those who would be present
at the sacrifice. Which are the categories that are
described in terms of their occupation?
KINGDOMS, KINGS AND
AN EARLY REPUBLIC
V V V V Varnas arnas arnas arnas arnas
We have many books that were composed in north India, especially in
the areas drained by the Ganga and the Yamuna, during this period.
These books are often called later Vedic, because they were composed
after the Rigveda about which you learnt in Chapter 4. These include
the Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda, as well as other books.
These were composed by priests, and described how rituals were to be
performed. They also contained rules about society.
There were several different groups in society at this time — priests
and warriors, farmers, herders, traders, crafts persons, labourers, fishing
folk, and forest people. Some priests and warriors were rich, as were
some farmers and traders. Others, including many herders, crafts
persons, labourers, fishing folk and hunters and gatherers, were poor.
The priests divided people into four groups, called varnas. According
to them, each varna had a different set of functions.
The first varna was that of the brahmin. Brahmins were expected to
study (and teach) the Vedas, perform sacrifices and receive gifts.
In the second place were the rulers, also known as kshatriyas. They
were expected to fight battles and protect people.
Third were the vish or the vaishyas. They were expected to be farmers,
herders, and traders. Both the kshatriyas and the vaishyas could
perform sacrifices.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 48
OUR PASTS–I
Painted Grey Ware.
Plates and bowls are the
most common vessels
made out of Painted
Grey Ware. These are
extremely fine to touch,
with a nice, smooth
surface. Perhaps these
were used on special
occasions, for important
people, and to serve
special food.
Janapadas Janapadas Janapadas Janapadas Janapadas
The rajas who performed these big sacrifices were
now recognised as being rajas of janapadas rather
than janas. The word janapada literally means
the land where the jana set its foot, and settled
down. Some important janapadas are shown on
Map 4 (page 49).
Archaeologists have excavated a number of
settlements in these janapadas, such as Purana
Qila in Delhi, Hastinapura near Meerut,
and Atranjikhera, near Etah (the last two
are in Uttar Pradesh). They found that
people lived in huts, and kept cattle as well
as other animals. They also grew a variety
of crops — rice, wheat, barley, pulses,
sugarcane, sesame and mustard.
Is there a crop in this list that was not
mentioned in Chapter 3?
Last were the shudras, who had to serve the other three groups and
could not perform any rituals. Often, women were also grouped with the
shudras. Both women and shudras were not allowed to study the Vedas.
The priests also said that these groups were decided on the basis of
birth. For example, if one’s father and mother were brahmins one would
automatically become a brahmin, and so on. Later, they classified some
people as untouchable. These included some crafts persons, hunters
and gatherers, as well as people who helped perform burials and
cremations. The priests said that contact with these groups was polluting.
Many people did not accept the system of varna laid down by the
brahmins. Some kings thought they were superior to the priests. Others
felt that birth could not be a basis for deciding which varna people
belonged to. Besides, some people felt that there should be no differences
amongst people based on occupation. Others felt that everybody should
be able to perform rituals. And others condemned the practice of
untouchability. Also, there were many areas in the subcontinent, such
as the north-east, where social and economic differences were not very
sharp, and where the influence of the priests was limited.
Why did people oppose the system of varnas?
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
49 n
They made earthen pots. Some of these were
grey in colour, others were red. One special type
of pottery found at these sites is known as Painted
Grey Ware. As is obvious from the name, these
grey pots had painted designs, usually simple
lines and geometric patterns.
Mahajanapadas Mahajanapadas Mahajanapadas Mahajanapadas Mahajanapadas
About 2500 years ago, some janapadas became
more important than others, and were known as
mahajanapadas. Some of these are shown on Map
4. Most mahajanapadas had a capital city,  many
of these were fortified. This means that huge walls
of wood, brick or stone were built around them.
49 n
MAP : 4
Important Janapadas,
Mahajanapadas and Cities
KINGDOMS, KINGS AND
AN EARLY REPUBLIC
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 5


n 46
OUR PASTS–I
Election da Election da Election da Election da Election day y y y y
Shankaran woke up to see his grandparents all ready to
go and vote. They wanted to be the first to reach the
polling booth. Why, Shankaran wanted to know, were
they so excited? Somewhat impatiently, his grandfather
explained: “We can choose our own rulers today.”
Ho Ho Ho Ho How some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers w some men became rulers
Choosing leaders or rulers by voting is something
that has become common during the last fifty
years or so. How did men become rulers in the
past? Some of the rajas we read about in Chapter
4 were probably chosen by the jana, the people.
But, around 3000 years ago, we find some
changes taking place in the ways in which rajas
were chosen. Some men now became recognised
as rajas by performing very big sacrifices.
The ashvamedha or horse sacrifice was one
such ritual. A horse was let loose to wander freely
and it was guarded by the raja’s men. If the horse
wandered into the kingdoms of other rajas and
they stopped it, they had to fight. If they allowed
the horse to pass, it meant that they accepted
that the raja who wanted to perform the sacrifice
was stronger than them. These rajas were then
invited to the sacrifice, which was performed by
specially trained priests, who were rewarded with
gifts. The raja who organised the sacrifice was
recognised as being very powerful, and all those
who came brought gifts for him.
The raja was a central figure in these rituals.
