NCERT Textbook - Life Lines of National Economy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Class 10 : NCERT Textbook - Life Lines of National Economy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are prerequisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air . Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other .
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as lifelines of our nation and its modern
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a prerequisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
2020-21
Page 2


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are prerequisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air . Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other .
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as lifelines of our nation and its modern
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a prerequisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
2020-21
80 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world, aggregating to about 56 lakh km.
In India, roadways have preceded railways.
They still have an edge over railways in view of
the ease with which they can be built and
maintained. The growing importance of road
transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted in
the following reasons; (a) construction cost of
roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
(b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and
as such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much
lower, (f) road transport is also used as a feeder
to other modes of transport such as they
provide a link between railway stations, air
and sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the
following six classes according to their
capacity. Look at the map of the National
Highways and find out about the significant
role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major
road development project linking Delhi-
Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by
six-lane Super Highways. The North-
South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu
& Kashmir) and Kanniyakumari (Tamil
Nadu), and East-West Corridor
connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbander
(Gujarat) are part of this project. The
major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance
between the mega cities of India. These
highway projects are being implemented
by the National Highway Authority of
India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These
are the primary road systems and are
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These
roads are constructed and maintained by
the State Public Works Department (PWD)
in State and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places
of the district. These roads are maintained
by the Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every
village in the country is linked to a major
town in the country by an all season
motorable road.
• Border Roads: Apart from these, Border
Roads Organisation a Government of
India undertaking constructs and
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expressway
Find out places linked by the National
Highway 2 and 3.
laid and maintained by the Central Public
Works Department (CPWD). A number of
major National Highways run in North-
South and East-West directions. The
historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called
National Highway No.1, between Delhi
and Amritsar.
2020-21
Page 3


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are prerequisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air . Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other .
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as lifelines of our nation and its modern
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a prerequisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
2020-21
80 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world, aggregating to about 56 lakh km.
In India, roadways have preceded railways.
They still have an edge over railways in view of
the ease with which they can be built and
maintained. The growing importance of road
transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted in
the following reasons; (a) construction cost of
roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
(b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and
as such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much
lower, (f) road transport is also used as a feeder
to other modes of transport such as they
provide a link between railway stations, air
and sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the
following six classes according to their
capacity. Look at the map of the National
Highways and find out about the significant
role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major
road development project linking Delhi-
Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by
six-lane Super Highways. The North-
South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu
& Kashmir) and Kanniyakumari (Tamil
Nadu), and East-West Corridor
connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbander
(Gujarat) are part of this project. The
major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance
between the mega cities of India. These
highway projects are being implemented
by the National Highway Authority of
India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These
are the primary road systems and are
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These
roads are constructed and maintained by
the State Public Works Department (PWD)
in State and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places
of the district. These roads are maintained
by the Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every
village in the country is linked to a major
town in the country by an all season
motorable road.
• Border Roads: Apart from these, Border
Roads Organisation a Government of
India undertaking constructs and
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expressway
Find out places linked by the National
Highway 2 and 3.
laid and maintained by the Central Public
Works Department (CPWD). A number of
major National Highways run in North-
South and East-West directions. The
historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called
National Highway No.1, between Delhi
and Amritsar.
2020-21
81 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
India:  National Highways
2020-21
Page 4