He often had a special seat, a throne or a tiger
skin. His charioteer, who was his companion in
CHAPTER 5
KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN KINGDOMS, KINGS AND AN
EARL EARL EARL EARL EARLY REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC Y REPUBLIC
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
47 n
the battle field and witnessed his exploits,
chanted tales of his glory. His relatives, especially
his wives and sons, had to perform a variety of
minor rituals. The other rajas were simply
spectators who had to sit and watch the
performance of the sacrifice. Priests performed
the rituals including the sprinkling of sacred water
on the king. The ordinary people, the vish or
vaishya, also brought gifts. However, some people,
such as those who were regarded as shudras by
the priests, were excluded from many rituals.
Make a list of all those who would be present
at the sacrifice. Which are the categories that are
described in terms of their occupation?
KINGDOMS, KINGS AND
AN EARLY REPUBLIC
V V V V Varnas arnas arnas arnas arnas
We have many books that were composed in north India, especially in
the areas drained by the Ganga and the Yamuna, during this period.
These books are often called later Vedic, because they were composed
after the Rigveda about which you learnt in Chapter 4. These include
the Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda, as well as other books.
These were composed by priests, and described how rituals were to be
performed. They also contained rules about society.
There were several different groups in society at this time — priests
and warriors, farmers, herders, traders, crafts persons, labourers, fishing
folk, and forest people. Some priests and warriors were rich, as were
some farmers and traders. Others, including many herders, crafts
persons, labourers, fishing folk and hunters and gatherers, were poor.
The priests divided people into four groups, called varnas. According
to them, each varna had a different set of functions.
The first varna was that of the brahmin. Brahmins were expected to
study (and teach) the Vedas, perform sacrifices and receive gifts.
In the second place were the rulers, also known as kshatriyas. They
were expected to fight battles and protect people.
Third were the vish or the vaishyas. They were expected to be farmers,
herders, and traders. Both the kshatriyas and the vaishyas could
perform sacrifices.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 48
OUR PASTS–I
Painted Grey Ware.
Plates and bowls are the
most common vessels
made out of Painted
Grey Ware. These are
extremely fine to touch,
with a nice, smooth
surface. Perhaps these
were used on special
occasions, for important
people, and to serve
special food.
Janapadas Janapadas Janapadas Janapadas Janapadas
The rajas who performed these big sacrifices were
now recognised as being rajas of janapadas rather
than janas. The word janapada literally means
the land where the jana set its foot, and settled
down. Some important janapadas are shown on
Map 4 (page 49).
Archaeologists have excavated a number of
settlements in these janapadas, such as Purana
Qila in Delhi, Hastinapura near Meerut,
and Atranjikhera, near Etah (the last two
are in Uttar Pradesh). They found that
people lived in huts, and kept cattle as well
as other animals. They also grew a variety
of crops — rice, wheat, barley, pulses,
sugarcane, sesame and mustard.
Is there a crop in this list that was not
mentioned in Chapter 3?
Last were the shudras, who had to serve the other three groups and
could not perform any rituals. Often, women were also grouped with the
shudras. Both women and shudras were not allowed to study the Vedas.
The priests also said that these groups were decided on the basis of
birth. For example, if one’s father and mother were brahmins one would
automatically become a brahmin, and so on. Later, they classified some
people as untouchable. These included some crafts persons, hunters
and gatherers, as well as people who helped perform burials and
cremations. The priests said that contact with these groups was polluting.
Many people did not accept the system of varna laid down by the
brahmins. Some kings thought they were superior to the priests. Others
felt that birth could not be a basis for deciding which varna people
belonged to. Besides, some people felt that there should be no differences
amongst people based on occupation. Others felt that everybody should
be able to perform rituals. And others condemned the practice of
untouchability. Also, there were many areas in the subcontinent, such
as the north-east, where social and economic differences were not very
sharp, and where the influence of the priests was limited.
Why did people oppose the system of varnas?
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
49 n
They made earthen pots. Some of these were
grey in colour, others were red. One special type
of pottery found at these sites is known as Painted
Grey Ware. As is obvious from the name, these
grey pots had painted designs, usually simple
lines and geometric patterns.
Mahajanapadas Mahajanapadas Mahajanapadas Mahajanapadas Mahajanapadas
About 2500 years ago, some janapadas became
more important than others, and were known as
mahajanapadas. Some of these are shown on Map
4. Most mahajanapadas had a capital city,  many
of these were fortified. This means that huge walls
of wood, brick or stone were built around them.
49 n
MAP : 4
Important Janapadas,
Mahajanapadas and Cities
KINGDOMS, KINGS AND
AN EARLY REPUBLIC
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
n 50
OUR PASTS–I
Forts were probably built because people were
afraid of attacks from other kings and needed
protection. It is also likely that some rulers wanted
to show how rich and powerful they were by
building really large, tall and impressive walls
around their cities. Also in this way, the land and
the people living inside the fortified area could be
controlled more easily by the king. Building such
huge walls required a great deal of planning.
Thousands, if not lakhs of bricks or stones had
to be prepared. This in turn meant enormous
labour, provided, possibly, by thousands of men,
women and children. And resources had to be
found for all of this.
The fortification wall at
Kaushambi.
This is a picture of
remains of a wall made
of brick, found near
present-day Allahabad
(Uttar Pradesh). A part
of it was probably built
about 2500 years ago.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
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