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are prerequisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air . Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other .
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as lifelines of our nation and its modern
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a prerequisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
2020-21
80 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world, aggregating to about 56 lakh km.
In India, roadways have preceded railways.
They still have an edge over railways in view of
the ease with which they can be built and
maintained. The growing importance of road
transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted in
the following reasons; (a) construction cost of
roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
(b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and
as such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much
lower, (f) road transport is also used as a feeder
to other modes of transport such as they
provide a link between railway stations, air
and sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the
following six classes according to their
capacity. Look at the map of the National
Highways and find out about the significant
role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major
road development project linking Delhi-
Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by
six-lane Super Highways. The North-
South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu
& Kashmir) and Kanniyakumari (Tamil
Nadu), and East-West Corridor
connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbander
(Gujarat) are part of this project. The
major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance
between the mega cities of India. These
highway projects are being implemented
by the National Highway Authority of
India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These
are the primary road systems and are
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These
roads are constructed and maintained by
the State Public Works Department (PWD)
in State and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places
of the district. These roads are maintained
by the Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every
village in the country is linked to a major
town in the country by an all season
motorable road.
• Border Roads: Apart from these, Border
Roads Organisation a Government of
India undertaking constructs and
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expressway
Find out places linked by the National
Highway 2 and 3.
laid and maintained by the Central Public
Works Department (CPWD). A number of
major National Highways run in North-
South and East-West directions. The
historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called
National Highway No.1, between Delhi
and Amritsar.
2020-21
81 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
India:  National Highways
2020-21
82 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
maintains roads in the bordering areas
of the country. This organisation was
established in 1960 for the development
of the roads of strategic importance in
the northern and north-eastern border
areas. These roads have improved
accessibility in areas of difficult terrain
and have helped in the economic
development of these area.
The Indian Railways is the largest public
sector undertaking in the country. The first
train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane in
1853, covering a distance of 34 km.
Find out the current Railway zones and their
headquarters. Also locate the headquarters
of Railway zones on the map of India.
Fig. 7.3:  Hilly Tracts
Fig. 7.4:  Traffic on north-eastern border road
(Arunachal Pradesh)
The distribution pattern of the Railway
network in the country has been largely
influenced by physiographic, economic and
administrative factors.  The northern plains
with their vast level land, high population
density and rich agricultural resources
provided the most favourable condition for their
growth.  However, a large number of rivers
requiring construction of bridges across their
wide beds posed some obstacles.  In the hilly
terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts
are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels.
The Himalayan mountainous regions too are
unfavourable for the construction of railway
lines due to high relief, sparse population and
lack of economic opportunities. Likewise, it was
difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain
of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat,
forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh,
Roads can also be classified on the basis
of the type of material used for their
construction such as metalled and unmetalled
roads. Metalled roads may be made of cement,
concrete or even bitumen of coal, therefore,
these are all weather roads. Unmetalled roads
go out of use in the rainy season.
Railways
Railways are the principal mode of
transportation for freight and passengers
in India. Railways also make it possible
for people to conduct multifarious
activities like business, sightseeing,
pilgrimage along with transportation of
goods over longer distances. Apart from
an important means of transport the
Indian Railways have been a great
integrating force for more than 150 years.
Railways in India bind the economic life
of the country as well as accelerate the
development of the industry and
agriculture.
The Indian Railway is now reorganised
into 16 zones.
2020-21
Page 5


We use different materials and services in our
daily life. Some of these are available in our
immediate surroundings, while other
requirements are met by bringing things from
other places. Goods and services do not move
from supply locales to demand locales on their
own. The movement of these goods and services
from their supply locations to demand locations
necessitates the need for transport. Some people
are engaged in facilitating these movements.
These are known to be traders who make the
products come to the consumers by
transportation. Thus, the pace of development
of a country depends upon the production of
goods and services as well as their movement
over space. Therefore, efficient means of transport
are prerequisites for fast development.
Movement of these goods and services can be
over three important domains of our earth i.e. land,
water and air . Based on these, transport can also
be classified into land, water and air transport.
expanded far and wide. Today, the world has
been converted into a large village with the help
of efficient and fast moving transport.
Transport has been able to achieve this with
the help of equally developed communication
system. Therefore, transport, communication
and trade are complementary to each other .
Today, India is well-linked with the rest of
the world despite its vast size, diversity and
linguistic and socio-cultural plurality.
Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers,
radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have
been contributing to its socio-economic
progress in many ways. The trades from local
to international levels have added to the vitality
of its economy. It has enriched our life and
added substantially to growing amenities and
facilities for the comforts of life.
In this chapter, you will see how modern
means of transport and communication serve
as lifelines of our nation and its modern
Fig. 7.1
For a long time, trade and transport were
restricted to a limited space. With the
development in science and technology, the
area of influence of trade and transport
economy. It is thus, evident that a dense and
efficient network of transport and
communication is a prerequisite for local,
national and global trade of today.
2020-21
80 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
TRANSPORT
Roadways
India has one of the largest road networks in
the world, aggregating to about 56 lakh km.
In India, roadways have preceded railways.
They still have an edge over railways in view of
the ease with which they can be built and
maintained. The growing importance of road
transport vis-à-vis rail transport is rooted in
the following reasons; (a) construction cost of
roads is much lower than that of railway lines,
(b) roads can traverse comparatively more
dissected and undulating topography, (c) roads
can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and
as such can traverse mountains such as the
Himalayas, (d) road transport is economical in
transportation of few persons and relatively
smaller amount of goods over short distances,
(e) it also provides door-to-door service, thus
the cost of loading and unloading is much
lower, (f) road transport is also used as a feeder
to other modes of transport such as they
provide a link between railway stations, air
and sea ports.
In India, roads are classified in the
following six classes according to their
capacity. Look at the map of the National
Highways and find out about the significant
role played by these roads.
• Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways:
The government has launched a major
road development project linking Delhi-
Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by
six-lane Super Highways. The North-
South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu
& Kashmir) and Kanniyakumari (Tamil
Nadu), and East-West Corridor
connecting Silchar (Assam) and Porbander
(Gujarat) are part of this project. The
major objective of these Super Highways
is to reduce the time and distance
between the mega cities of India. These
highway projects are being implemented
by the National Highway Authority of
India (NHAI).
• National Highways: National Highways
link extreme parts of the country. These
are the primary road systems and are
• State Highways: Roads linking a state
capital with different district headquarters
are known as State Highways. These
roads are constructed and maintained by
the State Public Works Department (PWD)
in State and Union Territories.
• District Roads: These roads connect the
district headquarters with other places
of the district. These roads are maintained
by the Zila Parishad.
• Other Roads: Rural roads, which link rural
areas and villages with towns, are classified
under this category. These roads received
special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri
Grameen Sadak Yojana. Under this scheme
special provisions are made so that every
village in the country is linked to a major
town in the country by an all season
motorable road.
• Border Roads: Apart from these, Border
Roads Organisation a Government of
India undertaking constructs and
Fig.7.2:  Ahmedabad- Vadodara Expressway
Find out places linked by the National
Highway 2 and 3.
laid and maintained by the Central Public
Works Department (CPWD). A number of
major National Highways run in North-
South and East-West directions. The
historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is called
National Highway No.1, between Delhi
and Amritsar.
2020-21
81 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
India:  National Highways
2020-21
82 CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II
maintains roads in the bordering areas
of the country. This organisation was
established in 1960 for the development
of the roads of strategic importance in
the northern and north-eastern border
areas. These roads have improved
accessibility in areas of difficult terrain
and have helped in the economic
development of these area.
The Indian Railways is the largest public
sector undertaking in the country. The first
train steamed off from Mumbai to Thane in
1853, covering a distance of 34 km.
Find out the current Railway zones and their
headquarters. Also locate the headquarters
of Railway zones on the map of India.
Fig. 7.3:  Hilly Tracts
Fig. 7.4:  Traffic on north-eastern border road
(Arunachal Pradesh)
The distribution pattern of the Railway
network in the country has been largely
influenced by physiographic, economic and
administrative factors.  The northern plains
with their vast level land, high population
density and rich agricultural resources
provided the most favourable condition for their
growth.  However, a large number of rivers
requiring construction of bridges across their
wide beds posed some obstacles.  In the hilly
terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts
are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels.
The Himalayan mountainous regions too are
unfavourable for the construction of railway
lines due to high relief, sparse population and
lack of economic opportunities. Likewise, it was
difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain
of western Rajasthan, swamps of Gujarat,
forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh,
Roads can also be classified on the basis
of the type of material used for their
construction such as metalled and unmetalled
roads. Metalled roads may be made of cement,
concrete or even bitumen of coal, therefore,
these are all weather roads. Unmetalled roads
go out of use in the rainy season.
Railways
Railways are the principal mode of
transportation for freight and passengers
in India. Railways also make it possible
for people to conduct multifarious
activities like business, sightseeing,
pilgrimage along with transportation of
goods over longer distances. Apart from
an important means of transport the
Indian Railways have been a great
integrating force for more than 150 years.
Railways in India bind the economic life
of the country as well as accelerate the
development of the industry and
agriculture.
The Indian Railway is now reorganised
into 16 zones.
2020-21
83 LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY
Source: Railway Yearbook 2017–18, Ministry of Railways, Government of India.
Website: www.indianrailways.gov.in
pipelines is high but subsequent running
costs are minimal.  It rules out trans-shipment
losses or delays.
There are three important networks of
pipeline transportation in the country.
• From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur
(Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and
Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni
to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to
Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri.
• From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in
Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and
Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali
(near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and
other places.
• Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat
connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via
Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches
to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur,
Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.
Waterways
Since the ancient period, India was one of
the seafaring countries.  Its seamen sailed
far and near, thus, carrying and spreading
Indian commerce and culture. Waterways are
the cheapest means of transport. They are
most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky
goods. It is a fuel-efficient and environment
friendly mode of transport. India has inland
navigation waterways of 14,500 km in length.
Out of these only 5685 km are navigable by
mechanised vessels. The following waterways
have been declared as the National
Waterways by the Government.
Gauge in metres Route (Km) Running Track (Km) Total Track (Km.)
Broad Gauge (1.676) 63,491 89,521 1,17,560
Metre Gauge (1.000) 3,200 3,462 3,775
Narrow Gauge (0.762  and 0.610) 1,751 1,752 1,901
Total 68,442 94,735 1,23,236
Table 7.1: India: Railway Track
The Indian Railway network runs on multiple gauge operations
extending over 68,442 km.
Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand.  The
contiguous stretch of Sahyadri could be
crossed only through gaps or passes (Ghats).
In recent times, the development of the Konkan
railway along the west coast has facilitated the
movement of passengers and goods in this most
important economic region of India. It has also
faced a number of problem such as sinking of
track in some stretches and landslides.
Today, the railways have become more
important in our national economy than all
other means of transport put together.
However, rail transport suffers from certain
problems as well. Many passengers travel
without tickets. Thefts and damaging of
railway property has not yet stopped
completely.  People stop the trains, pull the
chain unnecessarily and this causes heavy
damage to the railway. Think over it, how we
can help our railway in running as per the
scheduled time?
Pipelines
Pipeline transport network is a new arrival
on the transportation map of India.  In the
past, these were used to transport water to
cities and industries. Now, these are used for
transporting crude oil, petroleum products
and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields
to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal
power plants. Solids can also be transported
through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
The far inland locations of refineries like
Barauni, Mathura, Panipat and gas based
fertilizer plants could be thought of only
because of pipelines. Initial cost of laying
2020-21
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Viva Questions

,

ppt

,

Important questions

,

MCQs

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Objective type Questions

,

pdf

,

practice quizzes

,

study material

,

Sample Paper

,

Extra Questions

,

NCERT Textbook - Life Lines of National Economy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

Summary

,

video lectures

,

Semester Notes

,

Free

,

NCERT Textbook - Life Lines of National Economy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

NCERT Textbook - Life Lines of National Economy Class 10 Notes | EduRev

,

past year papers

,

mock tests for examination

,

Exam

;